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系統識別號 U0002-2406200821260800
中文論文名稱 應用可調式內容呈現與課程快取策略於行動學習環境
英文論文名稱 Applying adaptive strategies of course caching and presentation to enhance m-learning environment
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊工程學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering
學年度 96
學期 2
出版年 97
研究生中文姓名 張玄菩
研究生英文姓名 Hsuan-Pu Chang
學號 893190081
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2008-06-12
論文頁數 88頁
口試委員 指導教授-施國琛
委員-楊錦潭
委員-趙榮耀
委員-廖弘源
委員-許輝煌
委員-施國琛
中文關鍵字 行動學習平台  課程快取  可調式課程內容呈現  SCORM,課程切割  多重課程版本 
英文關鍵字 m-learning  SCORM  Common Cartridge  Adaptive Presentation  Course Caching  SCORM Sequencing and Navigation  Course Segmentation 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學資訊工程
中文摘要 利用行動裝置如口袋型電腦(pocket PCs)與智慧型手機(smartphones)來進行數位學習相關活動並非是創新的概念。但很多的學習系統和學習活動則不斷地在行動科技領域發展,並探索各種數位學習應用的可能性。雖然各種的行動學習平台延伸了學習者的學習經驗並提供更彈性的學習環境,但是各種不同的硬體條件限制,在系統發展上,也同時變成必需面對克服的問題。

在本研究論文中提出四個主要模組來實現可調式的課程快取策略與課程內容呈現。主要目的在於針對符合SCORM數位學習標準的學習環境,提升系統在學習活動中的立即性、可及性與互動性。這四個模組分別為:

1. 課程切割模組(Course Segmentation Module): 此模組能夠分割一個課程為數個容量較小的基本單位;稱之為課程叢集(course clusters)。在其他所提出的功能模組中,在此產生的課程叢集將被視為最基本的操作單元。

2. 課程內容呈現調整模組(Course Presentation Adaptation Module):此模組加入模板(template)的概念,幫助課程開發人員或指導人員能夠輕易地將原本的課程內容排版作轉換,使其適合在各種行動學習平台上閱讀。

3. 課程快取模組(Course Caching Module):此模組目的在於針對學習者在學習活動中,對於課程的存取預測。藉由精準的預測機制,系統可以在學習開始前,即預先儲存好即將要被使用的學習資源於使用者端。因此學習者在學習活動中,能立即取得所需的學習資源,如此不僅可以大幅減少等待下載學習資源的時間,也能提供暫時離線的學習情況。

4. 多重課程版本的包裝與發送模組(Course Rich-presentation Packaging/Delivering Module):課程內容呈現調整模組為了適合在其他學習平台上進行閱讀,所產生的各種課程版本將由此模組負責進行動包裝與發送。此模組可以整合所有版本的課程並封裝成一個多重內容呈現版本的課程包裝,除此之外,正確地從多重版本的課程包裝中,發送正確的版本內容給學習者的學習平台,則是此模組的另一個目的。

為了實現並驗證我們的研究,在系統實作上,開發了許多的數位學習相關的網路服務(Web Service)並用來實現所提出來的四個系統模組。在本論文的最後,將介紹藉由加入這四個功能模組所建立的數位學習系統,並提出實驗結果,證明對於整個學習系統的立即性、可及性與互動性的提升。
英文摘要 The use of portable devices like pocket PCs and smartphones to support teaching and learning is not a new concept. Many innovative learning systems and activities have also been proposed to promote e-learning, as well as exploited the ways of e-learning. Although the variety of mobile platforms provide more flexible and extendable learning experience, the various hardware conditions and restrictions consequently becomes the challenges and barriers we need to overcome.

There are four main modules proposed to carry out the course caching strategy and presentation adaptation methods that aim at promoting the immediacy, accessibility, and interactivity for SCORM-compliance mobile learning environment. Firstly, Course Segmentation Module: The module can separate a course into several smaller unites namely course clusters. The produced smaller clusters are considered as basic operation units that are manipulated by other modules to carry out their specific functions under restricted memory capacity conditions. Secondly, Course Presentation Adaptation Module: The module is providing different adaptation templates to help the author
automatically and efficiently reproduce high-quality learning content presentation which is appropriate to read on specific mobile learning platforms. Thirdly, Course Caching Module: The module can precisely predict the access of courses and to download them before learning begins; the learning process can not only reduce the waiting time significantly but also offer the downloaded content for offline learning. Finally, Course Rich-presentation Packaging/Delivering Module: The user may use the Course Adaptation Module to create plural course versions for different presentations on specific mobile learning platforms such as pocket PCs and smartphones. The module can integrate all produced course versions and package as a standard Common Cartridge Course Package. Furthermore, correctly delivering the corresponding course version to the learner’s mobile learning platform is another purpose of this module.

In order to realize and verify our ideas, we develop numerous m-learning services based on Web Service technology supporting to implement the proposed modules. The final part of the dissertation will demonstrate the learning systems developed with the proposed modules and illustrate the significant performance according to experimental results.
論文目次 Table of Contents
List of Figures III
List of Tables VI
Chapter1 Introduction 1
1.1 The Proposed Modules 5
1.2 The demonstration systems 7
Chapter 2 Related Works 9
2.1 Mobile Learning 9
2.2 International e-Learning Standard 9
2.2.1 ADL SCORM Specification 9
2.2.2 SCORM Sequencing and Navigation (S&N) 11
2.2.3 IMS Common Cartridge Specification 14
2.3 Related Research Literatures 15
Chapter 3 Proposed Modules for Adaptive Course Caching and Presentation 19
3.1 Course Segmentation Module 19
3.2 Course Caching Module 22
3.2.1 The Prediction Factors 23
3.2.2 Factors of Specific Devices 29
3.2.3 Factors of Learning Record 30
3.2.4 Automata of Course Caching Strategy in Learning System 30
3.3 Course Presentation Adaptation Module 33
3.3.1 Semantic Unit (SU) and Presentation Unit (PU) 35
3.3.2 Textual Adaptation Model 36
3.3.3 Image adaptation Model 41
3.3.4 Layout Adaptation Model 42
3.4 Course Rich-presentation Packaging/Delivering Module 42
Chapter 4 Implementation 49
4. 1 MINE SCORM m-Learning Web Service API Implementation 50
4.2 Pocket SCORM with Course Caching System 51
4.3 Pocket SCORM Demonstration 62
4.4 Learning Content Adaptation Authoring Tool Demonstration 66
Chapter 5 Experimental Results and Discussion 72
5.1 Simulator 72
5.2 Testing Courses 75
5.3 Experimental Results 77
5.3 Discussion 81
Chapter 6 Conclusion and Future Work 83
Bibliography 85

List of Figures
Figure 1 Overall Proposed System Modules and Demonstration Systems 5
Figure 2 An illustration of Clusters within a Course 20
Figure 3 An Example of Course Segmentation 22
Figure 4 Prediction Factor for VMM mode—Size of a Cluster 25
Figure 5 Prediction Factor for COD mode—Size of a Cluster 25
Figure 6 Possible Accessing Clusters according to SCORM Sequencing Setting: Sequencing Control Flow 27
Figure 7 Possible Accessing Clusters according to SCORM Sequencing Setting: Sequencing Control Choice 27
Figure 8 Possible Accessing Clusters according to SCORM Sequencing Setting: Sequencing Control Forward Only 28
Figure 9 Path length between two individual clusters 29
Figure 10 Automata of the proposed course caching system 31
Figure 11 A PU progressively displays the text in three states 34
Figure 12 Construct a dictionary of weighted words 38
Figure 13 Processing of the learning content adaptation 40
Figure 14 Common Cartridge package interchange file 45
Figure 15 An example of rich-presentation course package 46
Figure 16 IEEE LOM General Category 47
Figure 17 The imsmanifest.xml in the Rich-presentation Course Package 48
Figure 18 Entire Architecture of Implementation Systems 49
Figure 19 WSDL of Developed m-Learning Web Service 50
Figure 20 Learning Presentation Functions on LMS based on SCORM m-Learning Web Service API 51
Figure 21 Pocket SCORM System Architecture 52
Figure 22 Course Clusters Stored in Back-end Server. 53
Figure 23 Architecture of the Proposed Course Caching System 54
Figure 24 Flow Chart of Download Management Model 55
Figure 25 Kernel Class of Download Management Model 57
Figure 26 A Cluster Order Suggested by Download Management Service 58
Figure 27 Flow Chart of Replacement Management Model 59
Figure 28 Kernel Class of Replacement Management Model 61
Figure 29 Entry Page of Pocket SCORM 62
Figure 30 Course List Received From LMS 62
Figure 31 Download a Cluster 63
Figure 32 The Clusters Downloaded at Client Device in Advance 63
Figure 33 Original Course Presentation Displayed on Pocket PC 64
Figure 34 Adapted Course Presentation Displayed on Pocket PC 64
Figure 35 Writing the Personal Notes 65
Figure 36 The Personal Note added on Course Page 65
Figure 37 Pocket SCORM Learning Interface on Smarthpone 66
Figure 38 System Architecture of Course Presentation Adaptation Authoring Tool 67
Figure 39 Uploading learning contents to on-line adaptation application 68
Figure 40 Adapting Content according to the pocket PC template 69
Figure 41 Select indexes of PUs to Eliminate the Insignificant Content 69
Figure 42 Course Presentation Adaptation for Smartphone 70
Figure 43 Previewing the adapted learning content with pocket PC simulator 71
Figure 44 Simulator Components 72
Figure 45 Select Device Specifications and Caching Mode 73
Figure 46 Load Testing Courses 74
Figure 47 Learning Sequencing Order Creator 75
Figure 48 Total Waiting Time (s) for Learning Photoshop_None Course 78
Figure 49 Internet Reconnection Frequency for Learning Photoshop_None Course 78
Figure 50 Total Waiting Time (s) for Learning Photoshop_KnowledgePaced 79
Figure 51 Internet Reconnection Frequency for Learning Photoshop_KnowledgePaced 79
Figure 52 Course Structure of Customized Course 80
Figure 53 Total Waiting Time (s) for Learning Customized Course 81
Figure 54 Internet Reconnection Frequency for Learning Customized Course 81
Figure 55 Accuracy of VMM Course Caching Strategy during Learning Customized Course 82
Figure 56 Accuracy of COD Course Caching Strategy during Learning Customized Course 82

List of Tables
Table 1 Loading Time of Display Online Learning Content with Smartphone 3
Table 2 Loading Time of Local Course with Smarthpone 4
Table 3 Common Cartridge supported resource types 44

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