淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-2312201408555100
中文論文名稱 差異化學習型組織在供應鏈間知識共享促成及加速模式之建構
英文論文名稱 Modelling the Facilitation and Acceleration of Knowledge Sharing for Differentiated Learning Organization in Supply Chain
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 管理科學學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Doctoral Program, Department of Management Sciences
學年度 103
學期 1
出版年 104
研究生中文姓名 陳明照
研究生英文姓名 Ming-Chao Chen
學號 896620282
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2014-12-08
論文頁數 130頁
口試委員 指導教授-王居卿
委員-李文瑞
委員-楊立人
委員-余坤東
委員-羅惠瓊
中文關鍵字 知識創新  學習型組織  社會交換理論  激勵理論  數位人文  知識共享 
英文關鍵字 Knowledge creation  Learning organization  Social exchange theory  Motivating theories  Digital humanities  Knowledge sharing 
學科別分類
中文摘要 由於全球化趨勢,市場競爭日益劇烈,組織要能存活就必須具備足夠知識,為顧客創造價值。為有效汲取及累積知識,組織內與組織間知識須能共享才可,然而知識共享並非易事,因為知識通常代表權力,沒人會無緣無故將權利與別人分享,因此組織知識共享可說是違反人性的。然而當「知識要自私vs.知識應共享」論戰之際,發現學習型組織在蓬勃網絡資訊交流的知識共享,是提升差異化組織素質最明顯促進知識因共享而偉大的基石。

本研究之目的,是探討如何建立存有差異化之學習型組織,在建構組織及供應鏈間之知識共享促成及加速模式。透過對知識創新、社會交換、社會網路及激勵等理論的推論,發掘能夠促成組織知識共享之因子,並藉由組織使用Web 2.0 的實例中,推論出其中能夠加速組織知識共享過程之因子,兩因子合併後即成為差異化學習型組織之知識共享促成及加速模式。根據組織實務經驗,使用Web 2.0可以讓組織很容易收集到大眾情報與資訊,因此據此激發創新知識與智能,是能夠非常創新且精準契合顧客需求。

如前所述,要培養組織及其供應鏈間之知識共享能力是一項複雜且費力耗時之工作,因其牽涉到人類行為及社交互動,使用Web 2.0,除可收集組織內外知識外,它還可使知識共享更容易且更快速達成。本論文亦推論出,以資訊數位科技將文化成份加入,將可使學習型組織創造差異化,因此綜合上述,本研究建構出差異化學習型組織之知識共享促成及加速模式。然後加上供應鏈間之綜效探討
,推論透過虛擬團隊,供應鏈間之知識共享促成及加速模式亦可建構出來,於此模式下,供應鏈之每個成員皆可成為具有差異化之學習型組織。本研究為跨科技或是跨領域整合之架構概念性模式之基礎研究,所建構模式之效度可於未來進行實證研究驗證之。
英文摘要 Due to trend of globalization, market competitions have become tougher than ever. To survive, an organization must have enough knowledge to create values for customers. To effectively gain and accumulate knowledge, the knowledge has to be shared in the organization, i.e. become a learning organization. But knowledge sharing is not easy to carry out in an organization since it is against human nature; Knowledge is power and nobody is willing to share his power with others. However, When the "Knowledge to be selfish vs. Knowledge should be shared" debate on the occasion, find learning organization in the booming knowledge-sharing network of information exchange, is to enhance the organizational quality of the most obvious result by knowledge sharing cornerstone.

The purpose of this study is to construct a knowledge-share facilitating and acceleration model in a differentiated learning organization and its supply chain through literature reviews. This paper identifies the factors that are able to facilitate knowledge sharing from knowledge creation, social exchange, social network and motivation perspectives. Web 2.0 initiatives as accelerating factors are then combined to construct a facilitating and accelerating model of knowledge sharing in organization. Through reviewing related literatures in social exchange theory, social network theory and motivation theory, facilitators are identified. Through reviewing real examples of enterprises, Web 2.0 applications are illustrated, and identified as accelerators. Through the use of Web 2.0, enterprise can collect public intelligence easier so that the knowledge created is more innovative and accurate to fit customer’s real need and want.

Fostering knowledge sharing in organization and supply chain is a complicated and time-consuming work as it deals with human behaviors with social interactions. By utilizing Web 2.0, it can help implementing the key facilitators easier and faster, in addition to collecting internal and external intelligence. Adding digitized culture components by using IT digital technology is identified as the source of differentiation for a learning organization. By integrating the above inferences, A Knowledge sharing facilitation and acceleration model in differentiated learning organization is constructed. Synergy between members of supply chain is discussed. Through virtual teams, facilitating and accelerating models can also be implemented and carried out through the whole supply chain. Finally, all the members of the whole supply chain become differentiated learning organizations. This study is a cross-technology or interdisciplinary integration conceptual research that builds up a basic conceptual model. Empirical studies can be done in the future to test the validity of the model through empirical studies.
論文目次 目 錄

目錄…………………………………………………………………I
圖次…………………………………………………………………III
表次…………………………………………………………………IV

第一章 緒論…………………………………………………………1
第一節 研究背景與動機………………………………………2
第二節 研究問題與研究方法…………………………………4
第三節 研究目的、觀念性架構與論文結構…………………6

第二章 學習型組織與知識創新……………………………………15
第一節 知識創新萌芽…………………………………………16
第二節 組織學習………………………………………………20
第三節 學習型組織……………………………………………23

第三章 促進組織知識共享之相關理論……………………………27
第一節 社會交換理論…………………………………………28
第二節 社會網絡理論…………………………………………34

第四章 激勵理論在學習型組織之應用……………………………39
第一節 激勵理論之演進………………………………………40
第二節 激勵理論對差異化學習型組織之影響………………41
第三節 激勵理論五階段論證及動態激勵管理………………44
第四節 差異化學習型組織之正向激勵理論…………………48

第五章 Web 2.0的倡議:集結內部和外部知識…………………51
第一節 成功善用Web 2.0集結知識智能之組織……………52
第二節 應用Web 2.0收集公共創新之經驗…………………55
第三節 差異化學習型組織中Web 2.0之應用功能…………57
第四節 Web 2.0加速差異化學習型組織之知識共享………59

第六章 數位人文:一種區分差異化學習型組織之手段…………63
第一節 數位人文是學習型組織差異化之根源………………64
第二節 數位人文新視野………………………………………70

第七章 促成及加速知識共享模型之建構…………………………75
第一節 建立組織知識管理系統………………………………76
第二節 建立差異化學習型組織之知識共享平台……………78
第三節 建構促成及加速知識共享模型………………………84
第四節 整合供應鏈與虛擬團隊社群協作之知識共享模型…87

第八章 結論與建議…………………………………………………91
第一節 結論……………………………………………………92
第二節 建議……………………………………………………99

參考文獻……………………………………………………………105

圖 次

圖1-1 本研究之觀念性架構…………………………………………11
圖1-2 研究流程及相關章節安排……………………………………13
圖2-1 SECI的過程矩陣………………………………………………18
圖2-2 組織知識創新的步驟…………………………………………20
圖2-3 組織學習與學習型組織到差異化學習型組織之關聯性……25
圖3-1 組織知識共享行為之盈虧損益關係矩陣……………………32
圖3-2 社會交換知識共享之學習型組織系絡………………………34
圖3-3 社會網絡理論之知識共享……………………………………38
圖4-1 社交網絡透過激勵至學習型組織知識共享之過程…………50
圖5-1 Web2.0加速學習型組織知識共享之善性循環………………61
圖5-2 透過Web2.0動態增強學習型組織之過程……………………62
圖6-1 數位人文之學習型組織………………………………………74
圖7-1 促成及加速知識共享模型……………………………………86
圖7-2 整合供應鏈與虛擬團隊社群間促成及加速之知識共享模型90











表 次

表1-1 問題解決策略與研究目的之連鎖………………………………7
表5-1 Web2.0優勢功能提升學習型組織達知識共享之目標………60
表7-1 建構促成及加速知識共享模型相關因子之理論基礎………87
表8-1 善用網絡Web2.0 IT加速組織知識共享之實現示例…………98
參考文獻 參 考 文 獻

Aaker, D. A. (1997). Strategic market management. New York : Willey.

Agarwal, P. D., Kiran, R., and Verma, A. K. (2012). Knowledge sharing for stimulating learning environment in institutions of higher technical education. African Journal of Business Management, 6(16), 533-542.

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and
Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179-211.

Ajzen, I. and Fishbein, M. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. California: Addison-Wesley.

Alavi, M. and Leidner, D. E. (2001). Review: Knowledge management and knowledge management issues: Conceptual foundations and research issues. MIS Quarterly, 25 (1), 117-136.

Al-Busaidi and Kamla, A. (2013). A framework of critical factors to knowledge workers' adoption of inter-organizational knowledge sharing systems. IBIMA Publishing LLC., United States: Norristown. Journal of Organizational Knowledge Management, (2013), 1-11.

Alexander, A., Vaughn, P., and Tim, W. (2003). Motivation and barriers to participation in virtual knowledge-sharing communities of practice. Journal of Knowledge Management, 7(1), 64-77.

Ali, H. A. and Birley, S. (1998). The role of trust in the marketing activities of entrepreneurs establishing new ventures. Journal of Marketing Management, 14(7), 749-763.

Allee, V. (2000). Knowledge networks and communities of practice. OD Practitioner, 32(4), 4-9.

Andersen, T. B. and Dalgaard, C. J. (2011). Flows of people, flows of ideas, and the
inequality of nations. Journal of Economic Growth, 16(1), 1-32.

Ansoff, H. I. and McDonnell, E. J. (1990). Implanting strategic management. New York: Prentice-hall, 403-429.

Argyirs, C. (1991). Teaching smart people how to learn. Harvard Business Review, 69(5), 99-109.

Argyris, C. and Schon, D. (1978). Organizational learning: A theory of action perspective. Addison-Wesley, MA.

Argyris, C. (1993). On organizational learning. Blackwell Publishers, Cambridge, MA.

Arora, P., Owens, D., and Khazanchi, D. (2010). A pattern-based tool for knowledge management in virtual projects. India: Hyderabad, Business and Economics Management, Journal of Knowledge Management, 8, 60-80.

Aslam, M., Haris, S., Khuram, S., Aly, R., and Ramish, A. (2014). Social capital and knowledge sharing as determinants of academic performance institute of behavioral and applied management. United States : Glendale, Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management, 15, 25-41.

Atalay, E., Hortacsu, A., and Syverson, C. (2012). Why do firms own production chains? Department of Economics, University of Chicago and University of Chicago Booth School of Business, Chicago, IL.

Axelrod, R. and Hamilton, W. D. (1981). The evolution of cooperation. Science, 211, 1390-1396.

Babalhavaeji, F. and Kermani, Z. J. (2011). Knowledge sharing behavior influences: A case of library and information science faculties in Iran. Malaysian Journal of Library and Information Science, 16(1), 1-14.

Barney, J. B.(1986). Organizational culture: Can It be a source of the cooperate
competitive advantage? Academy of Management Review, 11(3), 263-272.

Baron, R. M., and Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in
social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182.

Bass, B. M.(1990). Theory, research managerial applications. Bass and Stogdill’s Handbook of leadership, 3rded., New York: The Free Press.

Bateson, P. (1988). The biological evolution of cooperation and trust. In Gambetta. (Ed) Trust: Making a breaking cooperative relations. 14(30), New York: Basil-Blackwell.

Beazley, J. A.(2000). Understanding the basis for gender differences in course.
Web site usage at a university, 257.

Bensaou, M. and Venkatraman, N. (1995). Configurations of inter-organizational
relationships: A comparison between U.S. and Japanese automakers.
Management Science, 41(9), 1471-1492.

Bill Gates III,W.(2000).The speed of thought : Using a digital nervous system. Publisher: Grand Central Publishing, ISBN-13: 9780765566997.

Black, S. (2013). Fictions of humanitarian responsibility: Narrating microfinance. Australian National University, Journal of human rights, 12, 103-120.

Blackwell, R. D., Miniard, P. W., and Engel, J. F. (2006). Consumer behavior. Canada: Thomson, South-Western.

Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Blome, C., Schoenherr, T., and Eckstein, D. (2014). The impact of knowledge transfer
and complexity on supply chain flexibility: A knowledge-based view. Elsevier Sequoia S.A., Amsterdam: Switzerland, International Journal of Production Economics, 147, 307-325.

Boden, A., Avram, G., Bannon, L., and Wulf, V. (2012). Knowledge sharing practices and the impact of cultural factors: Reflections on two case studies of offshoring in SME. Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, 24(2), 139-152.

Brown, J. S. and Duguid, P. (1991). Organizational learning and communities of practice: Toward a unified view of working, learning, and innovation. Organization Science, 2(1), 40-57.

Brown, M. (1994). Introduction to innovation - Managing ideas into action.
Henley Management Centre/ Price Waterhouse.

Burt, R. S. (2004). Structural holes and good ideas. American Journal of Sociology,
110 (2), 349-399.

Cachon, G. P. and Netessine, S. (2004). Game theory in supply chain analysis. In
Simchi- Levi, D., Wu, S. D., and Shen, Z-J. (Eds), Handbook in quantitative supply chain analysis; Modeling in the e-business era. 13(59). Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers, MA.

Cao, M., Vonderembse, M. A., Zhang, Q., and Ragu-Nathan, T. S. (2010). Supply
chain collaboration: Conceptualization and instrument development. Taylor and Francis Group, London : United Kingdom, International Journal of Production Research, 48(22), 613-619.

Carnevale, D. G. (1995). Trustworthy government: leadership and management strategies for building trust and high performance. San Francisco: Jossey -Bass Publishers.

Charles, K. (2000). A short introduction to social network: A non-technical elementary primer. http://construct.haifa.ac.il/~cerpe/papers/kadushin.html, Crepe Workshop, 21-26.

Chen, C. W., Chang, M. L., and Tseng, C. P. (2012). Human factors of knowledge‐sharing intention among Taiwanese enterprises: A model of hypotheses. Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing and Service Industries.

Chen, Y. L. and Chen, N. S. (2009). Examining the factors influencing participants'
knowledge sharing behavior in virtual learning communities. Educational Technology and Society, 12(1), 134-148.

Chen, W. J. and Cheng, H. Y. (2012). Factors affecting the knowledge sharing attitude of hotel service Personnel. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(2), 468-476.

Cheng, J. et al.(2008). Trust and knowledge sharing in green supply chains. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 13(4), 283-295.
Cheng, J. H. and Fu, Y. C. (2013). Inter-organizational relationships and knowledge
sharing through the relationship and institutional orientations in supply chains. Elsevier Science Ltd., Killington: United Kingdom. International Journal of Information Management, 33, 473-489.

Cheung, C.K., Lee, M, K., and Lee, Z. W. (2013). Understanding the continuance
intention of knowledge sharing in online communities of practice through the post-knowledge-sharing evaluation processes. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 64(7).

Child, J. (2001). Trust- The fundamental bond in global collaboration. Organization Dynamics, 29(4), 274-288.

Chin, W. W. (1998). The partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling in modern methods for business research. G. A. Macrolides (Eds), Lawrence Eribaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ, 295-336.

Choo, C. W. (1998). The knowing organization: How organizations use information to construct meaning, create knowledge, and make decisions. New York: Oxford University Press.

Chow, W. S. and Chan, L. S. (2008). Social network, social trust and shared goals in organizational knowledge sharing. Information and Management, 45(7), 458-465.

Chun, H. L., Chin, W. C., and Hung, C. H. (2007) . A macro-hybrid supply chain model for multi-interval planning. Journal of Science and Engineering Technology, 3(4), 87-98.

Chung, H. L., Rosea, E., and Huang, P. (2012). Linking international adaptation strategy, immigrant effect, and performance: The case of home-host and cross-market scenario. International Business Review, 21(1), 40-58.

Clark, H. H.(1969). Linguistic processes in deductive reasoning. Psychological Review, 76, 387-404.

Clark, K. B. and Fujimoto, T. (1991). Product development performance: Strategy, organization and management in the world auto industries. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Claro, D.P., De Oliveira, P. B., and Hagelaar, G. (2006). Coordinating collaborative joint efforts with suppliers: The effects of trust, transaction specific investments and information network in the dutch flower industry. Supply Chain Management, 11(3), 216-24.

Cohen, W. M. and Levinthal, D. A. (1990). Absorptive capacity: A new perspective on leaning and innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(1), 128-152.

Cohen, W. M. and Levinthal, D. A. (1989). Innovation and learning: The two faces of RandD. Economic Journal, 99(397), 569-596.

Coleman, J. S. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94, 95-120.

Collins , J. and Porras, J. I. (1994). Built to last. Publisher: Harper Paperbacks. 3ed, (2002rp)

Compte, A. (1998). Course de philosophies positive. Paris: Hermann(Eds), 1830-1842.

Contreras, H. H.(2011). Trucking on down to savings. IE Industrial Engineer, 43(6), 37-41.

Daft, R.L. (1978). A dual-core model of organizational innovation. Academy of Management Journal, 21(2), 193-210.

Davenport, T. H. and Prusak, L. (1998). Working knowledge: How organizations manage what they know? Boston: Harvard Business Press, 199.

Davenport, T. H.(1997). Ten principles of knowledge management and four case studies. Knowledge and Process Management, 4(3), 187,208.

Davenport, T. H., De Long, D.W., and Beers, M.C. (1998). Successful knowledge management projects. Sloan Management Review, 39(2), 43-57.

De Beer, M. and Mason, R. B. (2009). Using a blended approach to facilitate postgraduate supervision. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 46(2), 213-226.

Degenne, A. and Forse, M. (1999). Introducing social networks, London: Sage Publications.

Dension, D. R.(1990). Corporate culture and organizational effectiveness. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Dessler, G. (1980). Organization theory: Integrating structure and behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

DiNucci, D. (1999). Fragmented future. Design and New Media, 53(4), 32-47.

Dixon, N. M. (2000). Common knowledge: How companies thrive by sharing what they know. Harvard Business School Press, Boston, Mass.

Doney, P. M. and Cannon, J. P. (1997). An examination of the nature of trust in
buyer-seller relationships. Journal of Marketing, 61, 35-51.

Drucker, P. F. (1985). Innovation and entrepreneurship: Practice and principles. London: Heinemann.

Drucker, P. F. (1999). Managing oneself. Harvard Business Review.

Duncan, R. and Weiss, A. (1979). Organizational learning: Implications for organizational Design. Research in Organizational Behavior, 1, 75-123.

Edmondson, A. C., Winslow, A. B., Bohmer, R.M.J., and Pisano, G. P. (2003). Learning how and learning what: Effects of tacit and codified knowledge on performance improvement following technology adoption. Decision Sciences, 34(2), 197-223.

Elenurm, T. (2012). Open space as a knowledge metaphor and a knowledge sharing intervention. Basingstoke: United Kingdom. Knowledge Management Research and Practice, 10, 55-63.

Erickson, B.H. (1988). The relational basis of attitudes. in Wellman, B., Berkowitz, S. D. (Eds), Social structures: A network approach. Cambridge University Press, 99-121.

Fehr, E. and Gachter, S. (2002). Altruistic punishment in humans. Nature-4(15), 137-140.

Feng, K. E. and Chen, W. L.(2004). Implementation of knowledge management systems and firm performance: An empirical investigation. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 45(2), 92-104.

Fischer, C.S. (1977). Network and places. New York: Free Press.

Ford, D. and Hakansson, H. (2006). The idea of business Interaction. The IMP Journal, 1(1), 4-27.

Freeman, L. C. (1979). Centrality in social network: Conceptual clarification. Social Networks, 1, 215-239.

Fukuyama, F. (1997). Social capital and the modern capitalist economy: Creating a high trust workplace. Stern Business Magazine, 4(1).

Ganjinia, H. S., Mohammad, S. B., and Ghasabsaraei, M. Y. (2014). Knowledge
management role in motivating employees through supervisory control and perceived organizational support and its impact on knowledge sharing in red crescent society of guilan provice. Sohar University, Oman and American University of Kuwait, Kuwait City, India, Business And Economics Management, Kuwait Chapter of the Arabian, Journal of Business and Management Review, 3, 325-333.

Gartner, G. (2001). Video conferencing can help enterprises cut travel. Gartner Group Research Note, 9.

Garvin, D.A. (1993). Building a learning organization. Harvard Business Review, 71 (4), 78-91.

Gavirneni, S. (2002). Information flows in capacitated supply chains with fixed
ordering costs. Management Science, 48(5), 644-651.

Gereffi, G. (1999). International trade and industrial upgrading in the apparel commodity chain. Journal of International Economics, 48(1), 37-70.

Gintis, H. (2003). The hitchhiker’s guide to altruism: Gene-culture coevolution, and the internalization of norms. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 220, 407-418.

Gladstone, B. (2000). From know-how to knowledge: The essential guide to understanding and implementing knowledge management. London: Industrial Society.

Goffin, K. and New, C. (2001). Customer support and new product development - An exploratory study. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 21(3), 275-301.

Golembiewski, R. T. and McConkie, M. (1975). The centrality of interpersonal trust in-group processes. In C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Theories of group processes, New York: Wiley.

Goodbody, J. (2005). Critical success factors for global virtual teams. Strategic Communication Management, 9 (2), 18-21.

Gorkemli, S. (2005). The globalization of digital technologies and identities. The Turkish collegiate population's access to the Internet and the formation of identities and communities in Turkey, 174-177.

Gouldner, A. W. (1960). The norm of reciprocity: A preliminary statement. American Sociological Review, 25, 161-179.

Gowin, N. (1984). Gowin’s knowledge "Vee": Using to improve preservice teachers ability for conducting and directing science investigations. University of incinnati, Robert Shields, University of Akron.

Grannovetter, M. (1973). The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78(May), 1360-1380.

Greenberg, J. (2004). Managing behavior in organization. Prentice Hall.

Greenberg, J. and Liebman, M. (1990).Incentives: The missing in strategic performance. The Journal of Business Strategy, 11(4), 8-11.

Grenier, R. and Metes, G. (1995). Going virtual: Moving your organization into the 21st century. prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, N.J.

Gressgard, L. J. (2011). Virtual team collaboration and innovation in organizations. Emerald Group Publishing, Limited, Bradford, United Kingdom, Team Performance Management, 17, 102-119.

Grey, R. J. and Peter, G. (1990). Corporate culture and Canada’s international competitiveness. Canadian Business Review, 17(4), 21-25.

Griffin, A. and Hauser, J. R. (1992). Patterns of communication among marketing,
Engineering and manufacturing- A comparison between two new product teams. Management Science, 38(3), 360-373.

Griffin, A. and Hauser, J. R. (1993). The voice of the customer. Marketing Science, 12(1), 1-27.

Hamel, G. (2000). Leading the revolution. Harvard Business School Press, ISBN1578511895, 9781578511891.

Hammer, M. and Champy, J. (1999). Reengineering the corporation. Harvard Business Press, U.S.A./Canada ISBN 0-06-662112-7

Hansen, L. P. (1982). Large sample properties of generalized methods of moments estimators. Econometrics, 50, 1029-1054.

Hansen, M. T. (1999). The search-transfer problem: The role of weak ties in sharing knowledge across organization subunits. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(1), 82-111.

Hassandoust, F., Logeswaran, R., and Kazerouni, M. F. (2011). Behavioral factors influencing virtual knowledge sharing: Theory of reasoned action. Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, 3(2), 116-134.

Hatch, M. J. and Schultz, M.S. (2000). Scaling the tower of babel: Relational differences between identity, image and culture in organizations. in Schultz, M., Hatch, M. and Holten Larsen, M (Eds.), The expressive organization: Linking identity, reputation and the corporate brand. Oxford University Press.

Hauert, C., De Monte, S., Hofbauer, J., and Sigmund, K. (2002). Volunteering as red queen mechanism for cooperation in public goods game. Science, 296, 1129-1132.

Haythornthwaite, C. (1999). A Social network theory of tie strength and media use: A framework for evaluating multi-level impacts of new media. Available at: http:/alexia.lis.uiuc.edu/~ haythorn /sna_theory.html, October 10.

Henderson, J. C.(1990). Plugging into strategic partnerships: The critical is connection. Sloan Management Review, 30(3), 7-18.

Hendriks, P. (1999). Why share knowledge? The influence of ICT on motivation for knowledge sharing. Knowledge and Process Management, 6(2), 91-100.

Hertenstein, J. H., Platt, M.B., and Veryzer, R.W. (2004). The impact of industrial design effectiveness on corporate financial performance. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 22(1), 3-21.

Hertzberg, F. (1966). Work and the nature of man. The World Publishing Co., Cleveland, Ohio.

Hinchman, K. A., Sheridan , T., and Heather, K.(2008). Best practices in adolescent literacy instruction. Solving Problems in the Teaching of Literacy, 360-365.

Homans, G. C. (1961). Social behavior: Its elementary forms. Harcourt, Brace and World, 404.

Homans, G. C. (1958). Social behavior as exchange. American Journal of Sociology, 597-606.

Horvath, L. (2001). Collaboration: The key to value creation in supply chain management. Supply Chain Management, 6(5), 205-7.

Huang, M. C., Chiu, C. Y., and Hung, C. C.(2006). The impact of supply chain management capabilities of central firms on supply chain integration. Soochow Journal of Economics and Business, 53, 1-32.

Hult, G. T., Ketchen, D. J., and Slater, S. F. (2004). Information processing, knowledge development, and strategic supply chain performance. Academy of Management Journal, 47(2), 241-253.

Hunt, J. and Gauthier, L. M. (2010). How much does immigration boost innovation? American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, 2(2), 31-56.

Hwang, S. M. and Weil, D. (2005). Ratcheting up: Linked technology adoption in supply chain. Industrial Relations, 44(3), 490-508.

Ismail, M. B. and Yusof, Z. M. (2010). The impact of individual factors on knowledge sharing quality. Journal of Organizational Knowledge Management, 13.

Ismail, S. (1993). Ecological dissonance in participation systems as a predictor of job satisfaction, job involvement, job alienation and job formalization. (Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University, 1992), Dissertation Abstracts International, 31(4).

Jaffe, K. (2002). An economic analysis of altruism: Who benefits from altruistic acts? Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulations, 5(3), http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/5/3/3.html

Jaffe, K. (2004). Altruism, altruistic punishment and social investment. Acta Biotheoretica, 52, 155-172.

Jarrahi, M. H. and Sawyer, S.(2013). Social technologies, informal knowledge practices, and the enterprise. Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce, 23(1-2), 110.

Jarvenpaa, S. L. and Leidner, D. E. (1999). Communication and trust in global virtual teams. Organization Science, 10, 791-817.

Johnson, D. P., Stopka, P., and Knights, S. (2003). The puzzle of human cooperation. Nature, 42(1), 911–912.

Johnston, W. J., Peters, L. D., and Gassenheimer, J. B. (2006). Questions about network dynamics: Characteristics, structures, and interactions. Journal of Business Research, 59, 945-954.

Jones, G. R. and George, J. M. (1998). The experience and evolution of trust: Implications for cooperation and teamwork. Academy of Management Review, 23, 531-546.

Kanter, R. M.(2009). Mergers that stick. Harvard Business Review, 84, 10.

Katz, K. and Kahn, R. L. (1978). The social psychology of organization. New York: Wiley.

Kayworth, T. and Leidner, D. (2000). The global virtual manager: A perspective for success. European Management Journal, 18(2), 183-194.

Keller, W. and Yeaple, S. R. (2012). The gravity of knowledge. American Economic Review.

Khanna, T. and Rivkin, J. W. (2006). Interorganizational ties and business group boundaries: Evidence from an emerging economy. Organization Science, 17(3), 333-352.

Khosravi, A. and Ahmad, M. N. (2013). Knowledge sharing impact factors selection for research supervision. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 3(6), 148-161.

Kim, B. and Oh, H. (2005). The impact of decision-making sharing between supplier and manufacturer on their collaboration performance. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 10(3), 223-236.

Klein, R., Rai, A., and Straub, D. W. (2007). Competitive and cooperative positioning in
supply chain logistics relationships. Decision Sciences, 38(4), 611- 643.

Klitmoller, A. and Lauring, J. (2013). When global virtual teams share knowledge: Media richness, cultural difference and language commonality. Elsevier Science Ltd., Greenwich: United Kingdom, Journal of World Business, 48, 398-403.

Kono, T. (1990). Corporate culture and long-range planning. Long Range Planning, 23(4), 9-19.

Kotler, P. and Keller, K. (2006). Marketing management. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Krackhardt, D. (1996). Organizational viscosity and the diffusion of controversial innovations. Journal of Mathematical Sociology, 22(2), 177-199.

Ladurie, E. R. (1968). The proceedings of the annual meeting of the western society.
French History, 21, 285-292.

Lamont, J. (2010). KM past and future: Closing the knowledge loop. Information Today, Inc., United States : Camden, KM World, 19, 8-19.

Lars, P. H. and Thomas, J. S.(2012). Three types of ambiguity. University of Chicago and NBER, New York University and the Hoover Institution. and Three Types of Ambiguity. Journal of Monetary Economics, 322-340.

Lee C. W., Kwon, W. G., and Severance, D. (2007). Relationship between supply chain performance and degree of linkage among supplier, internal integration, and customer. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 12(6), 444-452.

Lee, T. (2012). Getting to know you: Using documentary video-making to challenge ageist stereotypes. Gerontology and Geriatrics Education, 33, 272-286.

Lesser, E. L. and Stock, J. (2001). Communities of practice and organizational performance. IBM Systems Journal, 40 (4), 831-841.

Levina, N. and Ross, J. W. (2003). From the vendor's perspective: Exploring the value proposition in information technology outsourcing. MIS Quarterly, 27(3), 331-364.

Levitt, B. and March, J. G. (1988). Organizational learning. Annual Review of Sociology, 14, 319-340.

Lewicki, R. J., McAllister, D.J., and Bies, R. J. (1998). Trust and distrust: New
relationships and realities. Academy of Management Review, 3(3), 439.

Lewis, J. D. and Weigert, A. (1985). Trust as social reality. Social Forces, 63(4), 967-985.

Lewin, K. (1958). The conceptual representation and the measurement of psychological forces. Contributions to psychological theory, 1(4), Duke University Press.

Li, S., Ragu-Nathan, B., Ragu-Nathan, T. S., and Rao, S. S.(2006). The impact of supply
chain management practices on competitive advantage and organizational
performance. Omega, 34(2), 107-124.

Licker, J. K. and Choi, T. Y. (2007). Building deep supplier relationships. Harvard
Business Review, 82(12), 104-103.

Lin, F., Huang, S., and Lin, S. (2002). Effects of information sharing on supply chain performance in electronic commerce. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 49(3), 258-268.

Lin, L.C. (2008a). IBM push innovation and cooperation in enterprise by utilizing Web
2.0. Intelligent Times, Dec. 51-53. Available at: http://www.itmag.org.tw/mag/mag_list.htm

Lin, L.C. (2008b). Dell’s enterprise learning, Web 2.0. Intelligent Times, Dec. 54-56. Available at: http://www.itmag.org.tw/mag/mag_list.htm

Lin, T. C., Wu, S., and Lu, C. T. (2012). Exploring the affect factors of knowledge
sharing behavior: The relations model theory perspective. Expert Systems with Applications, 39(1), 751-764.

Lipnack, J. and Stamps, J. (1997). Virtual teams: Working across space, time, and
Organization. New York: John Wiley.

Liu, C.H. and Liu, H.S. (2009). Increasing competitiveness of a firm and supply chain
with Web 2.0 Initiatives. International Journal of Electronic Business Management, 7(4), 248-256.

Liu, Y. C. and Li, F. C. (2012). Exploration of social capital and knowledge sharing: An empirical study on student virtual teams. United States : Hershey. International Journal of Distance Education Technologies, 10(2), 17-22.

Lockamy III, A. and McCormack, A. K. (2004). Linking SCOR planning practices to
supply chain performance: An exploratory study. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 24(12), 192-218.

Locke, E. A. (1996). Motivation through goal setting. University of Maryland Working Paper series.

Lu, H. T. (2001). Era of knowledge economy model of leadership style. National policy fornication, 90(29).

Luo, L. X.(2004). Social study on the cultural consumption of the families of teachers in high colleges. DAI-C 71/21, Dissertation Abstracts International.

Martin, J. and Beckmann, M.(2013). Knowledge creation and knowledge diffusion in space and regional innovation performance: Introductory remarks. Annals of Regional Science, 51(1), 113-118.

Maslow, A. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper and Row.

Matzler, K. and Mueller, J. (2011). Antecedents of knowledge sharing–Examining the influence of learning and performance orientation. Journal of Economic Psychology, 32(3), 317-329.

Mayer, R. C., Davis, J.H., and Schoorman, F. D. (1995). An Integrative Model of organization trust. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 709-734.

Maylor, H. (1997). Concurrent new product development: An empirical assessment. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 17(12), 1196-1214.

McAfee, A. (2006). Enterprise 2.0: The dawn of emergent collaboration. MIT Sloan Management review, 47(3), 21–28.

McCelland, D. C. (1961). The achieving society. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.

McEvily, B., Perrone, V., and Zaheer, A.(2003). Trust as an organizing principle. Organization science, 14(1), 91-103.

McGee, J. V. and Prusak, L. (1993). Managing information strategically. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

McGregor, D. (1960). The human side of enterprise. New York: McGraw Hill, 106.

McKnight, D. H., Cummings, L. L., and Chervany, N. L. (1998). Initial trust formation in new organizational relationships. Academy of Management Review, 23 (3), 473-490.

McNeish, J. and Mann, J. S. (2010). Knowledge sharing and trust in organizations. The IUP Journal of Knowledge Management, 8(1and2), 18-38.

Meyer, J. P. and Allen, N. J.(1984). Testing in the side-bet theory of organizational committee: Some methodological considerations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, 372-378.

Miner, A. S. and Mezias, S. J. (1996). Ugly duckling no more: Pasts and futures of organizational learning research. Organization Science, 7(1), 88-99.

Mitchell, J. C. (1969). Social networks and urban situations. Manchester University Press.

Mohr, J. and Spekman, K.(1994). Characteristics of partnership success: Partnership attributes, communication behavior and conflict resolution techniques. Strategic Management Journal, 15(2), 135-152.

Moingeon, B. and Edmondson, A. (1998). From organizational learning to the learning organization. Management Learning, 29(1), 5-20.

Moller, K. and Rajala, A. (2007). Rise of strategic nets: New modes of value creation. Industrial Marketing Management, 36, 895-908.

Morgan, R.M. and Hunt, S. D.(1994). The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. The Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 20-38.

Morgenstern, J.(2003). Big glitch in the matrix: Revolutions ends trilogy on a joyless, Feeble note; First film asked what's real? Now we wonder who cares. Love actually is fun but glib. Wall Street Journal, Eastern edition.

Morris, J. H. and Sherman, J. D. (1981). Generalizability of an organizational commitment model. Academy of Management Journal, 24, 512-526.

Mowshowitz, A. (1997). Virtual organization. Communications of the ACM, 40(9), 30-37.

Murphy, G. B. and Blessinger, A. A. (2003). Perceptions of no-name recognition business to consumer e-commerce trustworthiness: The effectiveness of potential influence tactics. Journal of High Technology Management Research, 14(1), 71-92.

Nagati, H. and Rebolledo, C.(2014). Improving operational performance through knowledge exchange with customers. Taylor and Francis Group London: United Kingdom, Production Planning and Control, 24, 658-672.

Nahapiet, J. and Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organizational advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23(2), 242-266.

Nambisan, S. (2002). Designing virtual customer environments for new product development: Toward a theory. Academy of Management Review, 27(3), 392-413.

National Palace Museum (2009). web site available at: http://www.npm.gov.tw/zh-tw/dministration/services/news_02.htm?docno=326

Nazar, M. R. (2013). Knowledge sharing intention through the social media using theory of planned behavior approach. Social Science Research Network, Social Sciences: Comprehensive Works.

Nelson, K. M. and Cooprider, J. G. (2003). The contribution of shared knowledge to is group performance. MIS Quarterly, 20(4), 409-432.

Nevis, E. C., Dibella, A. J., and Gould, J. M. (1995). Understanding organizations as learning systems. Sloan Management Review, 21(5), 73-85.

Nichols, S. G.(2009). Time to change our thinking: Dismantling the silo model of digital scholarship. Ariadne, 58.

Nickols, F. (2000). Communities of practice: Supporting technologies. Available at: http://home.att.net/discon/km/CoPsTechnology.

Nonaka, I. (1994). A dynamic theory of organizational knowledge creation. Organization Science, 5(10)c, 14-37.

Nonaka, I. (2009). Tacit knowledge and knowledge conversion: Controversy and advancement in organizational knowledge creation theory. Organization Science, 20(3), 635–652.

Nonaka, I. and Konno, N. (1998). The concept of “Ba”: Building a foundation of knowledge creation. California Management Review, 40(3), 40-54.

Nonaka, I. and Takeuchi, H.(1995). The knowledge creating company. Oxford University Press.,and (2005). The knowledge-creating company: How Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation. New York: Oxford University Press.

Nonaka, I., Toyama, R., and Konno, N. (2000). SECI, Ba and leadership: A unified model of dynamic knowledge creation. Long Range Planning, 33(1), 5-34.

Nyaga, G. N., Whipple, J.M., and Lynch, D. F. (2010). Examining supply chain relationships: Do buyer and supplier perspectives on collaborative relationships differ? Journal of Operations Management, 28(2), 101-114.

Ott, J. S.(1989). Organizational culture perspective. Chicago : Dorsey Press.

Ouchi, W. G.(1981). Theory Z : How American business can meet the Japanese
Challenge, Reading Mass : Addison-Wesley.

PandG (2009). PandG’s Connect+ Develop website, access on Jan 17, 2009. Available at:https://secure3.verticali.net/pg-connection-portal/ctx/noauth/PortalHome.do

Park, H., Ribiere, V., and Schulte, W. D. (2004). Critical attributes of organizational culture that promote knowledge management technology implementation success. Journal of Knowledge Management, 8(3), 106–117.

Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods. 2ndEd. Newbury Park: Sage Press.
Pettigrew, A. M.(1983). On studying organizational cultures. Administrative Science Quarterly, 28.

Pinjani, P. and Prashant, P. (2013). Trust and knowledge sharing in diverse global virtual teams. Elsevier Sequoia S.A., Switzerland : Amsterdam, Information and Management, 50(4), 144-152.

Polanyi, M. (1958). Personal knowledge: Towards a post-critical philosophy. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-67288-3. and Polanyi, M. (1966) The tacit dimension. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.

Ponis, S. T. and Koronis, E.(2012). A knowledge management process-based approach to support corporate crisis management . Wiley Periodicals Inc., Chichester, United States, Knowledge and Process Management, 19(3), 148-157.

Porter, M. (1987 May/June). From competitive advantage to corporate strategy.
Harvard Business Review, (1987), pp 43-59.

Putnam, H. (2000). Philosophy of mind and on mind, meaning and reality. Interview by Josh Harlan. Harvard Review of Philosophy.

Putnam, R. D. (1995). Bowling alone: America’s declining social capital. Journal of Democracy, 6(1), 65-78.

Randall, D. M.(1987). Commitment and the organization: The organization man revisited. Academy of Management Review, 12(3), 462.

Rawlings, E. I. (1968). Witnessing harm to other: A reassessment of the role of guilt in altruistic behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 10, 377-380.

Rice, R. E. and Aydin, C. (1991). Attitudes toward new organizational technology:
Network proximity as a mechanism for social information processing. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36, 219-244.

Robbins, R.B. (2002). How you can restore sexual trust and rebuild your life. Adams Media Corporation, ISBN 1-55850-848-1.

Robbins, S. P. (1990). Organization theory: Structure, design and applications, (5thed) Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Rousseau, D. M., Sitkin, S. B., Burt, R. S., and Camerer, C. (1998). Not so different after all: A cross-discipline view of trust. Academy of Management Review, 23 (3), 393-404.

Sabel, C. F. (1993). Studies trust : Building new forms of cooperation in a volatile economy. Human Relations, 46, 1132-1172.

Sahay, B. S. (2003).Supply chain collaboration: The key to value creation. Work Study, 52(2), 76-83.

Santoro, M.D. and Saparito, P. A. (2006). Self-interest assumption and relational trust in university-industry knowledge transfers. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 53(3), 335-347.

Schein, E. H. (1989). How culture forms, develops, and change. In Ralph H. Kilmann
et.al.(eds.), Gaining control of the corporate culture, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Schmidt, J. B., Montoya-Weiss, M.M., and Massey, A. P. (2001). New product development decision-making effectiveness: Comparing individuals, face-To-face teams, and virtual teams. Decision Sciences, 32(4), 575-600.

Schumpeter, J. A. (1934). The theory of economic development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Sean, B.O’ H. and Milford, B. G. (2002). Review and implement new MIS reports for case load management and cost / benefit analysis. Coral Co, UK.

Senge, P. M. (1990). The fifth discipline. New York: Currency Doubleday.
Roberts, C., Ross, R. B., Smith, B. J. and Kleiner, A. (1994). The fifth discipline fieldbook. New York: Transformation thinking, New York: Berkley Publishing Group.

Shapiro, C. and Varian, H. R. (1999). Information rules. Harvard Business School Press, Ch.7.

Sheu, C., Yen, H. J., and Chae, B. (2006). Determinants of supplier-retailer
collaboration: Evidence from an international study. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 26(1), 24-49.

Shih, S. Hsu, S., Zhu, Z. and Balasubramanian ,K. (2012). Knowledge sharing - A key role in the downstream supply chain. Wiley Periodicals Inc., United States—US., Information and Management, 49(2), 10-23.

Shitener, E.M., Brodt, S. E., Korsgaard, M. A., and Werner, J. M. (1998). Managers as initiators of trust: An exchange relationship framework for understanding managerial trustworthy behavior. Academy of Management Review, 23, 514.

Shrivastava, A. (1983). A typology of organizational learning systems. Journal of Management Studies, 20 (1), 7-28.

Sigmund, K. H. and Nowak, M. A. (2001). Reward and punishment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 98, 757-762.

Simard, A. (2006). Knowledge markets: More than providers and users. IPSI BgD Internet Research Society Transactions, 2(2), 4-9.

Simatupang, T. M. and Sridharan, R. (2002). The collaborative supply chain.
International Journal of Logistics Management, 13(1), 15-30.

Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. New York: Macmillan, 461.
and (1965) Science and human behavior. Free Press. Latham, G.P. (2006Eds.) Work Motivation, Sage Publications.

Smith, A.﹝1776﹞(1991rp) The wealth of nations. New York: Prometheus, Amherst.

Snow, C. C., Snell, S. A., and Davision, S. C. (1996). Use transnational teams to globalize your company. Organization Dynamics, 24(4), 50-67.

Sohail, M. S. and Daud, S. (2009). Knowledge sharing in higher education institutions: Perspectives from Malaysia. Vine, 39(2), 125-142.

Spiegler, I. (2000). Knowledge management: A new idea or a recycled concept? Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 3, 14.

Stenmark, D.(1999a,b;2000a,b,c,2001). Leveraging tacit organizational knowledge. Journal of Management Information Systems, 17(3), 9-24.

Stevens et al.(1978). Assessing personal, role, and organizational predictors of managerial commitment. Academy of Management Journal, 21(3), 382.

Stevenson, M. and Spring, M. (2007). Flexibility from a supply chain perspective: Definition and review. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 27(7), 685-713.

Stewart, T. A. (1996). Intellectual capital – The new wealth of organizations. McGraw-Hill, 342.

Swink, M. L., Sandvik, C. J., and Mabert, V. A. (1996). Customizing concurrent engineering processes: Five case studies. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 13, 229-244.

Sveiby, K- E. (1997). The new organizational wealth: Managing and measuring knowledge-based assets. Berrett- Coehler Publisher, INC.

Szirtes, T. (2012). Managing knowledge sharing - Case study of a consulting firm. Society and Economy, 34, 139-160.

Takeuchi, H. and Nanaka, I. (1986). The new product development game. Harvard Business Review, January-February, 137-146.

Tapscott, D. (1996). The digital economy: Promise and peril in the age of networked intelligence. and (1997) Strategy and leadership. Chicago: Nov/Dec, 25(6), 7-8.

Tapscott, D. and Anthony, D. W. (2006). Wikinomics - How mass collaboration changes everything. Penguin Group, 324.

Teece, D. J., Pissano, G., and Shuen, A. (1997) . Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, 18 (7), 509-533.

Teh, P. L., Yong, C. C., Chong, C. W., and Yew, S. Y. (2011). Do the big five personality
factors affect knowledge sharing behavior? A study of Malaysian universities. Malaysian Journal of Library and Information Science, 16(1), 47-62.
Thirkell, P. C. (1997). Caught by the Web: Implications of Internet technologies for the evolving relationship marketing paradigm. American Marketing Association Relationship Marketing Conference Proceedings, AMA Publications, Dublin, 1997, 334-348.

Tiwana, A. (2008). Do bridging ties complement strong ties? An empirical examination of alliance ambidexterity. Strategic Management Journal, 29(3), 251-272.

Tsai, M. T., Chen, K. S., and Chien, J. L. (2012). The factors impact of knowledge sharing intentions: The theory of reasoned action perspective. Quality and Quantity, 1-13.

Tsai, W. and Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital and value creation: The role of
intrafirm networks. Academy of Management Journal, 41, 464-476.

Tushman, M. and Nadler, D. (1986). Organizing for innovation. California Management Review, 28(3).

Van Gelder, S. (2011). The effectiveness of knowledge sharing and collaboration in
creating high performance work teams. United States: Ann Arbor. UMI Dissertations Publishing, 119-127.

Vecchio, R. P. (1991). Organizational behavior. Orlando: Dryden Press.

Vereecke, A. and Muylle, S. (2006). Performance improvement through supply chain
collaboration in Europe. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 26(11), 1176-1198.

Vroom, V. H. and Yetton, P. (1973). Leadership and decision making. Pittsburgh:
University of Pittsburgh Press.

Wallach, E. J. (1983). Individuals and organizations: The cultural match. Training and Development Journal, 29-36.

Wang, C. and Kafouros, M. I. (2009). What factors determine innovation performance in emerging economies? Evidence from China. International Business Review, 18(6), 606-616.
Wang, E. G. and Wei, H. (2007). Inter-organizational governance value creation: Coordinating for information visibility and flexibility in supply chain. Decision Sciences, 38(4), 647-674.

Watkins, K. E. and Marsick, V. L. (1993). Sculpting the learning organization: Lesson in the art and science of systemic change. San Francisco: Jossey -Bass.

Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning, and identity. Cambridge University Press.

Weiner, B. (1980). Human motivation. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Wenger, E., McDermott, R., and Snyder, W. M. (2002). Cultivating communities of
practice, society and economy. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 304.

Whitener, E.M., Brodt, S. E., Korsgaard, M.A., and Werner, J. M. (1998). Managers as
initiators of trust: An exchange relationship framework for understanding
managerial trustworthy behavior. Academy of Management Review, 23,
513-531.

Whipple, J. M. and Frankel, R. (2000). Strategic alliance success Factors. The Journal of Supply Chain Management, Summer, 21-28.

Wikipedia (2008). Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_2.0. 168. Wild, R.H.,

Wilkins, A. L. and Ouchi , W. G.(1983). Efficient cultures : Exploring the relationship between culture and organizational performance. Administration Science Quarterly, 28, 468-481.

Williams, M. (2001). In whom we trust: Group membership as an affective context for trust development. Academy of Management Review, 26(3), 77-96.

Wilson, E.O. (1976). Sociobiology: A new synthesis. Harvard University Press.

Wolfe, R. A. (1995). Human resource management innovations: Determinants of their adoption and implementation. Human Resource Management, 34(2), 313-327.

Wu, C. (2008). Knowledge creation in a supply chain. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 13(3), 241-250.

Xiang-Jie et al.(2014/June). Digital humanities and craft—Technological change. National Taiwan University Press. Taipei, Taiwan.

Yazici, H. J. (2012). Buyer-Supplier knowledge sharing in a service supply chain. IIE Annual Conference, Proceedings. Scholarly Journals, 2012(6), 1-6.

Yeh, Y. P. (2005). Identification of factors affecting continuity of cooperative electronic supply chain relationships: Empirical case of the Taiwanese motor industry. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 10(4), 327-335.

Zaltman, G. R.(1992). and Duncan, H. J.(1973). Innovations and organizations. New York: Wiley; A Van and Polly, D. Learning while innovating. Organization Science, 3, 92-116.

Zand, D. E. (1972/July). Trust and managerial problem solving. Administrative Science Quarterly, 17, 229-239.

Zarraga, C. and Garcia-Falcon, J. M.(2003). Factors favoring knowledge management
in work teams. Journal of Knowledge Management, 7(2), 81-96.

Zucker, L. G. (1986). Production of trust : Institutional sources of economic structure,
1840-1920. Research in Organizational Behavior, 8, 53-111.

Zukowski, L., Angela, A., and Min, M. H.(2012). The next step into the future.
Future, 43, 80-82.

Zundert, J. V.(2012). If you build it, will we come? Large scale digital infrastructures as
a dead end for digital humanities. Future, 37, 165-186.

Zuopeng, Z. and Shankar, S.(2010). Knowledge markets in firms: Knowledge sharing
with trust and signaling. Elsevier Sequoia S. A., Amsterdam., United Kingdom., Knowledge Management Research and Practice, 8, 322–339.
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2015-01-19公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2015-01-19起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2486 或 來信