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系統識別號 U0002-2401200819240500
中文論文名稱 薄膜萃取操作系統二維質傳之研究
英文論文名稱 Two-Dimensional Mass Transfer Analysis in Membrane Extraction Systems
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 化學工程與材料工程學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering
學年度 96
學期 1
出版年 97
研究生中文姓名 郭家展
研究生英文姓名 Jia-Jan Guo
學號 890360018
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2008-01-08
論文頁數 206頁
口試委員 指導教授-何啟東
委員-葉和明
委員-鄭東文
委員-何啟東
委員-蔡少偉
委員-莊瑞鑫
中文關鍵字 增加質傳效率  萃取效率  二維質傳模型 
英文關鍵字 Mass-Transfer Efficiency Enhancement Extraction Efficiency  Two-Dimensional Mass Transfer Model 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學化學工程
學科別應用科學材料工程
中文摘要 薄膜萃取技術的原理乃是應用薄膜兩側溶質的濃度差為驅動力促使溶質通過薄膜,並選擇適當孔徑之薄膜以分離特定的溶質,達到分離純化之效果。目前已大量應用於酸類萃取與重金屬等分離純化程序。但由於傳統的分析方法只用簡化之數學模型,因此通常需要搭配實驗,才能準確的估算薄膜萃取器之萃取效率,可是由於萃取劑的價格而貴,因此需要花費不少金錢,因此建立一個不需要以實驗數據為輔助的數學模型,顯得更為重要。
本研究主要是討論薄膜萃取系統之解析解研究,可分為理論分析與實驗兩大部分。在理論分析部分包含具反應與不具反應之二維質傳理論,並針對平板型、套管型與中空纖維型三種不同薄膜透萃取器作解析,求出在不同操作之條件下,流體於管道中的溶質於萃取相和萃餘相的濃度分佈,並探討不同設計與操作參數對於質傳效率改善的影響。此外,實驗部分包括平板型與中空纖維型兩系統,其中平板實驗是利用甲基異丁酮萃取醋酸與二(2乙基己基)磷酸萃取銅離子,中空纖維實驗是利用己烷/丁烷共溶劑萃取大豆異黃酮與二(2乙基己基)磷酸萃取銅離子,其實驗結果乃用於印證理論分析之準確性。故本研究的貢獻在於(1)建立二維座標系統的薄膜萃取理論分析模型與(2)獲得溶質於萃取相和萃餘相在薄膜萃取器的濃度分佈。
英文摘要 The effects of design and operation parameters on solute mass transfer in three membrane extraction systems, say flat-plate module, tubular module and hollow fiber module, under the concurrent- and countercurrent-flow are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The analytical solution of the two dimensional model is obtained using the separation variable and eigenfunction expansion in terms of power series. The theoretical predictions were represented graphically with the mass-transfer Graetz number (volumetric flow rate), flow pattern, subchannel thickness ratio (permeable-barrier locations) and packing density as parameters and compared with those obtained by numerical approximation and experimental runs. The solute concentration profile, average outlet concentration and mass-transfer efficiency enhancement of the membrane extraction system are also discussed. The experiments in flat-plate module and hollow fiber module are performed to confirm the accuracy of the theoretical results, and the mathematical model derived in the present study was applied to soybean isoflavances to predict the separation efficiency. A RP-HPLC (reversedphase high-performance liquid chromatography) system coupled with an UV detector were utilized to quantify five isoflavances in the extracts. The effect on the amount of five isoflavances of the operation parameters in the cosolvent extraction systems under the hollow fiber modules is also delineated.
論文目次 目 錄
中文摘要 I
英文摘要 II
目錄 III
圖目錄 VII
表目錄 XI
符號說明 XII
第一章 緒論 1
1-1溶液之性質與液-液分佈系統 3
1-1-1溶液之ㄧ般性質 3
1-1-2物質之溶解 4
1-1-3有機溶劑的選擇 6
1-1-4液-液界面 7
1-2薄膜分離原理、構造、應用與優點 8
1-2-1薄膜分離程序中的驅動力與流通量 8
1-3研究動機 10
第二章 文獻回顧 12
2-1格拉茲問題 12
2-2薄膜萃取之研究 14
第三章 不具反應之二維質傳理論薄膜萃取器理論模型 18
3-1 平板式薄膜萃取器 18
3-1-2 順流操作 18
3-1-2 逆流操作 26
3-2 套管式薄膜萃取器 31
3-2-1 順流操作 31
3-2-2 逆流操作 37
3-3中空纖維式薄膜萃取器 43
3-3-1 順流操作 44
3-3-2 逆流操作 46
3-4質傳係數、萃取速率與萃取效率 48
第四章 具反應之二維質傳理論薄膜萃取器理論模型 50
4-1 平板式薄膜萃取器 50
4-1-1 逆流操作 50
4-1-2 逆流操作 57
4-2 套管式薄膜萃取器 62
4-2-1 順流操作 62
4-2-2 逆流操作 68
4-3中空纖維式薄膜萃取器 74
4-3-1 順流操作 75
4-3-2 逆流操作 77
4-4質傳係數、萃取速率與萃取效率 79
第五章 實驗 81
5-1 實驗裝置圖 81
5-2 實驗裝置與藥品 82
5-2-1 不具反應之系統 82
5-2-2 具反應之系統 85
5-3 實驗參數 89
5-3-1 平板型操作 89
5-3-2 中空纖維型操作 89
5-4實驗步驟 89
5-4-1 平板型操作 89
5-4-2 中空纖維型操作 90
5-5 應用 90
5-5-1 何謂類黃酮 90
5-5-2 大豆異黃酮 91
5-5-3 大豆異黃酮的藥理功效 93
5-5-4 傳統由大豆粉提煉異黃酮之方法 94
5-5-5 實驗部份 95
5-6實驗誤差分析 102
第六章 結果與討論 104
6-1 平板型薄膜萃取器 104
6-1-1 不具反應之系統 104
6-1-2具反應之系統 107
6-2 套管型薄膜萃取器 108
6-2-1 不具反應之系統 108
6-2-2 具反應之系統 109
6-3 中空纖維型薄膜萃取器 110
6-3-1 不具反應之系統 110
6-3-2 具反應之系統 111
6-3-3 應用 113
第七章 總結 161
7-1理論解析方法 161
7-2創見與貢獻 161
參考文獻 163
附錄(一) 係數求解 172
附錄(二) 正交性質 185
附錄(三) 積分公式 195
附錄(四) 個人資料 198

圖目錄
圖1-3.1 質傳理論架構圖 11
圖3-1-1.1 平板式順流型薄膜萃取器裝置圖 19
圖3-1-2.1 平板式逆流型薄膜萃取器裝置圖 27
圖3-2-1.1 套管式順流型薄膜萃取器裝置圖 31
圖3-2-2.1 套管式逆流型薄膜萃取器裝置圖 37
圖4-1-1.1 平板式順流型薄膜萃取器裝置圖 51
圖4-1-2.1 平板式逆流型薄膜萃取器裝置圖 58
圖4-2-1.1 套管式順流型薄膜萃取器裝置圖 62
圖4-2-1.1 套管式逆流型薄膜萃取器裝置圖 68
圖5-1.1 平板型薄膜萃取器裝置圖 81
圖5-1.2 中空纖維薄膜萃取器裝置圖 81
圖5-5-4.1 大豆異黃酮的化學結構 92
圖6-1-1.1 順流操作在接觸器內不同位置時的濃度分佈 121
圖6-1-1.2 逆流操作在接觸器內不同位置時的濃度分佈 122
圖6-1-1.3 平板型薄膜萃取器之萃取相無因次出口濃度與Gza之關係 123
圖6-1-1.4 平板型薄膜萃取器之萃取相無因次出口濃度與Gzb之關係 124
圖6-1-1.5 平板型薄膜萃取器之萃取速率與Gza之關係 125
圖6-1-1.6 平板型薄膜萃取器之萃取效率與Gzb之關係 126
圖6-1-1.7 平板型薄膜萃取器之平均謝塢數與Gzb之關係 127
圖6-1-1.8 平板型薄膜萃取器之平均謝塢數與Gza之關係 128
圖6-1-1.9 平板型薄膜萃取器之數學模型與實驗比較圖 129
圖6-1-1.10 平板型薄膜萃取器之解析解與數值解與實驗比較圖 130
圖6-1-2.1 順流操作在接觸器內不同位置時的濃度分佈 131
圖6-1-2.2 逆流操作在接觸器內不同位置時的濃度分佈 132
圖6-1-2.3 平板型薄膜萃取器之萃取相無因次出口濃度與Gza之關係 133
圖6-1-2.4 平板型薄膜萃取器之萃取速率與Gza之關係 134
圖6-1-2.5 平板型薄膜萃取器之數學模型與實驗比較圖 135
圖6-2-1.1 套管型順流操作在接觸器內不同位置時的濃度分佈 136
圖6-2-1.2 套管型逆流操作在接觸器內不同位置時的濃度分佈 137
圖6-2-1.3 套管型薄膜萃取器之萃取相無因次出口濃度與Gza之關係 138
圖6-2-1.4 套管型薄膜萃取器之萃取速率與Gza之關係 139
圖6-2-1.5 套管型薄膜萃取器之平均謝塢數與Gzb之關係 140
圖6-2-2.1 套管型順流操作在接觸器內不同位置時的濃度分佈 141
圖6-2-2.2 套管型逆流操作在接觸器內不同位置時的濃度分佈 142
圖6-2-2.3 套管型薄膜萃取器之萃取相無因次出口濃度與Gza之關係 143
圖6-2-2.4 套管型薄膜萃取器之萃取速率與Gza之關係 144
圖6-3-1.2 中空纖維型順流操作在接觸器內不同位置時的濃度分佈 145
圖6-3-1.2 中空纖維型逆流操作在接觸器內不同位置時的濃度分佈 146
圖6-3-1.3 中空纖維型之萃取相無因次出口濃度與Gza之關係 147
圖6-3-1.4 中空纖維型之萃取速率與Gza之關係 148
圖6-3-1.5 中空纖維型之平均謝塢數與Gzb之關係 149
圖6-3-2.1 中空纖維型順流操作在接觸器內不同位置時的濃度分佈 150
圖6-3-2.2 中空纖維型順流操作在接觸器內不同位置時的濃度分佈 151
圖6-3-2.3 中空纖維型之萃取相無因次出口濃度與Gza之關係 152
圖6-3-2.4 中空纖維型之萃取速率與Gza之關係 153
圖6-3-2.5 中空纖維型之數學模型與實驗比較圖 154

圖6-3-3.1
中空纖維型逆流操作對大豆異黃酮成分Daidzin在接觸器內不同位置時的濃度分佈



155
圖6-3-3.2 中空纖維型逆流操作對大豆異黃酮成分Daidzein在接觸器內不同位置時的濃度分佈 156
圖6-3-3.3 中空纖維型對大豆異黃酮成分Daidzin之萃取相無因次出口濃度與Gza之關係 157
圖6-3-3.4 中空纖維型對大豆異黃酮成分Daidzein之萃取相無因次出口濃度與Gza之關係 158
圖6-3-3.5 中空纖維型對大豆異黃酮成分Daidzin之數學模型與實驗比較 159
圖6-3-3.6 中空纖維型對大豆異黃酮成分Daidzein之數學模型與實驗比較圖 160

表目錄
表1-2-1.1 常見的現象方程式 9
表2-2.1 液膜應用在液液萃取之發展歷程 16
表5-4-5.1 大豆異黃酮之HPLC分析條件 100
表5-4-5.2 固-液萃取之五種大豆異黃酮的含量 101
表5-4-5.3 共溶劑對五種大豆異黃酮的分配係數 102
表6-1-1.1 不具反應之平板型薄膜萃取器特徵質數目對萃餘相無因次平均出口濃度之比較值 115
表6-1-2.1 具反應之平板型薄膜萃取器特徵質數目對萃餘相無因次平均出口濃度之比較值 116
表6-2-1.1 不具反應之套管型薄膜萃取器特徵質數目對萃餘相無因次平均出口濃度之比較值 117
表6-2-2.1 具反應之套管型薄膜萃取器特徵質數目對萃餘相無因次平均出口濃度之比較值 118
表6-3-1.1 不具反應之中空纖維型薄膜萃取器特徵質數目對萃餘相無因次平均出口濃度之比較值 119
表6-3-2.1 具反應之中空纖維型薄膜萃取器特徵質數目對萃餘相無因次平均出口濃度之比較值 120
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