||探討大一學生的英文學術寫作過程 - 個案探討
||An Investigation of English Academic Writing Process: A Case Study of Novice EFL Writers
||Department of English
||Jill Shu-Chen Chang
academic writing process
novice student writer
English writing center
||The purpose of this study was to investigate novice student writers’ (NSWs) L2 academic writing processes. The participants were four freshmen business majors. The study has three foci: the topic selection, the incorporation of relevant academic writing feedback, and three self-revisions. Drawing on qualitative research, data was collected from pre-interview questionnaires, interview transcripts, NSWs’ writing samples, teachers’ feedback along with subsequent revisions, and three self-revisions along with open-ended questionnaires.
The results of the research showed that the NSWs’ background knowledge constituted a major factor driving them to decide their L2 academic writing topics. On top of that, L1 played a crucial role on NSW’s L2 academic writing. The diversity of teachers’ feedbacks including local, global, and some writing strategies did help the NSWs to overcome some writing difficulties. However, they were unable to incorporate all the feedback immediately due to their limited linguistic and L2 academic writing knowledge. They mainly focused on the local errors corrections on their subsequent revisions. Furthermore, in the three self-revisions, they tried to use connectors to connect sentences and paragraphs, substitute words to replace their original use, and change sentence structures or organizational arrangements to convey meaning, all of which demonstrating NSWs’ increased awareness of the use of cohesive devices, and the importance of lexical choices and organizational flow in presenting ideas. Findings of the study echo the importance of reading input as a means to build fundamental background knowledge and linguistic ability to the development of writing skills.
|| TABLE OF CONTENT
CHINESE ABSTRACT ii
ENGLISH ABSTRACT iii
TABLE OF CONTENT iv
LIST OF TABLES ix
LIST OF FIGURES x
LIST OF CODING SYSTEM xi
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 2
1.3 Purpose of the Study 4
1.4 Research Questions 5
1.5 Significance of the Study 5
1.6 Definition of Terms 6
1.6.1 Novice Student Writer 6
1.6.2 Academic Writing 6
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 8
2.1 Background Knowledge 8
2.1.1 Schema 8
2.1.2 Frame and Script 9
2.1.3 First Language vs. Second Language 10
2.2 Cognitive Writing 13
2.2.1 Cognitive Writing Model 13
2.2.2 Academic Writing 16
126.96.36.199 Academic Writing Features 16
188.8.131.52 Cohesion and Coherence 18
2.3 Revision 21
2.4 Conclusion 25
CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 27
3.1 Participant 27
3.2 Data Collection 30
3.3 Material and Instrument 30
3.3.1 Coding System 32
3.3.2 Writing Material & Instrument 32
3.3.3 Group Interview 33
3.3.4 Open-ended Questionnaire 33
3.4 Procedure 33
3.5 Data Analysis 36
3.5.1 Pre-interview Questionnaire 37
3.5.2 Writing Material 37
3.5.3 Group interview 37
3.5.4 Open-ended questionnaire based on the three self-revisions 39
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS 40
4.1 The Writing Topic Selection 40
4.1.1 Summary of Self-report 41
4.2. The Incorporation of the Relevant Academic Writing Feedback 45
4.2.1 Summary and Self-report 48
4.3 Three Self-Revisions 56
4.3.1 Cohesive Device and Lexical Choices 58
4.3.2 Coherence and Organization 65
CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 74
5.1 Summary of the Study 74
5.2 Discussion of the Results 76
5.2.1 The Topic Selection 77
5.2.2 Incorporation of Relevant Academic Writing Feedback 78
5.2.3 Three Self-revisions 80
5.3 Pedagogical Implication 83
5.4 Limitations of the Study 84
5.5 Suggestions for Future Research 85
APPENDIX A 106
APPENDIX B 108
APPENDIX C 110
APPENDIX D 112
APPENDIX E 113
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1: The Comparison Table for GSAT English Subject 28
Table 3.2: Participant Information 29
Table 3.3 List of Material and Instrument 31
Table 3.4 List of Coding System 32
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1: The Cognitive Process Theory of Writing 14
Figure 2.2: The Problem-solution Writing Model 16
Figure 2.3: The Shape of G-S Text 21
Figure 3.1: Data Collection Procedure 36
LIST OF CODING SYSTEM
S1-F-2-2: Student 1 2nd Teacher’s Feedback for 2nd Writing Draft 50
S1-R-1: Student 1 Self-revision 1 59
S1-R-2: Student 1 Self-revision 2 60
S1-R-3: Student 1 Self-revision 3 61
S2-R-1: Student 2 Self-revision 1 63
S2-R-2: Student 2 Self-revision 2 64
S2-R-3: Student 2 Self-revision 3 64
S3-R-1: Student 3 Self-revision 1 67
S3-R-2: Student 3 Self-revision 2 68
S3-R-3: Student 3 Self-revision 3 68
S4-R-1: Student 4 Self-revision 1 71
S4-R-2: Student 4 Self-revision 2 72
S4-R-3: Student 4 Self-revision 3 72
Adams, M. & Collins. A. (1979) A schema-theoretic view of reading. In Freedle, R. (Ed), In New directions in discourse processing,1-22. Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
Alamargot, D. & Chanquoy, L. (2001). Through the models of writing. New York: Kluwer.
Allal, L., Chanquoy, L. & Largy, P. (2004). Revision: Cognitive and instructional processes (Vol. 8, p. 200).
Antón, M. & DiCamilla, F. (1998). Socio-cognitive functions of L1 collaborative interaction in the L2 classroom. Canadian Modern Language Review, 54(3), 314-342.
Arbib, M. (1998). Schema Theory. In Arbib. M. (Ed) The handbook of brain theory and neural network, p. 830-834. MA: MIT Press Cambridge.
Baddeley, A. (2003). Working memory and language: an overview. Journal of Communication Disorder, 36, 147-179.
Bain, A. (1890). English composition and rhetoric. Longmans, Green & Company.
Barkaoui, K. (2016). What and When Second‐Language Learners Revise When Responding to Timed Writing Tasks on the Computer: The Roles of Task Type, Second Language Proficiency, and Keyboarding Skills. The Modern Language Journal, 100(1), 320-340.
Bartlett, E. J. (1982). Learning to revise: Some component processes. In M. Nystrand (Ed.), What writers know: The language, process, and structure of written discourse (pp. 345-363). New York: Academic Press.
Bartlett, F. J. (1932) Remembering: a study in experimental and social psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Biber, D. (1988). Variation across speech and writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press/
Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S. & Finegan, E. (1999). Longman grammar of spoken and written English. Harlow, Essex: Pearson.
Britton, J. (1960) Style in Language. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1960.
Britton, J. (1970) Language and Learning. Middlesex, England: Penguin Books.
Britton, J., Burgess, A., Martin, N., McLeod, A. & Rosen, H. (1975). The Development of Writing Abilities (11-18) London: Macmillan Education.
Broekkamp, H. & van den Bergh, H. (1996). Attention strategies in revising a foreign language text. In G. Rijlaarsdam, H. van den Bergh, & M. Couzijn (Eds.), Theories, models and methodology in writing research (pp. 170-181). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
Broekkamp, H. & Van den Bergh, H. (1996). Attention Strategies in revising foreign language text. In G. Rijlaarsdam, H. van de Bergh & M. Couzijn (Eds.), Theories, models and methodology in writing research (p. 345-363). New York: Academic Press.
Brown, H. D. (2006). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy, third edition. New York, USA: Pearson Education, Inc.
Burt, M. & Kiparsky, C. (1972). The gooficon: A repair manual for English. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Byrd, P. & Reid, J. (1998). Grammar in the composition classroom. Boston: Heinle.
Carrel, P. & Eisterhold, J. (1983) Schema Theory and ESL Reading Pedagogy. TESOL Quarterly, 17 (4).
Carrell, P. (1982). Cohesion is not coherence. TESOL Quarterly, 16(4), 479-488.
Carrell, P. (1987) Content and formal schemata in ESL reading. TESOL Quarterly, 21 (3).
Chafe, W. (1994). Discourse, consciousness, and time: The flow and displacement of conscious experience in speaking and writing. University of Chicago Press.
Chang, C.Y. (2014). An investigation on university English major students’ perception and responses to teacher error correction and feedback (Unpublished the degree of MA thesis). Tamkang University, Taiwan.
Chanquoy, L. (2001). How to make it easier for children to revise their writing: A study of text revision from 3rd to 5th grades. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 71, 15-41.
Chanquoy, L. (2009). Revision processes. In R. Beard, D. Myhill, J. Riley, & M. Nystrand (Eds.). The SAGE handbook of writing development (p. 80-97). LA, CA: SAGE.
Chi, M. (2000). Self-explaning expository texts: The dual processes of generating inferences and repairing mental models. In R. Glaser (Ed.), Advances in instructional psychology (pp. 161-238). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Chi, M. T. H., de Leeuw, N. D., Chiu, M. & La Vancher, C. (1994). Eliciting self-explanations improves understanding. Cognitive Science, 19, 439-477.
Chi, M., Bassok, M., Lewis, M. W., Reimann, P. & Glaser, R. (1989). Self-explanations: How students study and use examples in learning to solve problems. Cognitive Science, 13, 145-182.
Collins, A. M. & Gentner D. (1980). A framework for a cognitive theory of writing. In L. w. Doi:10.10161/j.jslw.2010.10.03
Coulthard, M. (1985). An introduction to discourse analysis (2nd ed.). London: Longman.
Craik, F. & Lockhart, R. (1972). Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 11, 671-684.
Crawford, L., Lloyd, S. & Knoth, K. (2008). Analysis of student revisions on a state writing test. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 33, 108-119.
Crossley, S. A., Kyle, K. & McNamara, D. S. (2016). The development and use of cohesive devices in L2 writing and their relations to judgments of essay quality. Journal of Second Language Writing, 32, 1-16.
Cumming, A. (1990). Expertise in evaluating second language compositions. Language Testing, 7(1), 31-51.
de Beaugrande, R. & Dressler, W. (1972). An introduction to text linguistics. London: Longman.
de Beaugrande, R. (1984). Text production: Toward a science of composition. Norwood, NJ: Ablex..
de Larios, J. R., Manchón, R. M. & Murphy, L. (2006). Generating text in native and foreign language writing: A temporal analysis of problem solving formulation processes. The Modern Language Journal, 90(1), 100-114.
Deane et al. (2008). Cognitive models of writing: writing proficiency as a complex integrated skill. ETS Research Report.
Dörnyei, Z. (2007). Research methods in applied linguistics: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methodologies. Oxford University Press.
Doyle, J. K., Ford, D. N., Radizicki, M. J. & Trees, W. S. (2002). Mental models of dynamic systems. In Barlas, Y. (Ed.). System dynamics and integrated modeling. Encyclopedia of life support systems (EOLSS) (Vol. 2). Oxford: UNESCO, EOLSS Publishers.
Faigley, L. & Witte, S. (1981). Analyzing revision. College Composition and Communication, 32, 400-407.
Faigley, L. & Witte, S. (1981). Analyzing revision. College composition and communication, 32(4), 400-414.
Fayol, M. (1991). From sentence production to text production: Investigating fundamental processes. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 6(2), 101-119.
Fayol, M. (1999). From on-line management problems to strategies in written composition. In M. Torrance & G. Jeffery. (Eds.). The cognitive demands of writing: Processing capacity and working memory effects in text production, 13-23. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
Flavel, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring. American Payxholofiar 34 (10, special issue), 906-911.
Flower, L. (1979). Writer-based Prose: A cognitive basis for problems in writing. College English, Vol. 41, No1, pp. 19-37
Flower, L. (1990). The role of task representation in reading-to-write. In L. Flower, V. Stein, J. Ackerman, M. J. Kantz., K. McCormick & W. C., Peak (Eds.), Reading to write: Exploring a cognitive and social process (pp. 35-75). New York: Oxford University Press.
Flower, L. S. & Hayes, J. R. (1980). The dynamics of composing: Making plans and juggling constraints. In L. W. Gregg & E. R. Steinberg (Eds.), Cognitive processes in writing (pp.31- 50). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Flower, L. S. & Hayes, J. R. (1981). A cognitive process theory of writing. College Composition and Communication. Vol. 32, No. 4, pp. 365-387
Flower, L. S. & Hayes, J. R. (1984). Images, plans, and prose: The representation of meaning in writing. Written Communication 1984 1: 120.
Ford, M. E. & Nichols, C. W. (1991). Using goal assessments to identify motivational patterns and facilitate behavioral regulation and achievement. In Maehr, M. L. & Pintrich, P. R. (Eds.). Advances in motivation and achievement, Vol. 7 (pp.51-84). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Friedlander, A. (1990). Composing in English: Effects of a first language on writing in English as a second language. Second language writing: Research insights for the classroom, 109-125.
Fromkin, V., Rodman, R. & Hyams, N. (2005). An Introduction to Language. MA: Wadsworth.
Galbraith, D. & Torrance, M. (1999). Conceptual processes in writing: From problem solving to text production.
Galbraith, D. (1999). Writing as a knowledge-constituting process. Knowing what to write: Conceptual processes in text production, 4, 139-164.
Grabe, W. & Kaplan, R. B. (1996). Theory and practice of writing: An applied linguistics perspective. Harlow: Pearson Education.
Gregg & E. R. Steinberg (Eds), Cognitive processes in writing (pp.51-71). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Hacker, D. J. (1994). Comprehension monitoring as a writing process. Advances in Cognition and Educational Practice, 6, 143-172.
Halliday, M. A. K. & Hassan, R. (1976). Cohesion in English. London: Longman.
Halliday, M. A. K. & Hassan, R. (1985). Language, text and context. Victoria: Derkin University.
Halliday, M. A. K. & Hassan, R. (2014). Cohesion in English. Routledge.
Hatim, B. & Mason, I. (1990). Discourse and the Translator. London: Longman.
Hayes, J. R. & Flower, L. (1980). Identifying the organization of writing processes.
Hayes, J. R. (1996). A framework for understanding cognition and affect in writing. In C. M. Levy & S. Ransdell (Eds.). The science of writing: theories, methods, individual differences, and applications, 1-27. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Hayes, J. R. (2004). What triggers revision?. In Revision cognitive and instructional processes (pp. 9-20). Springer Netherlands.
Hayes, J. R. (2006). New directions in writing theory. In C. A. MacArthur, S. Graham, & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Handbook of writing research, 2, 28-40. New York: Guilford Press.
Hayes, J. R., Flower, L. S., Schriver, K. S., Statman, J. & Carey, L. (1987). Cognitive processes in revision. In S. Rosenberg (Ed.), Advances in applied psycholinguistics,: Reading, writing, and language processing, 2, 176-240. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hendrickson, J. (1980). Error correction in foreign language teaching: Recent theory, research, and practice. In K. Croft (Ed.), Readings on English as a second language (2nd ed.). Cambridge, MA: Winthrop.
Hinkel, E. (2001a). Matters of cohesion in L1 and L2 academic texts. Applied Language Learning, 12(2), 111-132
Hinkel, E. (2002a). Second language writers’ text. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hinkel, E. (2004). Teaching Academic ESL Writing: practical techniques in vocabulary and grammar. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Hodgson, J. & Harris, A. (2012) Improving student writing at HE: putting literacy studies to work. English in Education 46 (1).
Hodgson, J. & Harris, A. (2013) ‘It is hard to know what you are being asked to do.’ Deciphering codes, constructing schemas. English in Education 47 (1).
Hoey, M. (1983). On the surface of discourse. In J. Swales & C. Feak (Eds), Academic Writing for graduate students. Taiwan: Crane Publishing Co., Ltd.
Horowitz, D. M. (1986a). What professors actually require: Academic tasks for the ESL classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 20(1), 141-144.
Huang, L. S. (2009). The potential influence of L1 (Chinese) on L2 (English) communication. ELT journal, ccp039.
Hyland, K. (2008) Genre and academic writing in the disciplines. Language Teaching 41 (4), 543-562.
Hymes, D. (1972). On communicative competence. Sociolinguistics, 269293, 269-293. Harmsworth, Canada: Penguin.
Jakobson, R. (1960). Linguistics and poetics. In Sebeok, T. A. (Ed), In Style in language, p. 350-377. MA: MIT Press.
James, M. A. (2010). An investigation of learning transfer in English-for-general-academic-purposes writing instruction. Journal of Second Language Writing, 19(4), 183-206.
Johns, A. (1997). Text, role, and context: Developing academic literacies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Johnson-Laird, P. N. (1983). Mental models: Towards a cognitive science of language, inference, and consciousness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jones, S. & Tetroe, J. (1987). Composing in a second language. Writing in real time: Modelling production processes, 34-57.
Kellogg, R. T. (1996). A model of working memory in writing. In C. M. Levy & S. Ransdell (Eds.), The science of writing: Theories, methods, individual differences and applications, 57-71. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Khuder, B. & Harwood, N. (2015). L2 writing in test and non-test situations: Process and product. Journal of Writing Research, 6(3), 233-278.
Kobayashi, H. & Rinnert, C. (1992). Effects of first language on second language writing: Translation versus direct composition. Language Learning, 42(2), 183-209.
Lantolf, J. P. & Thorne, S. L. (2006). Sociocultural theory and the genesis of second language development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lay, N. D. S. (1982). Composing processes of adult ESL learners: A case study. TESOL Quarterly, 16(3), 406-406.
Lee, I. (2002). Teaching coherence to ESL students: A classroom inquiry. Journal of second language writing, 11(2), 135-159.
Lindgren, E. & Sullivan, K. P. H. (2002). The LS graph: A methodology for visualizing writing revision. Language Learning, 52:3, 565-595.
Lindgren, E. & Sullivan, K. P. H. (2006a). Analysing online revision. In K. P. H. Sullivan & E. Lindgren (Eds.), Computer key-stroke logging: Methods and applications (pp. 31-44). Oxford: Elsevier.
Lindgren, E. & Sullivan, K. P. H. (2006b). Writing and the analysis of revision: An overview. In K. P. H. Sullivan & E. Lindgren (Eds.), Computer key-stroke logging: Methods and applications (pp. 31-44). Oxford: Elsevier.
Manchón, R. M. & Roca de Larios, J. (2011). Writing to learn in FL contexts: Exploring learners’ perceptions of the language learning potential of L2 writing. In R. M. Manchón (Ed.), Learning-to-write and writing-to-learn in an additional language (pp. 181-207). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Manchón, R. M. (2009). Task conceptualization and writing development: Dynamics of change in a task-based EAP course. Paper presented at the TBLT 2009 Conference.
Marini, A. & Genereux, R. (1995). The challenge of teaching for transfer. Teaching for transfer: Fostering generalization in learning, 1-19.
Matthiessen, C. M. I. M. (1996). Systemic perspective on tense in English. Berry, Butler, Fawcett & Huang (eds).
McCafferty, S. G. (1994). The use of private speech by adult ESL learners at different levels of proficiency. Vygotskian approaches to second language research, 117-134.
McCarthy, M. J. (2001). Issues in applied linguistics. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
McCutchen, D. (1996). A capacity theory of writing: Working memory in composition. Educational psychology review, 8(3), 299-325.
McCutchen, D., Teske, P. & Bankston, C. (2008). Writing and cognition: Implications of the cognitive architecture for learning to write and writing to learn. Handbook of research on writing, 451-470.
McNamara, D. S., Kintsch, E., Songer, N. B. & Kintsch, W. (1996). Are good texts always better? Interactions of text coherence, background knowledge, and levels of understanding in learning from text. Cognition and instruction, 14(1), 1-43.
Minsky, M. (1974). A framework for representing knowledge. In P. Winston (Ed.), The Psychology of Computer Vision.
Nicolás-Conesa, F., de Larios, J. R. & Coyle, Y. (2014). Development of EFL students’ mental models of writing and their effect on performance. Journal of Second Language Writing, 24, 1-19.
O’Reilly, T. & McNamara, D. S. (2007). The impact of science knowledge, reading skill, and reading strategy knowledge on more traditional “high-stakes” measures of high school students’ science achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 44(1), 161-196.
Odlin, T. (2006) Language transfer: cross-linguistic influence in language learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Oliver, T. & Kellogg, R.T. (2002). Concurrent activation of high- and low-level production processes in written composition. Memory and Cognition, 30, 594-600. Doi:10.3758/BF03194960
Ong, J. & Zhang, L. J. (2010). Effects of task complexity on fluency and lexical complexity in EFL students’ argumentative writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 19, 218-233.
Ong, J. & Zhang, L. J. (2013). Effects of the manipulation of cognitive process on EFL writers’ text quality. TESOL Quarterly, 47(2).
Ortega, L. (2009). Studying writing across EFL contexts: Looking back and moving forward. In R. M. Manchón (Ed.), Writing in foreign language contexts: Learning, teaching, and research (pp. 232-255). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Ostler, S. E. (1987). English in parallels: A comparison of English and Arabic prose. Writing across languages: Analysis of L2 text, 169-185.
Partington, A. (1996). Patterns and meanings. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Paz, S. & Sherman, C. K. (2013). Revising strategy instruction in inclusive settings: Effects for English learners and novice writers. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 28(3), 129-141.
Piolat, A. (1997). Writers’ assessment and evaluation of their texts. In C. Clapham & D. Corson (Eds.), Encyclopaedia of language and education. Language testing and assessment, 7, 189-198. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer.
Piolat, A., Kellogg, R. T. & Farioli, F. (2001). The Triple task technique for studying writing processes: on which task is attention focused? Current Psychology Letters, 4, 67-83.
Pomerants, A. & Kearney, E. (2012). Beyond 'write-talk-revise-(repeat)': Using narrative to understand one multilingual student’s interactions around writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 21, 221-238.
Porte, G. (1996). When writing fails: How academic context and past learning experiences shape revision. System, 24, 107-116.
Priori, P. (2006). A sociocultural theory of writing. In C. A. MacArthur, S. Graham & J. Fizgerald (Eds), Handbook of writing research (p.54-66). New York: The Guilford Press.
Purpura, J. (1997). An analysis of the relationships between test takers’ cognitive and metacognitive strategy use and second language test performance. Language learning, 47, 289-325.
Qi, D. & Lapkin, S. (2001). Exploring the role of noticing in a three-stage second language writing task. Journal of Second Language Writing, 10, 277-303.
Qi, D. (1998). An inquiry into language-switching in second language composing processes. Canadian Modern Language Review, 54(3), 413-435.
Rajoo, M. (2009). Feedback and revision: A protocol analysis (Unpublished the degree of doctor of philosophy). University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
Ramires, C. (1997). Schemata, Frames, and Dynamic Memory Structures. University of Kent at Canterbury, Computing Laboratory.
Reid, J. M. (1993). Teaching ESL writing. Prentice Hall.
Rohman, R. D. & Wlecke, A. O. (1975) Pre-writing: the construction and application of models for concept formation in writing. In Britton, J., Burgess, A., Martin, N., McLeod, A. & Rosen, H. (Eds), In The Development of Writing Abilities, p. 11-18. London: Macmillan Education.
Roman, D. G. & Wlecke, A. O. (1975). Pre-writing: The construction and application of models for concept formation in writing. Cooperative research project No. 2174, U.S. Office of Education, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare;
Rosenfeld, M., Leung, S. & Oltman, P. (2001). Identifying the reading, writing, speaking, and listening tasks important for academic success at the undergraduate and graduate Levels. TOEFL Monograph Series MS-21. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.
Ruiz-Funes, M. (2001). Task representation in foreign language reading-to-write. Foreign Language Annals, 34, 226-234.
Ruiz-Funes, M. (2015) Exploring the potential of second/foreign language writing for language learning: the effects of task factors and learner variables. Journal of Second Language Learning 28 (2015) 1-19.
Rumelhart, D. & Ortony, A. (1977) The representation of knowledge in memory. In Anderson, R., Spiro. R. & Montague, W. (Eds), In Schooling and the acquisition of knowledge, 99-135. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Rumelhart, D. (1980) Schemata: the building blocks of cognition. In Spiro. R., Bruce, C., & Brewer, W. (Eds), In Theoretical issues in reading comprehension, 33-58. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Sandelowski, M. (2003). Tables or tableaux? The challenges of writing and reading mixed methods studies. Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research, 321-350.
Sasaki, M. (2009). Changes in English as a foreign language students’ writing over 3.5 years: A socio-cognitive account. In R. M. Manchón (Ed.), Writing in foreign language contexts: Learning, teaching, and research (pp. 49-76). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Scardamalia, M. & Bereiter, C. (1986). Research on written composition. Handbook of research on teaching, 3, 778-803.
Scardamalia, M. & Bereiter, C. (1987). Knowledge telling and knowledge transforming in written composition. In S. Rosenberg (Ed.), Advances in applied psycholinguistics: Reading, writing, and language learning, 2, 142-175. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schank, R. & Abelson, R. (1997) Scripts, plans, goals and understanding. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Schmidt, R. (1993). Consciousness, learning and interlanguage pragmatics. Interlanguage pragmatics, 21, 42.
Scollon, R. & Scollon, S. W. (2001). 27 Discourse and Intercultural Communication. The handbook of discourse analysis, 538.
Sommers, N. (1980). Revision strategies of student writers and experienced adult writers. College Composition and Communication, 31, 378-388.
Stevenson, M., Schooen, R. & de Glopper, K. (2006). Revising in two languages: A multi-dimensional comparison of online writing revisions in L1 and FL. Journal of Second Language Writing, 15, 201-233.
Suzuki, W. (2009b). Improving Japanese university students’ second language writing accuracy: Effects of languaging. Annual Review of English Language Education in Japan, 20, 81-90.
Suzuki, W. (2012). Written languaging, direct correction, and second language writing revision. Language Learning, 62:4, pp. 1110-1133.
Swain, M. & Lapkin, S. (1998). Interaction and second language learning: Two adolescent French immersion students working together. The modern language journal, 82(3), 320-337.
Swain, M. (2006). Languaging, agency and collaboration in advanced language proficiency. In H. Byrnes (Ed.), Advanced language learning: The contribution of Holliday and Vygotsky (pp. 95-108). London:Continuum.
Swain, M. (2010). “Talking-it-through”: Languaging as a source of learning. In R. Batstone (Ed.), Sociocognitive perspectives on language use and language learning (pp.112-130). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Swales, J. (1990a). Genre analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Swales, J. (1990b). Nonnative speaker graduate engineering students and their introductions: Global coherence and local management. In U. Connor & A. Johns (Eds), Coherence in writing (p. 189-207). Alexandria, VA: TESOL
Swales, J. M. & Feak, C. B. (1994). Academic writing for graduate students: Essential tasks and skills: A course for nonnative speakers of English (English for specific purposes). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press.
Swales, J. M. & Feak, C. B. (2004). Academic writing for graduate students: Essential tasks and skills (Vol. 1). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Tarone, E. (2007). Sociolinguistic approaches to second language acquisition research--- 1997-2007. Modern Language Journal, 91, 837-848.
Thorson, H. (2000). Using the computer to compare foreign and native language writing processes: A statistical and case study approach. The Modern Language Journal, 84(2), 155-170.
Torrance, M. & Galbraith, D. (2006). The processing demands of writing. In C. A. MacArthur, S. Graham & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Handbook of writing research, 67-80. New York: Guilford Press.
Torrance, M. & Jeffery, G. (1990). Writing processes and cognitive demands. In M. Torrance & G. Jeffery (9th eds), Studies in writing: Vol. 3. The cognitive demands of writing: Processing capacity and working memory in text production (p.1-11). Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Amsterdam University Press.
van Dijk, T. (Ed.) (1985). Handbook of discourse analysis. (4 vol.). London: Academic Press.
van Dijk, T. (Ed.) (1997). Discourse as structure and process (2 vol.). London: SAGE.
Vixroei, M. (1999). An analysis of writing knowledge in EFL composing: a case study of two effective and two less effective writers. System, 27, 537-555.
Vygotsky, L. (1978). Interaction between learning and development. Readings on the development of children, 23(3), 34-41.
Whalen, K. & Ménard, N. (1995). L1 and L2 Writers' Strategic and Linguistic Knowledge: A Model of Multiple‐Level Discourse Processing. Language learning, 45(3), 381-418.
Williams, H. (2012). Cohesion and Pragmatic Theory in Second‐Language Writing Instruction. Language and Linguistics Compass, 6(12), 768-776.
Witte, S. P. (1985). Revising, composing theory, and research design. The acquisition of written language, 250-284.
Wolfersberger, M. A. (2007). Second language writing from sources: An ethnographic study of an argument essay task. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation) University of Auckland: New Zealand.
Woodall, B. R. (2002). Language-switching: Using the first language while writing in a second language. Journal of Second Language Writing, 11(1), 7-28.
Yang, W., Lu, X. & Weigle, S. C. (2015) Different topics, different discourse: Relationships among writing topic, measures of syntactic complexity, and judgment of writing quality. Journal of Second Language Learning 28, 53-67.
Zimmermann, R. (2000). L2 writing: Subprocesses. A model of formulating and empirical findings, Learning and Instruction, 10, 73-99.