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系統識別號 U0002-2402201014294200
中文論文名稱 論歐盟氣候變遷政策中英國扮演的角色
英文論文名稱 Britain's role in combating climate change policy of the European Union
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 歐洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of European Studies
學年度 98
學期 1
出版年 99
研究生中文姓名 戴嘉慧
研究生英文姓名 Chia-Hui Tai
學號 696290013
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2010-01-12
論文頁數 121頁
口試委員 指導教授-謝福助
指導教授-卓忠宏
委員-劉賢俊
委員-苑倚曼
中文關鍵字 氣候變遷  京都議定書  歐盟  英國 
英文關鍵字 climate change  Kyoto Protocol  European Union  United Kingdom 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 近年來氣候極端異常,使得氣候變遷成為全球性議題。1992年聯合國《氣候變化綱要公約》之簽訂,奠定世界各國對抗氣候變遷之框架,並於1997年簽訂《京都議定書》,其規定附件一簽約國家應以1990年之二氧化碳排放量為基準,減低其量5.2%。歐盟在全球對抗氣候變遷之中表現積極。訂立《京都議定書》隔年,歐盟達成分擔協議,依照會員國經濟發展來減低其碳排放,並提出氣候變遷政策,以一系列措施顯示歐盟邁向低碳與提高能源效率之決心。歐盟成立排放交易機制,利用市場機制達到減碳之效果,並鼓勵再生能源使用,以達到節能與潔能之效果。

歐盟會員國都執行《京都議定書》之際,一向和歐洲持有不同立場的英國於以積極配合實施歐盟之措施。在80年代,英國因對於其國家主權的執著,使英國一直對於歐盟整合持有排斥之態度,並將環境議題視為國內事務,不允許歐盟插手,這使得英國獲得 “Dirty Man of Europe”之汙名。到了90年代在全球時勢驅駛以及外界對其輿論與當局領導者之利益偏好改變,使氣候變遷議題在英國變得受到重視。因當時美國之環境領導地位逐漸下滑,並在退出《京都議定書》時降至谷底,因此提供給歐盟大好機會有所展現。這些因素使英國改變態度,選擇積極配合歐盟之氣候變遷之政策與執行相關措施。本文擬透過理性選擇制度主義理論,分析英國在歐盟對抗氣候變遷中扮演的角色,並探討英國基於理性選擇,改變其態度與行為,以及研究英國執行歐盟氣候變遷政策之成效,和最後英國轉變對歐洲之意涵。

英文摘要 In recent years, the weather has moved towards global weirding making climate change an ad hoc issue universally. The United Nations Framework of Climate Change was signed in 1992 upon which member states combating climate change will be based and started off a series of consultative conferences, among which signed the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 regulating the Annex B countries to reduce CO2 emissions by 5.2% on the premise of the level of 1990. The European Union (EU) plays an active role in fighting climate change. EU reached a Burden Sharing Agreement in 1998 which EU member states decreases its emissions according to respective economic development and proposed a climate change policy unfolding a series of measures that reveals the determination of EU moving towards a low-carbon, high-energy efficient economy. The establishment of EU emissions trading scheme uses market mechanism to cut carbon emission and the renewables are encouraged so as to reach both clean and efficient energy.

Britain, unlike it used to hold different positions within the EU, this time actively ties in and puts EU policy into practice. In the 80s, Britain, due to the obduracy to its national sovereignty, always remained doubted and kept defensive while EU came to approach. Britain considered environmental issues domestic affairs without the interference of the EU contributing to Britain obtaining the name of Dirty Man of Europe. During 90s, the spur of global trend in climate change, the stress from the public, and the change of leader’s intended interests affected Britain to value climate change. At that time, the leading position of the U.S., especially in the environmental matters, was downgrading, reaching to the bottom after withdrawing from Kyoto Protocol which, hence, provided a window of opportunity for EU to take the lead. Both exogenous and endogenous reasons caused Britain to alter her attitude to tie up with the EU and implement relating climate change measures. This thesis analyzes Britain’s position towards EU combating climate change via Rational Choice Institutionalism as well as explores Britain based on rational choice that altered her attitude and behavior, the performance of implementation in EU climate change policy, and the implication of the change of Britain towards the EU and the world.
論文目次 目次
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 研究途徑與方法 6
第三節 論文架構與研究範圍 11
第四節 資料來源與研究限制 13
第二章 國際氣候變遷之背景、發展與規範 19
第一節 京都議定書之背景與發展 19
一、背景 19
二、發展 21
第二節 京都議定書主要內容與規範 28
一、《京都議定書》之目標 28
二、規範氣體 28
三、規範機制 29
第三節 京都機制形成的重要性 30
第三章 歐盟因應氣候變遷政策之形成與實踐 33
第一節 歐盟氣候變遷之形成 33
一、責任分擔協議 33
二、氣候變遷政策 35
第二節 歐盟實踐氣候變遷政策措施 38
一、歐盟排放交易機制 38
二、再生能源 45
第四章 英國的角色轉變 51
第一節 消極抵抗時期 51
一、歐盟層次-1970年代至1980年代 51
二、英國層次-柴契爾在位時期 52
三、歐盟層次-1990年代 55
四、英國層次-梅傑在位時期 56
第二節 積極配合時期 59
一、歐盟層次-1997年以後 59
第三節 英國轉變的原因 64
一、國內因素 64
二、國外因素 69
第五章 英國執行歐盟氣候變遷政策之成果 81
第一節 英國減低排放之效果 81
一、歐盟訂定目標之達成 81
二、科技創新 84
三、交通部門排放 87
第二節 再生能源使用之效果 89
一、再生能源發電提高 89
二、能源市場競爭力 92
三、再生能源使用之加強 93
第六章 評估 96
第一節 對內評估 96
一、氣候變遷制度規範對英國的影響 96
二、相關制度下行為者之選擇 99
第二節 對外評估 105
一、強化歐盟氣候變遷政策執行 105
二、增加歐盟氣候變遷領導之優勢 109
第七章 結論 116
參考文獻 122





















圖目次
圖 1 1研究架構圖 18
圖 2 1國家自願減排溫室氣體之發展 30
圖 4 1環境相關議題與措施之聲望 78
圖 5 1歐盟主要溫室氣體排放國 81
圖 5 21990-2007歐盟前5大溫室氣體排放比例之國家變化圖 82
圖 5 3英國溫室氣體排放趨勢 83
圖 5 4 2008年碳權市場交易表 85
圖 5 5 2007年歐盟與英國產業部門之溫室氣體排放 87
圖 5 6交通部門溫室氣體排放 89
圖 5 7 2009年英國再生能源產發電力之成長 90
圖 5 8 2008歐盟能源市場競爭力 92
圖 5 9再生能源發電比例 94
圖 6 1評估圖 96

表目次
表 3 1歐盟15國溫室氣體排放責任分擔表 34
表 3 2歐盟氣候交易機制指令中附錄一規定納入管制的活動項目 42

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Joran, A., Wurzel, R., Zito, A., and Brückner, L. (2003), “Policy Innovation or ‘Muddling Through’? ‘New’ Environmental Policy Instruments in United Kingdom, Environmental Politics, Vol. 12, No. 1, 179-200.
Jordan, A. and Voisey H. (1998), “The ‘Rio Process’: The Politics and Substantive Outcomes of ‘Earth Summit II’ – Institutions for Global Environmental Change,” Global Environmental Change, Vol. 8, No. 1, 93-97.
Kurkowski, S. (2006), “Distributing the Right to Pollute in the European Union: Efficiency Equity, and the Environment”, New York University Environmental Law Journal, Vol. 14, 698-733.
Lin, A. (2008), “Evangelizing climate change,” New York University Environmental Law Journal, Vol. 17, Issue 2,1135-1193.
Lund, P. (2007), “Impacts of EU Carbon Emission Trade Directive on Energy-intensive industries – Indicative Micro-economic analyses,” Ecological Economics, Vol. 63, Issue 4, 799-806.
Martin U. (2000), “The Cardiff Process: the Institutional and Political Challenges of Environmental Integration of the EU,” Review of the European Community and International Environmental Law, Vol. 9, Issue 2, 112-119.
Ott, H. (2002), “Climate Change: An Important Foreign Policy Issue,” International Affairs, Vol. 77, Issue 2, 277-296.
Philibert, C. and Pershing, J. (2001), “Considering the Options: Climate Targets for All Countries,” Climate Policy 1, 211-227.
Porter, M. and Linde, C. (1995), “Green and Competitive: Ending the Stalemate,” Harvard Business Review, Vol. 73, 120-134.
Trippier, D. (2007), “Developments in Environmental Policy at the European Level – A Government View,” European Environment, Vol. 1, Issue 6, pp. 7-9.
Vogler, J. (2005), “The European Contribution to Global Environmental Governance,” International Affairs, Vol. 81, No. 4, 835-850.
Vogel, D. (2003), “The Hare and the Tortoise Revisited: The Politics of Consumer and Environmental Regulation in Europe,” British Journal of Political Science, Vol. 33, No. 4, 557-580.
Wallace, H., “At Odds with Europe,” Political Studies, Vol. 45, Issue4, 677-688.
Wynne, B. (1993), “Implementation in the Greenhouse Gas Reductions in the European Community,” Global Environmental Change, Vol. 3, Issue 1, 101-128.
“Slightly Greener,” The Economist, April 3rd, 2004.
五、網路資源
(一)網路專文
Bang, G., Heggelund, G. and Vevatne, J. (2005), “Shifting Strategies in the Global Climate Negotiations,” CICERO and FIN Research, 1-34. 參見,Center for International Climate and Environmental Research和The Fridtjof Nansen Institute,http://www.fni.no/publ/global.html, 2009.5.28.
Binder, M. and Twes, K. (2004), “Goal Formulation and Goal Achievement in National Climate Policies in Annex-1 Countries,” Forschungsstelle für Umweltpolitik, 1-42.
http://www.polsoz.fu-berlin.de/polwiss/forschung/systeme/ffu/publikationen/2004/binder_manfred_tews_kerstin_2004/rep_2004_02.pdf參見,www.fu-berlin.de/ffu/
Brandt, U. and Svendsen, G. (2003), “The Coalition of Industrialists and Environmentalists in the Climate Change Issue,” WORKING PAPER 03-18, pp. 1-22. 參見,www.hha.dk/nat/wper/03-18_gtsusb.pdf
Dechezleprêtre, A. et al (2008), Invention and Transfer of Climate Change Mitigation Technologies on Global Scale: A Drawing Study on Paten Data-Final Report, Paris, CERNA, .1-49. 參見,http://www.nccr-climate.unibe.ch/conferences/climate_policies/working_papers/Dechezlepretre.pdf
Jordan, A., Schout, A., and Zito, A. (2004), “Coordinating European Union Environmental Policy: Shifting from Passive to Active Coordination,” CSERGE Working Paper EDM 04-05, 1-36. 參見, http://www.uea.ac.uk/env/cserge/pub/wp/edm/edm_2004_05.htm
Moravcsik A. (1994), Why the European Union Strengthens the State: Domestic Politics and International Cooperation, Center for European Studies Working Paper Series #52, New York: Harvard University, 1-79.
Grubb, M., Hourcade, J. and Oberthür, S. (2001), “Keeping Kyoto: A Study of Approaches to Maintaining the Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change,” Climate Strategies Report, 1-64.
Knill, C. and Lenschow, A. (1998), Change as "Appropriate Adaptation": Administrative Adjustment to European Environmental Policy in Britain and Germany, European Integration online Papers, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1-22. 參見,http://eiop.or.at/eiop/texte/1998-001.htm
Olsen, J. (1995), Europeanization and Nation Dynamics, Arena Working Paper, No. 9/95.
Ott, H. and Oberthür, S. (2001), “Breaking the Impasse: Forging an EU Leadership Initiative on Climate Change,” World Summit Papers of the Heinrich Böll Foundation, No. 3, 1-34.
Wurzel, R. (2004), “The EU Presidency: ‘Honest Broker’ or Driving Seat?”, Anglo-German Foundation for the Study of Industrial Society, 1-40. 參見,http://www.policypointers.org/Page/View/1344
Wurzel, R. (2008), “The Politics of Emission Trading in Britain and Germany,” Anglo-German Foundation for the Study of Industrial Society, 1-44.

(二)、官方文獻
1. 歐盟
EU Action against Climate Change-Leading global Action to 2020 and beyond, (Luxemburg: Office for Official Publication of the European Communities, 2009)
European Commission (2008), “20 20 by 2020 Europe’s Climate Change Opportunity,” COM(2008) 30 final
European Commission (2008), “EU Policy and Measures to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Toward A Climate Change Program,” COM(2008) 88 final
European Commission (2007), “An Energy Policy for Europe,” COM(2007) 1 final
European Commission (2007), “A European Strategic Energy Technology Plan(SET-PLAN),” COM(2007) 723 final
European Commission (2006), “ A European Strategy for Sustainable, Competitive, and Secure Energy,” COM(2006) 105 final
European Commission (2004),“ The Share of Renewable Energy in the EU,” COM(2004) 366 final
European Commission (2004), “Integrating Environmental Considerations into Other Policy Areas-a stocktaking of the Cardiff Process,” COM (2004) 394 final
2. 聯合國
The World Bank (2009), State and Trends of the Carbon Market, Washington D.C.
The World Bank (2008), State and Trends of the Carbon Market, Washington D.C.
UNFCCC (2007), Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change, Working Group III Contribution to the International Panel of Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report, New York: Cambridge University Press.
UNFCCC (2001), Climate Change 2001: Mitigation, Working Group III Contribution to the International Panel of Climate Change Third Assessment
Report, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future 參閱,http://www.un-documents.net/wced-ocf.htm
International Energy Agency (2009), CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Highlights, Paris: IEA Publications.
3. 英國政府
Her Majesty Treasury (2009), Budget 2009 – Building Britain’s Future, London: The Stationery Office 詳見http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/bud_bud09_index.htm
Her Majesty Government (2009), The UK Renewable Energy Strategy, London: The Stationery Office
(三)、網路新聞與其他
Global Wind Energy Council (2006), Global Wind 2006 Report, Global wind industry trade association: Belgium.
European Photovoltaic Industry Association (2007), “Solar Generation IV,” EPIA: Belgium.
Harvey, F., “UK sets out plans for low-carbon economy,” Financial Times, July 15th, 2009, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/e34fb6d0-7130-11de-877c-00144feabdc0.html
Helm, T., “Copenhagen: The Key Players and How They Rated,” The Guardian, December 20th, 2009, http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/dec/20/copenhagen-obama-brown-climate
Hirst, C., “Britain Attacks EU Partners over Pollution,” The Independent,
September 5th, 2004, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/britain-attacks-eu-partners-over-pollution-551359.html
Knox, A., “Sinking Feeling in Tuvalu,” BBC News, August 28th, 2002 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/2219001.stm
McCarthy, M., “A Revolution on the Horizon: 7000 More Wind Turbines,” The Independent, June 27th, 2008, http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/green-living/a-revolution-on-the-horizon-7000-more-wind-turbines-855422.html
Ramesh, R., “Paradise Almost Lost: Maldives Seek to Buy a New Homeland,” The Guardian, November 10th, 2008 http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2008/nov/10/maldives-climate-change
Theil, S., “The Next Petroleum,” Newsweek, August 8th, 2005, http://www.newsweek.com/id/56334/page/1
“Blair Demands Green Revolution,” BBC News, May 29th, 2006, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/politics/4854886.stm
“EP Gives Green Light to Structural Funds 2007-2013 Package,” EurActiv, May 21th, 2007, http://www.euractiv.com/en/future-eu/ep-gives-green-light-structural-funds-2007-2013-package/article-156567
“EU Wants Regional Policy to Become ‘Launch-Pad for SMEs,” EurActiv, July 10th, 2008, http://www.euractiv.com/en/innovation/eu-wants-regional-policy-launch-pad-smes/article-174113
“Offshore Wind Farms could Meet a Quarter of the UK’s electricity needs,” The Guardian, June 25th, 2009, http://green.chron.com/link/?http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/jun/25/offshore-wind-uk-homes;;;%23reader-comment-list;;;%23discussions
REN21 (2009), Renewables Global Status Report 2009.
“US Blows to Kyoto Hopes,” BBC News, March 28th, 2001, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/1247518.stm
“Renewables could Drive EU Market Integration,” EurActiv, June 23th, 2009 http://www.euractiv.com/en/energy/renewables-drive-eu-market-integration/article-183407
“Start Planning for Pacific Global Warming Refugees,” The China Post, October 20th, 2009 http://www.chinapost.com.tw/life/environment/2009/10/20/229341/Start-planning.htm
“The New EU Cohesion Policy (2007-2013),” EurActiv, May 21th, 2007. http://www.euractiv.com/en/future-eu/new-eu-cohesion-policy-2007-2013/article-131988
“WWF Report: Green Industry Create More Jobs,” EurActiv, June 17th, 2009 http://www.euractiv.com/en/enterprise-jobs/wwf-report-green-industries-create-jobs/article-183230
六、參考網站
21世紀能源政策網絡 (Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21 Century)
http://www.ren21.net/default.asp
卓越雜誌 (Excellence Monthly)
http://www.ecf.com.tw/index.php
政府間氣候變遷小組政府(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) http://www.ipcc.ch/index.htm
英國石油 (British Petroleum)
http://www.bp.com
英國政府官網
http://www.number10.gov.uk/
英國環境糧食與鄉村部門 (Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs) http://www.defra.gov.uk
英德基金會 ( Anglo-German Foundation)
www.agf.org.uk
英國財政部 (HM Treasury)
http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/home.htm
紐約時報 (The New York Times)
www.nytimes.com
氣候變遷綱要公約資訊網 (Climate Change Taiwan)
http://sd.erl.itri.org.tw/fccc/en/index.html
國家政策發展研究基金會 (National Policy Foundation)
http://www.npf.org.tw/
經濟部溫室氣體減量資訊網 (Greenhouse Office of Ministry Economic Affairs)
http://proj.moeaidb.gov.tw/ghg/TIGO/e_page1-1.asp
歐盟現況 (EurActiv)
http:www.euractiv.com/
歐洲環境總署 (European Environment Agency)
http://www.eea.europa.eu/
歐洲環境局 (European Environment Bureau)
http://www.eeb.org
國際能源總署 (International Energy Agency)
http://www.iea.org/
歐盟整合文獻 (Archive of European Integration)
http://aei.pitt.edu/
環境表現指數 (Environmental Performance Index)
http://epi.yale.edu/Home
環境資訊中心 (Taiwan Environmental Information Center)
http://e-info.org.tw/

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