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系統識別號 U0002-2401201019170000
中文論文名稱 全球化下私人軍事公司發展之研究- 以黑水公司為例(2001.1 ~ 2009.1)
英文論文名稱 Development of Private Military Companies Under Globalization - A case study of Blackwater Worldwide Inc. (2001.1 ~ 2009.1)
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 國際事務與戰略研究所碩士在職專班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
學年度 98
學期 1
出版年 99
研究生中文姓名 黃偉傑
研究生英文姓名 Wei-Chieh Huang
學號 796330024
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2010-01-11
論文頁數 133頁
口試委員 指導教授-翁明賢
委員-李黎明
委員-陳文政
中文關鍵字 私人軍事公司  黑水公司  傭兵 
英文關鍵字 Private Military Companies  Mercenaries  Blackwater Worldwide 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學政治學
學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 本研究旨在探討全球化下私人軍事公司的發展,私人軍事公司在冷戰結束後興起,配合裁軍風潮和區域衝突成為重要的軍方輔助戰力和文職部門的二軌武力。本研究以目前承包美國官方合約在伊拉克地區從事任務的私人軍事公司為研究對象,而 根據任務分類,本研究將首先分析90年代以來私人軍事公司的興起背景,私人軍事公司的任務導向,最後再分別針對黑水國際在伊拉克作業的狀況和問題進行分析。
黑水公司在伊拉克失敗的主因包括政治和作戰兩大部分,在政治方面,黑水公司未能顧及伊拉克政府的黑水公司在伊拉克執行任務時缺乏民事管制作為,對於任務地區的偵察情報工作也有缺失。初期還可仰賴人員素質勉強彌補,但到後期,伊拉克輿論對於黑水公司的諸多作為大加撻伐,因此導致黑水公司無法獲得伊拉克政府的支持。另外在美國降低伊拉克駐軍數量和政黨輪替之後,黑水公司也失去了有力的政治奧援。
根據本研究,私人軍事公司面對的主要問題題包括人員吸收、作戰管制和政治色彩,未來私人軍事公司將逐漸脫離國家角色,走向專業化軍事輔助戰力的角色。而對國軍來說,國軍因外交因素長期處於在與友邦聯訓困難的情況下,顧問型私人軍事公司能夠提供更為完整的軍事訓練教程。至於部分軍方後勤業務也可以交由私人軍事公司進行
英文摘要 This paper raises disturbing new issues in this comprehensive analysis of a post-Cold War phenomenon: private companies offering specialized military services for hire. These organizations are nothing like the mercenary formations that flourished in post-independence Africa, whose behavior there earned them the nickname les affreux: "the frightful ones." Today's corporate war-making agencies are bought and sold by Fortune 500 firms. Even some UN peacekeeping experts advocate their use on grounds of economy and efficiency.
Governments see in them a means of saving money-and sometimes a way to use low-profile force to solve awkward, potentially embarrassing situations that develop on the fringes of policy. This paper describes three categories of privatized military systems. "Provider firms" (the best known being the now reorganized Executive Outcomes) offer direct, tactical military assistance ranging from training programs and staff services to front-line combat. "Consulting firms," like the U.S.-based Military Professional Resources Inc., draw primarily on retired senior officers to provide strategic and administrative expertise on a contract basis.
Finally, the overlooked "support firms," like KBR, provide logistic and maintenance services to armed forces preferring (or constrained by budgetary factors) to concentrate their own energies on combat. At the point, researcher takes Blaclwater Worldwide as a case study of private military company. By the case, this research finds PMC operation limited and political conflict.This paper takes pains to establish the improvements in capability and effectiveness privatization allows, ranging from saving money to reducing human suffering by ending small-scale conflicts. Technical issues, like contract problems, may lead to an operation ending without regard to a military rationale. A much bigger problem is the risk of states losing control of military policy to militaries outside the state systems, responsible only to their clients, managers, and stockholders. So far, private military organizations have behaved cautiously, but there is no guarantee will continue.
論文目次 目錄
第一章 緒論.....................................1
第一節 研究背景與目的...........................1
第二節 文獻回顧.................................4
第三節 研究範圍與研究方法......................13
第二章 私人軍事公司的興起......................16
第一節 國家與私人軍事公司......................16
第二節 私人軍事公司的市場需求..................20
第三節 全球化下的私人軍事公司..................32
第五節 小結.....................................42
第三章 911前後的私人軍事公司發展...............43
第一節 私人軍事公司濫觴-EO公司.................43
第二節 民間版五角大廈-MPRI公司.................53
第三節 民間聯勤業務鰲頭-KBR公司................61
第四節 911之後的美國私人軍事公司活動概況.......66
第五節 小結....................................75
第四章 實例分析-以黑水國際公司為例.............78
第一節 創始與發展..............................78
第二節 伊拉克任務發展與茁壯....................84
第三節 過度擴張的後果..........................92
第四節 小結....................................98
第五章 黑水公司伊拉克任務失敗原因分析...........99
第一節 政治氛圍改變…………………………………. 100
第二節 市場研判錯誤.………………………………….101
第三節 伊拉克政府的壓力.…………………..……….102
第四節 失去政治奧援……….………………………….103
第五節 未來發展................................104
第六章 結論...................................108


圖表目錄

圖目次

圖1-1私人軍事公司戰鬥空間與任務分佈概念圖………………06

圖 1-2 研究概念架構圖 ………………………………….……15

圖 4-1 黑水公司承包契約金額統計……………………………82



表目次

表 1-1與傭兵/私人軍事公司有關的國際法/文件………………12

表 2-1 EO公司盧安達作戰計畫作戰序列.………………………40

表 3-1 EO公司常備兵力編裝表...………………………………46

表 3-2主要私人軍事公司任務與註冊國家(2001.9-2009.1).67

表 3-3私人軍事公司承包業務概況………………………………74

表 3-4美國私人軍事公司的優勢與問題…………………………75

表 4-1黑水公司承包契約金額統計………………………………83

表 4-2伊拉克主要美國民間軍事公司開火次數統計表…………94

表 4-3黑水公司交戰結果統計(2005.1∼2007.12)………….99

表 4-4黑水公司公佈解僱理由統計(2003.1∼2007.12)…….99





參考文獻 參考文獻

一、中文書籍

1.Max Weber,何蓉譯,經濟與社會(北京:商務印書館,1997)。
2.Samuel P. Huntington,洪陸訓、洪松輝等/譯,軍人與國家(台北時英出版社,2006)。
3.John Tomlinson,鄭棨元,陳慧慈譯,全球化與文化(台北:韋伯出版,2007)。
4.呂思勉,歷史研究法(台北:五南圖書出版有限公司,1995)。
5.林碧炤,國際政治與外交政策(台北:五南出版社,1990)。
6.倪世雄等著,當代西方國際關係理論(上海:復旦大學出版,2001)。
7.翁台生,CIA在台活動秘辛-西方公司的故事(台北:聯經出版公司,1991)。
8.彭大年,塵封的作戰計畫-國光計畫口述歷史(台北:國防部史政編譯室史政處,2005)。
9.趙明義,國際區域研究(台北:黎明書局,1994年)。

二、中文期刊
1.黃偉傑,美軍特種作戰部隊簡介(台北:全球防衛雜誌-軍事家,2001 年11月)。
2.鳴海裕,軍事專業資源顧問公司--有實無名新版美軍顧問團(台北:全球防衛雜誌-軍事家,2009年2月)。

三、中文論文
1.林健次,淡江大學,迎接全球化超越2008-經濟安全研討會論文,經濟安全與國家安全,http://www.wufi.org.tw/republic/rep31-40/no32_17.html.(2009.08.21)
2.金審理,論美國黑水公司在伊拉克佔領區所涉及之國際法問題(台北:政治大學,2007)。

四、日文書籍
1.千田善,なぜ戦争は終わらないか ユーゴ問題で民族・紛争・国際政治を考える(みすず書房,2002)。
2.松村劭,PKOのためのマニュアル 国際平和維持活動(ダイヤモンド社,1995)。
3.菅原出,外注される戦争: 民間軍事会社の正体(草思社,2007)。

五、英文書籍
1.Alexandra, Andrew,Private Military and Security Companies : Ethics, Policies and Civil-Military Relations.(Routledge,2009)
2.Ashcroft,James,Making a Killing: The Explosive Story of a Hired Gun in Iraq(Virgin Books,2006)
3.Avant,Deborah D.,The Market for Force: The Consequences of Privatizing Security(Cambridge University Press,2005)
4.Barlow,Eeben,Executive Outcomes Against all Odds( Galago Publishing Pty Ltd.,2001)
5.Brown,Justin,The Rise of the Private-Sector Military(Christian Science Monitor,2009)
6.Clarke,Walter,Learning from Somalia: The Lessons of Armed Humanitarian Intervention(Westview Press,1997)
7.Deborah,Avent,From Mercenary to Citizen Armies:Explaning Change in the Practice for War(IO Inc,2002).
8.Engbrecht,Shawn,America's covert warriors : inside the world of private military contractors(Potomac Books,2009).
9.Fainaru,Steve,Big boy rules : America's mercenaries fighting in Iraq(Da Capo Press,2009)
10.Fatau,Musah Abdel,Privatization of Security, Arms Prolifeeration and the Process of State Collapse in Africa.(Development and Change ,2002)
11.Fayami,Kayode.Mercenary: An Africa Security Dilemma(Pluto Press,2000)
12.Gberie,Lansana, A Dirty War in West Africa: The RUF and the Destruction of Sierra Leone(Indiana University Press,2005)
13.Geddes,John,Highway to hell : dispatches from a mercenary in Iraq(Broadway Books,2008)
14.Geraghty,Tony, Soldiers of fortune : a history of the mercenary in modern warfare(Pegasus Books,2009)
15.Ghanazvidian,John,Untapped: The Scramble for Africa's Oil( Harcourt,2007)
16.Grant,Bruce,U.S. Military Expertise of Sale: Private Military Consults as a Tool of Foreign Policy( National Defence University,1998)
17.Howe,Herbert,Ambigous Order: Military Forces inAfrica States(Lynne Rienner,2001)
18.Hughes,Solomon,War on Terror(New Left Books Ltd.,2008)
19.Isenberg,David, Shadow force : private security contractors in Iraq(Praeger Security International,2008)
20.Kidwell,Deborah, Public war, private fight? : the United States and private military companies( Combat Studies Institute Press,2005)
21.Kinsey,Christopher,Private contractors and the reconstruction of Iraq : transforming military logistics( Routledge,2009)
22.Lamb,Gould,Hide & Seek: Taking Account of Small Arms in Southern Africa(Institute for Security Studies,2004)
23.Lee,Jeffery,War Dog of War on Terror(London Publish,1998)
24.Maggio, Edward,Private Security in the 21st Century: Concepts and Applications(Jones & Bartlett Publishers,2008)
25.Mandel,Robert,Lynne.Armies Wi thout States: The Privatization of Security( Rienner Publishers,2002)
26.Mark,Duffield,Global Governance and New Wars(The Merging of Development and Security,2001)
27.Mary,Koldor,New & Old Wars: Orgenized Violence in a Global Era(Cambridge Ploty Press,2002)
28.Metz,Stephen,Armed Conflict in the 21st Century, The Information Revolution and Postmodern Warfare(U.S.Army War Collage,2000)
29.Østensen, Åse Gilje,Outsourcing Peace?: The United Nations' Use of Private Security and Military Companies(VDM Verlag Dr. Muller Aktiengesellschaft & Co. KG,2008).
30.Parameters,Thomas K. Adams,The New Mercenaries and the Privatization of Conflic(U.S.Army War Collage,1999)
31.Patterson, Malcolm Hugh,Privatising peace : a corporate adjunct to United Nations peacekeeping and humanitarian operations( Palgrave Macmillan,2009)
32.Pelton,Robert Young,Licensed to Kill: Hired Guns in the War on Terror(Three Rivers Press,2007)
33.Pitts,Maxine ,Crime Corruption & Capacity in Papua New Guinea( Asia Pacific Press,2002).
34.Posat,Paul,The Economics of War(McGraw-Hill Comnpany2007)
35.Regan,Anthony,Preparation for War and Progress Towards Peace(ANU Pacific Policy Paper,1998)
36.Scahill,Jeremy,Blackwater : the rise of the world's most powerful mercenary army,(Nation Books,2007)
37.Schumacher,Gerald, A bloody business : America's war zone contractors and the occupation of Iraq(Grand Rapids,2006)
38.Shearer,David,Privat Armies and Military Intervention(ISA Publiic,1998)
39.Simons,Suzanne, Master of war : Blackwater USA's Erik Prince and the business of war(Harper,2009)
40.Singer,P. W., Corporate Warriors: The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry(Cornell University Press ,2007)
41.Stein,Janice,Mean Times: Humanitarian Action in Complex Political Emergencies-Stark Choices(University of Toronto,1999)
42.Stokes,Doug,Why the End of the Cold War Doesn't Matter: the US War of Terror in Colombia(Bristol University Politics Department,2001)
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47.Venter, Al. J. ,War Dog: Fighting Other People's Wars(Casemate,2002)
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52.Zarate,Juan Carlos,The Emergence of a New Dog of War: Private International Security Companies(Stanford Press,1998).

六、英文期刊
1.Bilton,Michael,The Private War of Tumbledown (Sunday Times Magazine,2000.07.02)
2.Byman, Daniel. L and Waxman, Mathew C.,Kosovo and the Great Air Power Debate( Military Review, 2000) Vol. 24, No. 4.
3.Dietrich,Chris,The Commercialisation of Military Deployment in Africa( African Security Review,2000) Vol.1.
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5.Evan,Micheal,SAS Struggles for Recuits as Who Pays Wins(Times,2002.07)
6.Lawrence,Cline, Operational Intelligence in Peace Enforcement and Stability Operations. International Journal of Intelligence.2002.Vol.15.
7.Lee,Rathgeber, Shawn,The Industry Role in Regulating Private Security Companies, in: Canadian Consortium on Human Security - Security Privatization: Challenges and Opportunities(University of British Columbia,1997) Vol. 6.3.
8.May,Ron,The Sandline Affair in Papua New Guinea(ANU Pacific Policy Paper,1997)
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10.Rubin,Elizabeth,An army of One’s Own.(Harper Publish,1997)
11.Singer,P.W., The Private Military Industry and Iraq : What Have We Learned and Where To Next? (DCAF Paper,2004)
12.Singer,Peter W.,Outsourcing War( Foreign Affairs,2005), http://www.brookings.edu/views/articles/fellows/singer20050301.htm.2008.11.05.
13.Thompson,Jim,French General Details Renewed Commitment to Africa(USIS,1995)Vol.3.
14.Westwood,Chris,Military Information Operations in a Convenentional Warfare( Enviroment.Air Power Studies Centre Paper,1996)

七、政府出版品
1.Commentary on the Additional Protocols of 8 June 1977 to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949(International Committee of the RedCross,Geneva,1987)
2.Commentary to Protocol Additional to the GenevaConventions of 12 August 1949,and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts(Protocol I),8 June 1977(ICRC,Geneva,1977)
3.Hague Conventions, Laws of War : Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers and Persons in Case of War on Land, (Hague V1907.10.18)
4.ICSC,The Montreux Document on private military and security companies.
5.U.S. Congress,Testimony of Erik D. Prince, Chairman and CEO, Blackwater For The House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform.
6.UN IRAQ Coalition Provisional Authority Order Number 17.
7.UN IRAQ Coalition Provisional Authority Order Number 3.
8.UN IRAQ Coalition Provisional Authority Order Number 64.
9.UN,The International Convention against the recruitment, Use, Financing and training of Mercenaries.
10.United Nations Observer Office in Angola, Report of the Secretary General on the United Nations Observer Office in Angola (UNOA)
11.United States Congress House,Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Iraqi Reconstruction: Reliance on Private Military Contractors and Status Report(Washington , GPO ,2001)
12.United States Department of Defense.GLOBAL WAR ON TERRORISM - OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM, By Month. United States Department of Defense.
13.UNITED States Government Accounting Office,GAO/NSIAD-00-107.
14.United States Government Accounting Office,Opportunities to Improve the LOGCAP(U.S.Government Accounting Office,2000)
15.UNProtocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts. Adopted on 8 June 1977 by the Diplomatic Conference on the Reaffirmation and Development of International Humanitarian Law applicable in Armed Conflicts.
16.US,Armed Forces,Commanders’Notebook,1980,15-3, note 21,Vol.2.
17.聯合國維和行動官方網站,http://www.un.org/chinese/Index.htm。

八、報紙
1.Adams,David, Contract’s End Hints of Colombia Trouble(Boston Times,(2001.09.23.)
2.Baker,Mike,Blackwater Guards Still At Work In Iraq Despite Lacking License To Operate.Seattle Times, http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/nationworld/2009091962_blackwater21.html.(2009.08.16)
3.Bauder,Don, Tiny Potrero Battles County and Blackwater USA. Sandiegoreader .http://www.sandiegoreader.com/news/2007/feb/22/tiny-potrero-battles-county-and-blackwater-usa/.(2009.07.26)
4.Chaffin,J.,US Turns to Sector for Spies. Financial Times Vol.17.(2008.12.29)
5.CNN,Blackwater 'impeded' probe into contractor deaths.http://www.cnn.com/2007/POLITICS/09/27/iraq.blackwater/index.html.(2009.06.21)
6.Gill,Karen,Peacekeeping Helped Cheney Company(Associated Press,2000.08.28)
7.Johnston,David; John M. Broder,F.B.I. Says Guards Killed 14 Iraqis Without Cause, The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/14/world/middleeast/14blackwater.html. (2009.08.03)
8.Londono,Ernesto and Qais Mizher, Iraq To Deny New License To Blackwater Security Firm. Washington Post, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/story/2009/01/28/ST2009012803363.html.(2009.10.23)
9.Mazzetti,Mark,C.I.A. Withheld Data in Peru Plane Crash Inquiry. The New York Times.www.nytimes.com/2008/11/21/world/americas/21inquire.html.(2009.10.21)
10.McElhatton,Jim, New Deal For Blackwater Bucks Baghdad Decision.Washington Times http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2009/mar/17/new-deal-for-blackwater-bucks-decision-by-iraq/.(2009.11.03)
11.Miller,Christian,Private contractors outnumber U.S. troops in Iraq. Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/2009/jan/25/world/fg-iraq-mosul25.(2009.01.25)
12.New York Times, No Pact for Blackwater. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/31/washington/31blackwater.html.(2009.08.15)
13.Nordland,Rod, Ex-Blackwater Workers May Return To Iraq Jobs, New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/04/world/middleeast/04blackwater.html?ref=worldspecial.(2009.10.23)
14.Nye Jr.,Joseph,In Mideast, the goal is 'smart power.Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/news/globe/editorial_opinion/oped/articles/2006/08/19/in_mideast_the_goal_is_smart_power/. (2009.09.12)
15.Tavernise,Sabrina;Glanz,James,Iraqi Report Says Blackwater Guards Fired First. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/19/world/middleeast/19blackwater.html. (2009.08.03)
16.Va. Security Firm Replaces Blackwater, ABC News. http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/wireStory?id=7229639.2009.10.25.
17.Wayne,Leslie,America's For-Profit Secret Army .The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C06E7DF123AF930A25753C1A9649C8B63.(2009.04.12)
18.呂昭隆,中國時報,總統候選人維安 美法專家指導,http://news.chinatimes.com/2007Cti/2007Cti-Focus/2007Cti-Focus-Content/0,4518,9612110071+96121107+0+084815+0,00.html.(2009.12.11)
19.新華網,伊拉克大選與政治重建http://news.xinhuanet.com/world/2005-02/13/content_2576184.htm.(2009.12.30)
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