淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-2406200913015500
中文論文名稱 觀光產業之廣告訴求對廣告效果之研究
英文論文名稱 The Study of Advertising Appeal on Advertising Effect – An Example of Travel & Tourism Industry
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 國際貿易學系國際企業學碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of International Trade
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生中文姓名 施霈蓮
研究生英文姓名 Pei-Lien Shih
學號 696550432
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2009-06-09
論文頁數 79頁
口試委員 指導教授-黃志文
指導教授-林光賢
委員-陳耀竹
委員-戴嫒坪
委員-林江峰
中文關鍵字 廣告訴求  硬式銷售(hard-sell)  柔式銷售(soft-sell)  廣告效果  觀光產業  國家品牌 
英文關鍵字 Advertising Appeal  Soft-Sell  Hard-Sell  Advertising Effect  Travel & Tourism Industry  Nation Brands 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學商學
中文摘要 本研究旨在探討不同廣告訴求對廣告效果的影響,並以觀光產業為研究主題。在本研究中,廣告訴求分為硬式銷售(hard-sell)及柔式銷售(soft-sell)兩種,廣告效果則以廣告態度、品牌態度以及購買意願三項構面來衡量。
本研究從相關的文獻探討開始著手,再根據其理論基礎建立本研究之架構與假設,並選用適當的量表為研究工具,經抽取淡江大學國貿系日間部大學生735人為對象實施問卷調查。針對回收的有效樣本641份資料,進行信度分析、敘述性統計、獨立樣本t檢定。經實證分析和討論後,獲致主要結論如下:
1.相較於硬式銷售,柔式銷售訴求有較佳之廣告態度
2.相較於硬式銷售,柔式銷售訴求有較佳之品牌態度
3.硬式銷售與柔式銷售兩種訴求的廣告在購買意願上無顯著差異
最後,依據研究結論,對台灣在發展觀光產業時,在廣告策略的應用上提出建議,以供參考。
英文摘要 This study aimed to understand the impact of advertising appeals on advertising effect in the travel & tourism industry. Advertising appeals are divided into hard-sell appeal and soft-sell appeal. Advertising effect is measured by attitude towards the advertisement, attitude towards the brand and purchase intention.
This thesis starts from relevant document discussion, set up this thesis’s structure and hypotheses based on its theory basis and choose applicable scale as a research tool. 735 students who are Tamkang University were conducted questionnaire survey. Aiming at 641 valid samples, reliability analysis, descriptive statistics and independent samples T-test are conducted. After evidence analysis and discussion, the main conclusion is as follows:
1. Soft-sell appeal has a remarkable positive influence on attitudes of advertising.
2. Soft-sell appeal has a remarkable positive influence on attitudes of brands.
3. Advertising appeals and purchase intension are not correlated with whether hard-sell appeal or soft-sell appeal was used.
In the end, in compliance with the conclusion of the thesis, concrete suggestions are brought up for the travel & tourism industry and future research for reference.
論文目次 目錄
目錄...................................................I
表目錄...............................................III
圖目錄.................................................V
第一章 緒論............................................1
第一節 研究背景與動機..................................1
第二節 研究目的........................................5
第三節 研究流程........................................6
第二章 文獻探討........................................7
第一節 國家品牌........................................7
第二節 廣告訴求.......................................16
第三節 硬式銷售(hard-sell)與柔式銷售(soft-sell).......21
第四節 廣告效果.......................................24
第三章 研究設計.......................................33
第一節 研究架構.......................................33
第二節 研究假說.......................................34
第三節 研究變數之操作性定義及衡量.....................35
第四節 問卷設計與抽樣.................................37
第五節 資料分析方法...................................45
第四章 資料分析與結果.................................46
第一節 敘述性統計分析.................................46
第二節 信度分析.......................................51
第三節 假說檢定.......................................54
第五章 結論與建議.....................................58
第一節 研究發現.......................................58
第二節 研究限制.......................................61
第三節 後續研究建議...................................62
參考文獻..............................................63
附錄一 硬式銷售(hard-sell)問卷........................72
附錄二 柔式銷售(soft-sell)問卷........................75
附錄三 硬式銷售(hard-sell)廣告........................78
附錄四 柔式銷售(soft-sell)廣告........................79

表目錄
表1-1 台灣近年觀光產業相關政策.........................2
表2-1 廣告訴求分類匯整................................19
表2-2 態度向度所對應之廣告溝通效果衡量指標............32
表3-1 廣告訴求構面衡量問項 - 硬式銷售................37
表3-2 廣告訴求構面衡量問項 - 柔式銷售................38
表3-3廣告態度構面衡量問項.............................38
表3-4品牌態度構面衡量問項.............................39
表3-5購買意願構面衡量問項.............................40
表3-6受訪者個人基本資料構面衡量問項...................40
表3-7 分層樣本之配置情形 - 硬式銷售..................42
表3-8 分層樣本之配置情形 - 柔式銷售..................43
表3-9 問卷發放與回收情形 - 硬式銷售..................44
表3-10 問卷發放與回收情形 - 柔式銷售.................44
表4-1 有效樣本之性別分佈..............................46
表4-2有效樣本之年齡分佈...............................47
表4-3有效樣本之年級分佈...............................49
表4-4有效樣本之個人每月可支配零用金分佈...............50
表4-5 前測問卷中各構面之信度分析 - 硬式銷售..........52
表4-6 前測問卷中各構面之信度分析 - 柔式銷售..........52
表4-7 正式問卷中各構面之信度分析 - 硬式銷售..........53
表4-8 正式問卷中各構面之信度分析 - 柔式銷售..........53
表4-9廣告訴求對廣告效果之t檢定分析表..................54
表4-10 廣告訴求對廣告效果各構面之t檢定分析表..........55
表4-11 廣告訴求對廣告態度之t檢定分析表................55
表4-12 廣告訴求對品牌態度之t檢定分析表................56
表4-13 廣告訴求對購買意願之t檢定分析表................56
表4-14 假說檢定結果彙整...............................57

圖目錄
圖1-1 近年來台觀光客數.................................1
圖1-2 研究流程圖.......................................6
圖2-1 國家品牌指數六邊形..............................11
圖2-2 打造國家品牌概念圖..............................13
圖2-3 情感移轉假説....................................25
圖2-4 雙重中介假說....................................26
圖2-5 交互中介假說....................................27
圖2-6 獨立影響假說....................................27
圖2-7 效果層級模式....................................31
圖3-1 研究觀念架構圖..................................33
參考文獻 一、 中文部分

王月琴(1997)。國家形象設計視覺識別符號之研究。未出版之碩士論文,國立交通大學應用藝術研究所,新竹市。
俞洪亮、蔡義清、莊懿妃(2007)。商管研究資料分析。台北:華泰書局。
徐育芳(2002)。不同涉入程度與品牌知名度對比喻性廣告之廣告效果影響。未出版之碩士論文,國立台北大學企業管理研究所,台北縣。
徐達光(2003)。消費者心理學:消費者行為的科學研究(第一版)。台北:台灣東華書局。
祝鳳岡(1998)。廣告策略之探研-系統建構觀點。廣告學研究,第十集,頁31-50。
高毓伶(2006)。品牌形象、品牌態度對顧客滿意度與品牌忠誠度之影響研究。未出版之碩士論文,私立淡江大學國際貿易學系國際企業學研究所,台北縣。
涂克明(2006)。品牌概念形象與廣告訴求方式對廣告效果之影響-涉入程度之干擾效果。未出版之碩士論文,私立真理大學管理科學研究所,台北縣。
張春興(2003)。心理學原理(初版)。台北:台灣東華書局。
許安琪(2001)。整合行銷傳播引論:全球化在地化行銷大趨勢(初版)。台北市:學富文化。
郭岱宜(1999)。生態旅遊-21世紀的新主張。台北:揚智文化出版社。
陳佳蓓(1999)。幽默廣告類別與廣告效果。未出版之碩士論文,私立世新大學傳播研究所,台北市。
陳順宇(2004)。多變量分析(三版)。台北:華泰書局。
楊中芳(1994)。廣告的心理原理(二版)。台北:遠流。

楊瑜君(2006)。幽默廣告類型、消費者生活型態對廣告效果之影響。未出版之碩士論文,私立東吳大學企業管理研究所,台北市。
樊志育(1990)。廣告效果研究。台北:三民書局。
樊志育(1992)。廣告學原理。台北:三民書局。
Aaker, D. A. (1995)。品牌行銷法則-如何打造強勢品牌(沈雲驄、湯宗勳譯)。台北:商周。
Arnould, E. J., Price, L. and Zinkhan G. (2003)。消費者行為(陳智凱譯)。台北:美商麥格.羅希爾。
Foxall, G., Goldsmith, R., and Brown, S. (1996)。消費心理學(姜定宇等譯)。台北:桂冠圖書。
Kotler, P. & Armstrong, G. (2002)。行銷學原理(十版)(方世榮譯)。台北:台灣東華書局。
Kotler, P. & Armstrong, G. (2003)。行銷學(六版)(王瑜哲等譯)。台北:台灣培生教育出版股份有限公司。
Ogilvy, D. (1955)。彭建彰、呂旺坤(2005)。品牌行銷與管理。台北:華泰文化。頁19。

二、 英文部分

Aaker, D. A. (1991). Managing brand equity: Capitalizing on the value of a brand name. New York: The Free Press.
Aaker, D. A. (1996). Building strong brand. New York: The Free Press.
Anholt, S. (1998). Nation brands of the twenty-first century. The Journal of Brand Management, 5(6).
Anholt, S. (2005). How the world sees the world. The Anholt-GMI Nation Brands Index. GMI.
Belch, G. E. and Belch, M. A. (1998). Advertising and promotion. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
Biel, A. L. (1992). How brand image drives brand equity. Journal of Advertising Research, 32(6), RC6-RC12.
Bradley, S., Hitchon, J. and Thorson, E. (1994). Hard sell versus soft sell: A comparison of american and british advertising. Global and multinational advertising (B. G. Englis, Ed.). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Brehm, S. S. and Brehm, J. W. (1981). Psychological reactance: A theory of freedorn and control. New York: Academic Press.
Bridge, H. P. (1949). Practical advertising: A comprehensive guide to the planning and preparation of modern advertising in all of its phases. New York: Rinehart.
Brown, S. P. and Stayman, D. M. (1992). Antecedents and consequences of attitude toward the ad: A meta-analysis. Journal of Consumer Research, 19(1), 34-51.
Burns, P. M. (2004). Tourism planning - a third way. Annuals of Tourism Research, 31(1), 24-43.
Clee, M. A. and Wicklund, R. A. (1980). Consumer behavior and psychological reactance. Journal of Consumer Research, 6(4), 389-405.
Cochran, W. G. (1977). Sampling techniques. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Colley, D. (1961). Defining advertising goals for measured advertising results. NT: Prentice Hall.
Davis, D.W. (1955). Basic text in advertising. New York: Printers Inc.
de Pelsmacker, P. D. and Geuens, M. (1998). Reactions to different types of ads in Belgium and Poland. International Marketing Review, 15(4), 277-290.
de Vicente, J. (2004). State branding in the 21st century. Unpublished Master Thesis, The Fletcher School of Law & Diplomacy, MA.
Dobni, D. and Zinkhan, G. M. (1990). In search of brand image: A foundation analysis. Advances in Consumer Research, 17(1), 110-119.
Domeison, N. (2003). Is there a case for national banding. International Trade Forum, Iss.1, 14-16.
Fennell, D. A. (2002). Ecotourism programme planning. New York: CABI.
Fishbein, M. (1963). An investigation of the relationships between beliefs about an object and the attitude toward that object. Human Relations, 16(2), 233-240.
Fishbein, M. and Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention and behavior: An introduction to theory and research reading. MA: Addison-Wesley.
Fishbein, M. and Ajzen, I. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Fox, S. R. (1984). The mirror makers: A history of American advertising and its creators. New York: William Morrow and Company.
Gardner, B. B. and Levy, S. J. (1955). The product and the brand. Harvard Business Review, Vol. 33, 33-39.
Gilmore, F. (2002). A country- Can it be repositioned? Spain- the success story of country branding. Journal of Brand Management, 9(4/5), 281-294.

Girard, M. (1999). States, diplomacy, and image making: what is new? Reflections on current British and French experiences. in: A. Chong, J. Valencic (Ed.), The Image, the State and International Relations, Proceedings from the Conference at the London School of Economics and Political Science, 24 June 1999.
Grewal, D., Kavanoor, S., Fern, E. F., Costley, C. and Barnes, J. (1997). Comparative versus noncomparative advertising: A meta-analysis. Journal of Marketing, 61(4), 1-15.
Gould S. J., Minowa, Y. (1994). Are they saying the same thing? An exploratory study of Japanese and American automobile advertising. Global and Multinational Advertising, (B. G. Englis, Ed.). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Gudjonsson, H. (2005). Nation branding. Place Branding, 1(3), 283-298.
Hankinson, G. (2001). Location branding: A study of the branding practices of 12 English cities. Journal of Brand Management, 9(2), 127-142.
Heider, F. (1946). Attitudes and cognitive organization. Journal of Psychology, Iss.21, 107-112.
Hong, J.W., Muderrisoglu, A. and Zinkhan, G. M. (1987). Cultural differences and advertising expression: A comparative content analysis of Japanese and US magazine advertising. Journal of Advertising, 16(1), 55-62.
Hotchicss, G. B. (1949). Advertising copy. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers.
Howard, J. A. and Sheth, J. (1989). The theory of buyer behavior. New York: Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Johar, J. S. and Sirgy, M. J. (1991). Value-expressive versus utilitarian advertising appeals: When and why to use which appeal. Journal of Advertising, 20(3), 23-33.
Keller, K. L. (1993). Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity. Journal of Marketing, 57(1), 1-22.
Klein, N. (2002). The spectacular failure of brand USA. LA Times, 11th March.
Ko, E., Kim, E., Taylor, C. R., Kim, K. H. and Kang, I. J. (2007). Cross-national market segmentation in the fashion industry: A study of European, Korean, and US consumers. International Marketing Review, 24(5), 629-651.
Kotler, P. (1991). Marketing management: Analysis, planning, implementation, and control (7th ed). NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Kotler, P. (1997). Marketing management: Analysis, planning, implementation, and control (8th ed). NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Kotler, P. and Gertner, D. (2002). Country as brand, product, and beyond: A place marketing and brand management perspective. Journal of Brand Management, 9(4/5), 249-261.
Lavidge, R. J. and Steiner, G. (1961). A model for predictive measurements of advertising effectiveness. Journal of Marketing, 25(October), 59-62.
Lin, C.A. (1993). Cultural differences in message strategies: A comparison between American and Japanese TV commercials. Journal of Advertising Research, 33(4), 40-48.
Lodge, C. (2002). Success and failure: The brand stories of two countries. Journal of Brand Management, 9(No.4/5), 372-384.
Lutz, R. J. and Swasy, J. L. (1977). Integrating cognitive structure and cognitive response approaches to measuring communication effects. Advances in Consumer Research, 4(1), 363-371.
Lutz, R. J. (1985). Affective and cognitive antecedents of attitude toward the ad: A conceptual framework. Psychological Processes and Advertising Effects:Theory Research and Application (L. F. Alwitt and A. A. Mitchell Ed.). NJ:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
MacKenzie, S. B., Lutz, R. J. and Belch, G. E. (1986). The role of attitude the ad as a mediator of advertising effectiveness: A test of competing explanation. Journal of Marketing Research, 32(2), 130-143.
MacKenzie, S. B. and Lutz, R. J. (1989). An empirical examination of the structure antecedents of attitude toward the ad in an advertising protesting context. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 53, 48-65.
Magid, J. M., Cox, A. D. and Cox, D. S. (2006). Quantifying brand image: Empirical evidence of trademark dilution. American Business Law Journal, 43(1), 1-42.
Martin, I. and Eroglu, S. (1993). Measuring a multi-dimensional construct: Country image. Journal of Business Research, Vol. 28, 191-210.
McCollum/Spielman Topline (1986). The hard sell: How is it going. NY: McCollum Spielman.
Mitchell, A. A. and Olson, J. C. (1981). Are product attribute beliefs the only mediator of advertising effects on brand attitude. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(3), 318-332.
Morgan, N., Pritchard, A. and Piggott, R. (2003). Destination branding and the role of the stakeholders: The case of New Zealand. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 9(3), 285-299.
Mueller, B. (1987). Reflections of culture: An analysis of Japanese and American advertising appeals. Journal of Advertising Research, 27(3), 51-59.
Olins, W. (2003). Nations should establish a brand. Design Week, Jul. 10, p.7.
Pae, J. H., Samiee, S. and Tai, S. (2002). Global advertising strategy: The moderating role of brand familiarity and execution style. International Marketing Review, 19(2), 176-189.
Papadopoulos, N. and Heslop, L. (2002). Country equity and country branding: Problems and prospects. Journal of Brand Management, 9(No.4/5), 294-314.
Petty, R. E. and Cacioppo, J. T. (1981). Attitude and persuasion: Classic and contemporary approaches. Iowa: William. C. Brown Co.
Porter, M. (1996). What is strategy. Harvard Business Review, Nov. /Dec., 61-78.
Pratkanis, A. R., Breckler, S. J. and Greenwald, A. G. (1989). Attitude structure and function. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Randall, G (1997). Do your own market research (1st ed). London: Kogan Page Ltd.
Reizenstine, R. C. (1971). A dissonance approach to measuring the effectiveness of two personal selling techniques through decision reversal. Proceedings of the American Marketing Association conference (F. C. Alvine, Ed.). Chicago, 176-180.
Rosenberq, M. J., Hovland, C. I., McGuire, W. J., Abelson, R. P. and Brehm, J. W. (1960). Attitude organization and change: An analysis of consistency among attitude components. CT: Yale University Press.
Schultz, D. E., Martin, D. G., Brown, W. P. and Barnes, B. E. (1984). Strategic advertising campaigns. Chicago: Crain Books.
Singh, N., Kumar, V. and Baack, D. (2005). Adaptation of cultural content evidence from B2C e-commerce firms. European Journal of Marketing, 39(1/2), 71-86.
Snyder, M. and DeBono, K. G. (1985). Appeals to image and claims about quality: understanding the psychology of advertising. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Research, 49(3), 586-597.
Wagner, L. C. (1914). Advertising and business cycle. Journal of Marketing, 8(2), 124-135.
Well, W., Burnett, J. and Moriarity, S. (1992). Advertising: Principles and practice (2nd ed). NJ: Prentice Hall.


三、 網路部分

Anholt, S. (1996). Anholt-Gfk Roper Nation Brands Index. GfK custom research North America, Retrieved April 26, 2009, from http://www.gfkamerica.com/practice_areas/roper_pam/nbi_index/index.en.html/
AMA (1960). Resource library- dictionary. Marketing power- American Marketing Association, Retrieved May 23, 2009, from http://www.marketingpower.com/_layouts/Dictionary.aspx?dLetter=B
遠見雜誌(2007),台灣旅遊大調查-年花3402億旅遊,27.1%想住帆船飯店。Retrieved May 10, 2009, from http://www.gvm.com.tw/Board/content.aspx?ser=13194
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2010-06-29公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2010-06-29起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信