||探討大一學生的英文學術寫作過程 - 個案探討
||An Investigation of English Academic Writing Process: A Case Study of Novice EFL Writers
||Department of English
||Jill Shu-Chen Chang
academic writing process
novice student writer
English writing center
||The purpose of this study was to investigate novice student writers’ (NSWs) L2 academic writing processes. The participants were four freshmen business majors. The study has three foci: the topic selection, the incorporation of relevant academic writing feedback, and three self-revisions. Drawing on qualitative research, data was collected from pre-interview questionnaires, interview transcripts, NSWs’ writing samples, teachers’ feedback along with subsequent revisions, and three self-revisions along with open-ended questionnaires.
The results of the research showed that the NSWs’ background knowledge constituted a major factor driving them to decide their L2 academic writing topics. On top of that, L1 played a crucial role on NSW’s L2 academic writing. The diversity of teachers’ feedbacks including local, global, and some writing strategies did help the NSWs to overcome some writing difficulties. However, they were unable to incorporate all the feedback immediately due to their limited linguistic and L2 academic writing knowledge. They mainly focused on the local errors corrections on their subsequent revisions. Furthermore, in the three self-revisions, they tried to use connectors to connect sentences and paragraphs, substitute words to replace their original use, and change sentence structures or organizational arrangements to convey meaning, all of which demonstrating NSWs’ increased awareness of the use of cohesive devices, and the importance of lexical choices and organizational flow in presenting ideas. Findings of the study echo the importance of reading input as a means to build fundamental background knowledge and linguistic ability to the development of writing skills.
|| TABLE OF CONTENT
CHINESE ABSTRACT ii
ENGLISH ABSTRACT iii
TABLE OF CONTENT iv
LIST OF TABLES ix
LIST OF FIGURES x
LIST OF CODING SYSTEM xi
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 2
1.3 Purpose of the Study 4
1.4 Research Questions 5
1.5 Significance of the Study 5
1.6 Definition of Terms 6
1.6.1 Novice Student Writer 6
1.6.2 Academic Writing 6
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 8
2.1 Background Knowledge 8
2.1.1 Schema 8
2.1.2 Frame and Script 9
2.1.3 First Language vs. Second Language 10
2.2 Cognitive Writing 13
2.2.1 Cognitive Writing Model 13
2.2.2 Academic Writing 16
22.214.171.124 Academic Writing Features 16
126.96.36.199 Cohesion and Coherence 18
2.3 Revision 21
2.4 Conclusion 25
CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 27
3.1 Participant 27
3.2 Data Collection 30
3.3 Material and Instrument 30
3.3.1 Coding System 32
3.3.2 Writing Material & Instrument 32
3.3.3 Group Interview 33
3.3.4 Open-ended Questionnaire 33
3.4 Procedure 33
3.5 Data Analysis 36
3.5.1 Pre-interview Questionnaire 37
3.5.2 Writing Material 37
3.5.3 Group interview 37
3.5.4 Open-ended questionnaire based on the three self-revisions 39
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS 40
4.1 The Writing Topic Selection 40
4.1.1 Summary of Self-report 41
4.2. The Incorporation of the Relevant Academic Writing Feedback 45
4.2.1 Summary and Self-report 48
4.3 Three Self-Revisions 56
4.3.1 Cohesive Device and Lexical Choices 58
4.3.2 Coherence and Organization 65
CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 74
5.1 Summary of the Study 74
5.2 Discussion of the Results 76
5.2.1 The Topic Selection 77
5.2.2 Incorporation of Relevant Academic Writing Feedback 78
5.2.3 Three Self-revisions 80
5.3 Pedagogical Implication 83
5.4 Limitations of the Study 84
5.5 Suggestions for Future Research 85
APPENDIX A 106
APPENDIX B 108
APPENDIX C 110
APPENDIX D 112
APPENDIX E 113
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1: The Comparison Table for GSAT English Subject 28
Table 3.2: Participant Information 29
Table 3.3 List of Material and Instrument 31
Table 3.4 List of Coding System 32
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1: The Cognitive Process Theory of Writing 14
Figure 2.2: The Problem-solution Writing Model 16
Figure 2.3: The Shape of G-S Text 21
Figure 3.1: Data Collection Procedure 36
LIST OF CODING SYSTEM
S1-F-2-2: Student 1 2nd Teacher’s Feedback for 2nd Writing Draft 50
S1-R-1: Student 1 Self-revision 1 59
S1-R-2: Student 1 Self-revision 2 60
S1-R-3: Student 1 Self-revision 3 61
S2-R-1: Student 2 Self-revision 1 63
S2-R-2: Student 2 Self-revision 2 64
S2-R-3: Student 2 Self-revision 3 64
S3-R-1: Student 3 Self-revision 1 67
S3-R-2: Student 3 Self-revision 2 68
S3-R-3: Student 3 Self-revision 3 68
S4-R-1: Student 4 Self-revision 1 71
S4-R-2: Student 4 Self-revision 2 72
S4-R-3: Student 4 Self-revision 3 72
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