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系統識別號 U0002-2309201510372700
中文論文名稱 15克重微飛行器之機載航電元件開發
英文論文名稱 DEVELOPMENT OF ON-BOARD AVIONICS FOR A 15-GRAM FLAPPING MAV
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 機械與機電工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering
學年度 103
學期 2
出版年 104
研究生中文姓名 蘇希德
研究生英文姓名 Suseendar Marimuthu
學號 602370750
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2015-07-10
論文頁數 115頁
口試委員 指導教授-楊龍杰
委員-洪國永
委員-蕭富元
中文關鍵字 拍翼機  方向控制  高度控制  輕量化電路板 
英文關鍵字 flapping micro-air-vehicle (MAV)  Avionics  Autonomous Control  flapping wing control 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學機械工程
中文摘要 論文提要內容:
文章中提到了一款新的可重複編寫,並且可搭載在拍翼機上的控制晶片。一開始文章中先分別介紹晶片中所使用的ATmeg328P微型處理器、慣性量測系統和高度感測器,在這章節也會剖析並詳細介紹這些感測器的選擇和如何使用這些感測數據,並應用在實際的飛行上面。
這次主要飛行任務,是讓拍翼機具備自主方向控制,可以依照設定在不同起飛位置都能飛往設定的方向。
下面文章將介紹M1AP,也就是新設計的控制晶片,M1AP是一個多功能可編寫並且可連接Arduino平台的晶片,晶片重量僅有0.75克重,並且包含了有12C的數位輸入和輸出、模擬輸入和輸出,還有SPI接口。最後將介紹整個M1AP的操作流程和使用方法。



英文摘要 Abstract:
This thesis presents the full development cycle of a programmable, lightweight control architecture capable of autonomously guiding a 15 gram flapping MAV by using onboard sensing and computational resources. In the earlier phase of the work, the prototyping of the control board housing an ATmega328P microcontroller, interfaced with Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and a pressure sensor is described. These chapters also dissect and examine in detail the choice of sensors, the practical usage of sensor data and control methods to actuate the MAV. The prototype board is used for a proof-of-concept flight test where the flapping wing MAV is autonomously guided towards a preprogrammed direction.
The following chapters describe the design and development of the integrated control chip named “M1AP” housing all the components that are required. The M1AP is a fully functional and programmable chip compatible with Arduino platform, weighing 0.75 grams in weight. It includes interfaces for I2C, digital input and output, Analog input and output and also SPI programming. The standard operating procedure for uploading the firmware to M1AP is described and consequently, the direction seeking program performed during prototype stage is repeated with the new chip and the results are discussed.


論文目次 Contents
Chinese Abstract i
Abstract ii
Acknowledgement iv
Nomenclature v
List of Figures ................................................................................................ viii
List of Tables ................................................................................................... xi
CHAPTER ......................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Introduction ......................................................................................... 1
1.2 Literature review .................................................................................. 4
CHAPTER 2 ...................................................................................................... 7
2.1 Attitude, Heading Reference system .................................................... 7
2.2 Flapping mechanism ........................................................................... 12
2.3 Auto direction control ........................................................................ 13
2.4 Flight test ........................................................................................... 20
2.5 Altitude Measurement ........................................................................ 22
2.6 Radio interface for manual control ..................................................... 24
2.7 Flapping frequency estimation ........................................................... 26
2.7.1 Frequency estimation using Light Dependent Resistor ................... 27
2.7.2 Frequency estimation using Hall Effect sensor ................................ 29
vii
2.8 Data logging ....................................................................................... 32
CHAPTER 3 .................................................................................................... 38
3.1 Printed Circuit Board ........................................................................ 38
3.2 Uploading firmware ............................................................................ 45
3.3 Sensor data ......................................................................................... 46
3.4 Flight test using M1AP ...................................................................... 48
3.5 Altitude control test ........................................................................... 52
CHAPTER 4 .................................................................................................... 54
4.1 Conclusions and Future work ............................................................. 54
4.2 PID loops ........................................................................................... 54
4.3 Using Gyroscope data and sensor fusion ............................................ 54
4.4 On-board image processing ................................................................ 57
4.5 Weight reduction ................................................................................ 58
4.6 Final remarks ..................................................................................... 59
REFERENCES ................................................................................................ 60
APPENDIX A ................................................................................................. 67
APPENDIX B ................................................................................................. 88
APPENDIX C ................................................................................................. 96
viii
List of Figures
Figure 1. Inertial frame of reference for the MAV ............................................. 7
Figure 2. Measurement of acceleration along a single axis ................................ 9
Figure 3. Reference system .............................................................................. 11
Figure 4. Golden Snitch mechanism (Left), Bi-wing mechanism (Right) ........ 13
Figure 5. Block diagram for auto direction control ......................................... 14
Figure 6. Direction control for MAV (Left), Connection details (Right) ....... 15
Figure 7. Ferromagnetic disturbance vs Distance between motor and IMU .. 17
Figure 8. Finished MAV with Direction control system ....................................
Figure 9 Weight distribution of MAV ................................................................
Figure 10. North launch ................................................................................... 20
Figure 11. South launch ................................................................................... 21
Figure 12. West launch .................................................................................... 21
Figure 13. East Launch .................................................................................... 22
Figure 14. Motor driver, MCU, BMP180 and motor mechanism .................... 23
Figure 15. 2.4 GHz radio receiver .................................................................... 24
Figure 16. Overall Autopilot block diagram .................................................... 25
Figure 17. Measurement of flapping through photo resistor ............................ 28
Figure 18. Single flap recorded by Hall Effect sensor ...................................... 30
Figure 19. Hall Effect frequency estimation ..................................................... 31
Figure 20. Change in frequency measured by Hall Effect sensor ..................... 32
Figure 21. Acceleration data log ...................................................................... 34
Figure 22. Gyroscope data log ......................................................................... 34
ix
Figure 23. Magnetometer data log ................................................................... 35
Figure 24. Pitch, Roll, Yaw data log ............................................................... 36
Figure 25. Kalman filterd and Smoothed Kalman values for Roll log ............. 37
Figure 26. Computer to Autopilot board connection ....................................... 40
Figure 27. Illustration of Autopilot PCB ......................................................... 41
Figure 28. Finished PCB ................................................................................. 43
Figure 29 M1AP pinout ................................................................................... 44
Figure 30 Pitch accuracy ................................................................................. 46
Figure 31 Roll accuracy ................................................................................... 47
Figure 32 Magnetic heading accuracy .............................................................. 47
Figure 33 Altitude accuracy............................................................................. 48
Figure 34 Weight distribution of MAV ........................................................... 50
Figure 35 Launch towards East ....................................................................... 51
Figure 36 Launch towards West ...................................................................... 51
Figure 37 Altitude test .................................................................................... 53
Figure 38. Kalman filter implementation on ATmega328P (Dataset 1) .......... 56
Figure 39. Kalman filter implementation on ATmega328P (Dataset 2) .......... 56
Figure 40. Tinylily Arduino chip ..................................................................... 88
Figure 41. Flora LSM9DS0 chip ...................................................................... 90
Figure 42. Polulu DRV 8838 motor driver ...................................................... 93
Figure 43 AVR ISP mk2 .................................................................................. 99
Figure 44 Device Programming interface ....................................................... 100
Figure 45 Reading device signature ............................................................... 101
Figure 46 Device information for M1AP ........................................................ 102
x
Figure 47 Flashing firmware into M1AP ....................................................... 103
Figure 48 Fuse of M1AP ................................................................................ 105
Figure 49 Fuse bits ........................................................................................ 106
Figure 50 M1AP in Arduino IDE .................................................................. 107
Figure 51 Raw data from IMU ...................................................................... 108
Figure 52 Raw data from Pressure sensor ..................................................... 109
Figure 53 AHRS data from M1AP ................................................................ 109
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