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系統識別號 U0002-2406200510575800
中文論文名稱 古裔美人政治取向
英文論文名稱 From Motherland to Promised Land: The Cuban-American Political Attachment
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Latin American Studies
學年度 93
學期 2
出版年 94
研究生中文姓名 周淑傑
研究生英文姓名 Shu-Chieh Chou
學號 691020035
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2005-06-02
論文頁數 107頁
口試委員 指導教授-白方濟
委員-向駿
委員-Francisco Luis Perez
中文關鍵字 古裔美人  政治取向  選舉人票  貿易禁運  總統大選 
英文關鍵字 Cuban-American  political attachment  electoral vote  trade embargo  presidential election 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 族裔團體影響美國的外交政策是不容置疑的。在拉丁族裔中最具影響力的即為古裔美人,其人數雖次於墨西哥裔和波多黎各裔美人,但其政治表現卻是有目共睹。美國長達四十年的貿易禁運政策歷久不衰,就是源自於古裔美人的政治遊說。本論文期盼以古裔美人移民歷史脈絡,包括移民原因、移民地選擇、接收國之回應、以及族裔特性和吸引力,來探討其政治取向和政治表現。並研究古裔美人之政治參與和族裔經濟表現之連結,換言之,其社經地位的提升對其政治表現的助益。

波第氏(Portes)提出族裔領地經濟理論(Ethnic Enclave Economy Theory),認為族裔創造出獨特的經濟體,尤其是族裔本身具備勞力分工的特性(divisions of labor)和企業經營的能力(entrepreneurial skills),對族裔社會流動(social mobility)帶來正面的效應,因其鼓勵自營企業的發展,故對古裔美人之政治參與奠定了基礎。

然而古裔美人之移民歷史與政治表現息息相關,其移民原因以一九八零年以前為例,多屬政治因素,古巴革命後之政治經濟和社會改革,對古巴人民的衝擊引發的移民潮,而之後則多為經濟因素。其移民地之選擇亦與美國之干涉和殖民有關,且美國對二次大戰後共產國家的難民均採接納態度,另外對古巴難民採取優惠措施,賦予其永久居留的權利,皆有利於古裔美人之政治參與。再加上其超過二分之一的人數聚集在佛州邁阿密,增加其與拉丁美洲的貿易和人員之流動,加深其政治影響力。

古裔美人之政治取向(political attachment)可由利益團體的立場、選舉參與、對貿易禁運政策之看法得知,而分為族裔政治(ethnic politics)或流亡政治(exile politics)。前者代表移民對祖國事務不關心,而專注於其在接收國之生活;後者則完全相反。故古裔美人之政治表現明顯偏向後者,尤其貿易禁運政策之持續,取決於美國總統選舉的古裔選票考量。但其政治參與之阻礙,可能改變其政治取向和表現。簡言之,古裔美人影響美國對古巴之外交政策,但其優勢面臨縮小的局面。
英文摘要 Ethnic groups affect the U.S. politics. The most influential one among Hispanic Americans is Cuban Americans even though the number of population is far less than Mexican and Puerto Rican Americans. Their political influence is accurate due to the over-forty-year U.S. trade embargo policy resulting in the interest group’s lobbying. This thesis expects to find out the Cuban-American political attachment and performance according to the immigration history, such as, the migration motives, the destination choice, the receiving country’s feedback and the ethnic characteristics and magnetism. And it focuses on the connection between the ethnic economic performance and the political participation.

Portes’ Ethnic Enclave Economy Theory indicates the positive effects on social mobility from the ethnic enclave because of the divisions of labor and the entrepreneurial skills that facilitate the self-employment. The ethnic enclave benefits the Cuban-American political participation.

The Cuban-American political attachment relates to the immigration history. The migration motive of the Cuban immigration before and after 1980 is due to the political and the economic factors. Referring to the destination choice, it has causes of the U.S. colonization and intervention in Cuban history. And the U.S. attitudes toward the refugees from the communist countries after World War II are positive. It also offers Cubans the right to obtain the legal permanent residence status. Both of them create a favorable circumstance for political participation. Moreover, over half of Cubans residing in Miami, Florida increase the mobility of Latin American trade and immigrants and the political influence.

The Cuban-American political attachment divides into the ethnic politics or the exile politics by understanding the position of the interest group, the electoral participation and the debate on the trade embargo policy. The former one implies the immigrants concern with own welfare instead of home country’s affairs; the latter one shows the opposite situation. The Cuban-American political attachment reveals the tendency of the latter one according to the continuity of U.S. trade embargo policy. The Cuban votes determine the U.S. presidential elections.

However, Cubans confront barriers of political representation, which may reduce the influence on political attachment and performance. In short, Cuban Americans affect the U.S.-Cuban relations but the effect will no longer be the same.
論文目次 Table of Content

Chapter One Introduction--- -----------------------------1

1.1 Purposes and Limits------------------------------4
1.2 Hypothesis and Research Questions------ ------7
1.3 Structure of Analysis and Organization-----------7
1.4 Method and Significance--------------------------9

Chapter Two Ethnic Enclave Economy Theory-----------------10

2.1 Ethnic Enclave----------------------------------------10
2.2 Introduction of Theory--------------------------------12
2.3 Opposite Arguments------------------------------------14

Chapter Three Cuban Miami Enclave Formation---------------16

3.1 Migration Motives-------------------------------------16
3.2 Destination Choice------------------------------------31
3.3 Receiving Country’s Feedback-------------------------34
3.4 Ethnic Characteristics and Magnetism------------------42

Chapter Four Cuban-American Political Attachment----------48

4.1 Interest Group----------------------------------------48
4.2 Electoral Participation-------------------------------58
4.3 Public Opinion—Remittances---------------------------71
4.4 Obstacles for Political Representation----------------77

Chapter Five Cuban-Related Provisions---------------------83

5.1 Commission for Assistance to a Free Cuba--------------83
5.2 Dissidence Movement-Valera Project--------------------88
5.3 Trade Embargo-Related Acts----------------------------94
5.4 Defects of Trade Embargo Policy----------------------101

Chapter Six Conclusion-----------------------------------104
Reference------------------------------------------------108
Index of Tables

Table 1.A. Hispanic Population by Type: 2000.
Table 1.B. Balance of Payments: Selected figures Tourists and Exiles Begin to Pay for Imports.
Table 1.1 U.S. Cuban Populations for States in 2000.
Table 1.3 Table of Structure of Analysis.
Table 3.1.A. Stages of Periods of Cuban Migration to the U.S. After 1959.
Table 3.1.B. Total Number Arrived Under Various Immigration Categories, 1959-1980.
Table 3.3.1 Selected Geographical Distribution of Resettled Cuban Refugees.
Table 3.3.3 Adjustment of Status by Temporary Workers and Students: 1967-1970.
Table 3.3.4. Financing of the Cuban Refugee Program (In Thousands of Dollars).
Table 4.1.1 Total Bombings in Dade County (1975-1983).
Table 4.2.1.A Twenty-three States of Latino Percentage and Electoral Votes in 2000.
Table 4.2.1.B U.S. Citizenship Acquisition Among Immigrant From Selected Countries and Regions (Selected).
Table 4.2.3.A Latino Party Identification by Selected States and Groups in 2000.
Table 4.2.3.B Selected Issue Priority for the Latino Community by State (2000).
Table 5.1.1 Recommended Funding of Cuban Transition.
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Pachon, Harry and DeSipio, Louis, “Latino Elected Officials in the 1990s,” Political Science and Politics, 2000, 25 (2) (April): 212-17.

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Pérez, Lisandro, “The Household Structure of Second-Generation Children: An Exploratory Study of Extended Family Arrangements,” International Migration Review, 1994, 28 (4) (Winter): 736-47.

________, “Immigrant Economic Adjustment and Family Organization: The Cuban Success Story Reexamined,” International Migration Review, 1986, 20 (1) (Spring): 4-20.

________, “The Political Contexts of Cuban Population Censuses, 1899-1981,” Latin American Research Review, 1984, 19 (2): 143-61.

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________, “Determinants of the Brain Drain,” International Migration Review, 1976, 10 (4) (Winter): 489-508.

________, “Dilemmas of a Golden Exile: Integration of Cuban Refugee Families in Milwaukee,” American Sociological Review, 1969, 34 (4) (Aug.): 505-18.

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Newspapers

Allen, Mike, Aug. 28, 2004, “A Worried Bush Revisits Florida,” Washington D.C.: Washing Post, A04.

Baro Díaz, Madeline, Nov. 25, 2002, “Cuban-American Activists in Miami Confront Policy, Attitude Changes,” Washington D.C.: Knight Ridder Tribune Business News.

“Brutal Economic and Political Measures against Our Country and Against Cubans Resident in the U.S.,” May 7, 2004, Havana: La Granma.
http://www.granma.cu/ingles/2004/mayo/vier7/20medida-i.html

Case, Brendan M., Feb. 19, 2003, “U.S. Officials Call for End to Cuban Embargo”. Washington D.C.: Knight Ridder Tribune Business News.

“Cubans in Exile Split on Policy,” Feb. 13, 2003, Washington D.C.: Knight Ridder Tribune Business News.

Dellios, Hugh, Jan. 19, 2003, “U.S. Tries to Smooth Latin America Policy,” Washington D.C.: Knight Ridder Tribune Business News.

Fessenden, Ford, July 16, 2004, “Civil Rights Board Wants Inquiry on Florida Voter-Purge List, The New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2004/07/16/national/16vote.html

“Florida Gets Federal Money to Help Immigrants,” Reuters, December 1, 1995, http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/45/122.html

Gibson, William E, Oct. 18, 2002, “Election Reform Plan Could Mean More the $200 Million for Florida,” Washington D.C.: Knight Ridder Tribune Business News.

Goodnough, Abby and Aguayo, Terry, June 24, 2004, “Limits on Trips to Cuba Cause Split in Florida”, The New York Times, http://travel2.nytimes.com/mem/travel/article-printpage.html

Hemlock, Doreen, Jun 29, 2003, “Spice Firm Symbolizes South Florida’s Knack for Nurturing Latin Entrepreneurs.” Washington D.C.: Knight Ridder Tribune Business News.

“Polls Show Majority of Cuban-American Changing Position on Dialogue with Cuba,” Feb. 12, 2003, Washington D.C.: Knight Ridder Tribune Business News.

San Martin, Nancy, Feb. 8, 2003, “Cuba May Drop Entry, Exit Permits,” Washington D.C.: Knight Ridder Tribune Business News.

Slevin, Peter, Aug. 28, 2004, A01, “Policy Met Politics in Cuba Rules,” Washington D.C.: Washington Post, http://www.Washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A26928-2004Aug23

Governmental Data

Bass, Loretta E. and Casper, Lynne M, “Are There Differences in Registration and Voting Behavior Between Naturalized and Native-born Americans?,” U.S. Bureau of the Census, February 1999,Technical Working Paper No. 28, Washington D.C.: Population Division, http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0028/twos0028.html

Bass, Loretta E. and Casper, Lynne M, “Voting and Registration in the Election of November 1996,” Current Population Reports, July 1998, Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. http://www.census.gov/prod/3/98pubs/p20-504.pdf
Commission for Assistance to a Free Cuba, Chapter I to Chapter VI, May 6, 2004, http://www.state.gov/p/wha/cuba/commission/2004/32243.htm
http://www.state.gov/p/wha/cuba/commission/2004/32247.htm http://www.state.gov/p/wha/cuba/commission/2004/32250.htm http://www.state.gov/p/wha/cuba/commission/2004/32251.htm http://www.state.gov/p/wha/cuba/commission/2004/32252.htm http://www.state.gov/p/wha/cuba/commission/2004/32253.htm

Commission for Assistance to a Free Cuba, Executive Summary, May 6, 2004, http://www.state.gov/p/wha/cuba/commission/2004/32243.htm

Commission for Assistance to a Free Cuba, foreword by Secretary of State Colin L. Powell, May 6, 2004, http://www.state.gov/p/wha/cuba/commission/2004/32239.htm

“Cuba: What You Need to Know About the U.S. Embargo,” July 2004, U.S. Department of the Treasury Office of Foreign Assets Control, http://www.treas.gov/offices/enforcement/ofac/sanctons/tllcuba.pdf

“Cuban Haitian Initiative,” Office of Refugee Resettlement, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/prr/programs/cubanhi.htm

Distribution of Electoral Votes, U.S. Federal Election Commission, http://www.fec.gov/pages/elecvote.htm

Executive Summary. Commission for Assistance to a Free Cuba. May 6, 2004, http://www.state.gov/p/wha/cuba/commission/2004/32243.htm

Green, Eric, “U.S. Latino Vote Viewed as Crucial in 2004 Presidential Race,” February 18, 2004, http://usinfo.state.gov/Archive/2004/Feb/18-514070.html

Jamieson, Amie, Shin, Hyou B. and Day, Jennifer, “Voting and Registration in the Election of November 2000,” February 2002, Washington D.C.:Population Division, U.S. Bureau of Census, http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/p20-542.pdf

Newcomb, R. Richard, “Statement of R. Richard Newcomb, Director, Office of Foreign Assets Control united States Department of the Treasury before the Committee on Foreign Relations United States Senate Hearings on Travel and Trade with Cuba,” October 2, 2003, http://foreign.senate.gov/testimony/2003/Newcombtestimony031002.pdf

“President Bush Discusses Cuba Policy in Rose Garden Speech,” October 10, 2003, http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/release/2003/10/20031010-2.html

“President Bush Fully Committed to Democratic Transition in Cuba,” September 26, 2003, http://usinfo.state.gov/xarchives/display.html

Salyers, Eddie, “U.S. Businesses Owned by Hispanics Top 1 Million: California, Texas, Florida Lead States,” 2001, Census Bureau Reports, U.S. Department of Commerce News, http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/2001/cb01-53.html

Word, David L. and Perskins Jr., R. Colby, “Building a Spanish Surname List for the 1990’s- A New Approach to an Old Problem,” March 1996, Washington D.C.: Population Division, US Census Bureau, Technical Working Paper No. 13.

Internet Articles

“2004 Primary Election Profiles: Florida Primary,” March 9, 2004, NALEO Educational Fund, http://www.naleo.org/press_release/FL-profile_0304fin.pdf

Barberia, Lorena, “Remittances to Cuba: An Evaluation of Cuban and US Government Policy Measures,” September 2002, Working Paper #15,
http://web.mit.edu/cis.www/migraion/pubs/rrwp/15_remittances.pdf

Barreto, Matt, de la Garza, Rodolfo O., Lee, Jongho, Rye, Jaesung and Pachon, Harry P., “A Glimpse Into Latino Policy and Voting Preferences,” March 2002, The Tomás Rivera Policy Institute, http://www.trpi.org/PDFs/Glimpse_voting_pref.pdf

“Bombings—Dade County, FL 1975 to 1983,” Cuban Information Archives, Document 0022, http://cuban-exile.com/doc_001-025/doc0022.html

Brownstein, Ronald, “The New Politics of Immigration,” The American Prospect, 2001, http://www.prospect.org/webfeatures/2001/08/brownstein-r-08-30.html

CANF and the Free Cuba Pac, Open Secrets Organization, http://www.opensecrets.org/pubs/cubareport/free.asp

Cuban Democracy Act, http://www.state.gov/regions/wha/cuba/democ_act_1992.html

“Cuban Exodus,” Cuban Information Archives, Document 0001, http://cuban-exile.com/doc_001-025/doc0001.html

Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity Act of 1996, http://www.soc.qc.edu/procuba/helm_law.html

“Cuban Migration: Averting a Crisis, “American Immigration Law Foundation, June 2003,
http://www.ailf.org/ipc/CubanMigrationPrint.asp

DeSipio, Louis, “Latino Viewing Choices: Bilingual Television Viewers and the Language Choices They Make,” The Tomás Rivera Policy Institute, May 2003, http://www.trpi.org/PDFs/Latino_Viewing_Choices.pdf

Espinosa, Gastón, Elizondo, Virgilio and Miranda, Jesse, “Hispanic Churches in American Public Life: Summary of Findings,” 2nd ed., Institute for Latino Studies, University of Notre Dame, March 2003, http://www.nd.edu/Elatino/research/pubs/HispChurchesEnglishWEB.pdf

Fix, Michael and Haskins, Ron., “Welfare Benefits for Non-citizens,” The Brooking Institution Policy Brief #15, 2002, http://www.brook.edu/printme.wbspage/es/research/projects/wrb/publications/pb/pb15.htm

“Foreign Investment and Cuba,” U.S.-Cuban trade and Economic Council, Inc. http://www.cubatrade.org/foreign.html

“Four Million Latino Legal Permanent Residents Eligible for U.S. Citizenship as Exorbitant Fee Hike Takes Effect,” NALEO News, April 30, 2004, http://www.naleo.org/PRA/Natl_LPR_estimate.pdf

Fry, Richard, “Latinos in Higher Education: Many Enroll, Too Few Graduate,” The Pew Hispanic Center, September 5, 2002, http://www.pewhispanic.org/latinoinhighereducation-sep5-02.pdf

Fuchs, Ester R., Minnite, Lorrain C. and Shapiro, Robert Y., “Political Capital and Political Participation,” 1999, http://www.sipa.columbia.edu/RESEARCH/Paper/99-3.pdf

“Growing the Middle Class: Connecting All Miami-Dade Residents to Economic Opportunity,” Brookings Institution Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy, June 7, 2004, http://www.brook.edu/urban/pubs/20040607_miami.pdf

Guinier, Lani, “What We Must Overcome,” The American Prospect, 2001, 12 (5), http://www.prospect.org/print/V12/5guinier-a.html

“Hard-Line Organizations,” Cuban Information Archives, Document 0005, http://cuban-exile.com/doc_001-025/doc0005.html

"Hispanic Diaspora," The Tomás Rivera Policy Institute, 2002, http://www.trpi.org/mid_facts_stats.html

“Impediments to Human Rights in Cuban Law”, Human Rights Watch, 2001, http://www.hrw.org/cuba/1999/cuba-repressivemachinery_htm

“Latino Voters Most Likely to Identify as Democrats, but Party Loyalty is Shallow, and Political Views Defy Easy Categorization,” The Pew Hispanic Center, October 3, 2002, http://www.pewhispanic.org/site/docs/pdf/news_release_09.29.02.pdf

Levine, Art, “The Adventures of …Money Man!,” The American Prospect, 2000, 11 (11), http://www.propect.org/print/V11/11/levine-a.html

Lindsay, James M., “Getting Uncle Sam’s Ear: Will Ethnic Lobbies Cramp America’s Foreign Policy Style,” The Brookings Review, 2002, 20 (1) (Winter): 37-40. The Brookings Institution.
http://www.brookings.edu/press/review/winter2002/lindsay.htm

Lopez, Mark Hugo, “Electoral Engagement among Latinos,” Institute for Latino Studies at the University of Notre Dame, December 2003, http://www.nd.edu/7Elatino/research/pubs/LRNDvln2.pdf

“Miami in Focus: A Profile from Census 2000,” Brookings Institution Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy, 2003, http://www.brookings.edu/es/urban/livingcities/miami.pdf
http://www.brookings.edu/es/urban/livingcities/miami2.pdf

Michelson, Melissa R., “Mobilizing the Latino Youth Vote,” CIRCLE Working Paper 10, August 2003, http://www.civicyouth.org/PopUps/WorkingPapers/WP10Michelson2.pdf

“Mobilizing the Latino Vote: Tapping the Power of the Hispanic Electorate,” National Council of La Raza, July 24, 2002, http://www.hpn-ct.org/hews/n-020801.pdf

“National Survey of Latinos: The Latino Electorate,” The Pew Hispanic Center and Kaiser Family Foundation, October 2002, http://www.pewhispanic.org/latino_Chartpack_092002.pdf

“National Hispanic Leadership Agenda Congressional Scorecard 105th Congress,” National Association of Latino Elected and Appointed Officials, http://www.naleo.org/NHLA.pdf

Pachon, Harry, “The Battle for Latino Voters,” The Tomás Rivera Policy Institute, May 2002, http://www.trpi.org/articles/Battle_for_Latino_Voters.pdf

Pedraza, Silvia, “Cuba’s Revolution and Exodus,” Journal of the International Institute, 1998, 15 (2) (Winter),
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