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中文論文名稱 透過心智圖進行推測對聽力理解的成效研究:以台灣大學生為例
英文論文名稱 The Effectiveness of Making Inferences through Mind Maps on Listening Comprehension: A Study of College Students Learning English in Taiwan
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 94
學期 2
出版年 95
研究生中文姓名 李志駿
研究生英文姓名 Chih-Chun Lee
學號 691010218
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2006-06-23
論文頁數 93頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳秀潔
委員-胡映雪
委員-鄧慧君
中文關鍵字 推測  預測  心智圖  心智圖法  圖像組織  聽力理解  前導組織  言談標記 
英文關鍵字 make inferences  prediction  mind map  mindmapping  graphic organizer  listening comprehension  advance organizer  discourse marker 
學科別分類 學科別人文學語言文學
中文摘要 本研究是為了探討透過心智圖進行推測對聽力理解的成效。研究對象來自台灣北部一所大學,有119人在2005年參與第一次的研究;另105人在2006年參與第二次相同步驟且同教材的研究。所有的參與者皆平均分配為三個組別:事先教關鍵字組、透過關鍵字進行推測組及透過心智圖進行推測組。在事先教關鍵字組中,參與者每個人都發給一張講義,上面有關鍵字及中英文解說的例句,老師會講解不會的單字,並帶全班唸講義中的關鍵字跟例句。在透過關鍵字進行推測組中,參與者先分成幾個小組,每個小組都給予一張有關鍵字的講義,而這些關鍵字僅以條列式方式呈現,各組的參與者透過關鍵字對即將要聽的內容進行推測,並將所推測的可能性跟小組員討論。在透過心智圖進行推測組中,參與者先分成幾個小組,每個小組都給予一張有關鍵字的心智圖,也就是關鍵字以心智圖的方式呈現,各組的參與者透過心智圖對即將要聽的內容進行推測,並將所推測的可能性跟小組員討論 。研究者挑選兩篇獨白性的文章做為測試成效的聽力文章,而實驗中使用於三組的關鍵字則是分別從這兩篇文章中選取。兩篇單選題的聽力測驗分別在兩次實驗完後進行施測。結果顯示,透過心智圖進行推測組的學習者可能比透過關鍵字進行推測組或事先教關鍵字組的學習者在聽力理解上效果較為顯著;由其是像第二篇文章裡有較多訊息、較多令人困惑的指涉性詞語(referring expression),而一方面卻較少能使文章結構更明顯的言談標記(discourse marker)的文章,效果更為顯著。然而本研究的發現僅限於本研究所使用的兩篇文章,為了能確定心智圖的成效,後續的研究應控制好變數,以探討是否使用其他文章也會有其成效。
英文摘要 The study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of making inferences about what to be heard through mind maps on listening comprehension. One hundred and nineteen freshmen at a university in northern Taiwan participated in the first study in 2005; one hundred and five students from the same school were recruited for the replicated study in 2006. Participants either in the first or the replicated study were divided into the three groups: the pre-teaching keyword group, the keyword inference group, and the mind map group. In the pre-teaching keyword group, the subjects were given a handout with the keywords with the explanations as well as the sample sentences both in Chinese and English. The instructor explained the unknown words and led the whole class to read all of the keywords and the sample sentences. In the keyword inference group, subjects were divided into several teams, and they were asked to make inferences about what to be heard through a list of keywords given, and shared their inferences with other teammates. In the mind map group, subjects were divided into several teams, they were asked to make inferences about what to be heard through the teacher-constructed mind maps, and shared their inferences with other teammates. Two monologues were chosen, based on explicitness and directness of the information, for the listening passages to be tested, and the keywords used among the three groups were selected respectively from the two passages. Two multiple-choice comprehension tests were conducted respectively right after the treatments. Results showed that the subjects who made inferences about what to be heard through the mind map may comprehend more than those who received the pre-teaching instruction and those who made inferences through a list of keywords, especially in the second text which contain more messages and confusing referring expressions but less necessary discourse markers to make the text more salient. However, these findings are only limited to these two particular texts used in this research. For confirmation, a bigger study that uses different texts but contains similar elements is needed.
論文目次 Table of Contents

CHINESE ABSTRACT……………………………………………………….i
ENGLISH ABSTRACT……………………………………………………….ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS…………………………………………………..iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………………………..v
LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………viii
LIST OF FIGURES…………………………………………………………..ix

CHAPTER ONE– INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background……………………………………………………………………………..1
1.2 Statements of the Problem………………………………………………………..……2
1.3 Purpose of the Study……………………………………………………………….…..4
1.4 Research Questions………………………………………………………………….…6
1.5 Significance of the Study…………………………………………………………….…7
1.6 Definitions of Terms………………………………………………………………….…7

CHAPTER TWO—REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
2.1 Nature of Listening……………………………………………………………………10
2.2 Teaching Listening………………………………………………………………………13
2.2.1 Pre-listening Activities……………………………………………………………14
2.2.2 Predicting before listening………………………………………………………..15
2.2.3 Teaching Listening through Visuals……………………………………………...17
2.3 Mindmapping…………………………………………………………………………18
2.3.1 Mindmapping: its Genesis………………………………………………………18
2.3.2 Mindmapping: External Representation of Radiant Thinking……………….20
2.3.3 Elements of Mindmapping………………………………………………………21
2.3.4 Benefits of Mindmapping ……………………………………………………….22
2.3.5 Why Use Mind Maps to Present the Information……………………………...23
2.3.6 The Potential of Using Mind Maps for the Pre-listening Activities…………..30
2.4 Recent Research Studies……………………………………………………………….32
2.4.1 Recent Research on Mindmapping…………………….………………………32
2.4.2 Relevant Research on Visual Organizers………………..…………………….33

CHAPTER THREE—METHODOLOGY
3.1 Subjects…………………………………………………………………………….40
3.2 Instruments………………………………………………………………………...42
3.2.1 Teaching Materials ………………………………………………………….42
3.2.2 Testing Instruments………………………………………………………….46
3.3 Procedures………………………………………………………………………….48
3.4 Data Analysis………………………………………………………………………54

CHAPTER FOUR—RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1 Results……………………………………………………………………………...55
4.1.1 Results of the First Study…………………………………………………55
4.1.2 Results of the Replicated Study…………………………………………..59
4.2 Discussions…………………………………………………………………………62
4.2.1 Research Question One……………………………………………………..63
4.2.2 Research Question Two……………………………………………………..66
4.2.3 Research Question Three…………………………………………………...69

CHAPTER FIVE—CONCLUSIONS
5.1 Summary of the Study……………………………………………………….……72
5.2 Limitations of the Study…………………………………………………………..74
5.3 Pedagogical Implications…………………………………………………………75
5.4 Suggestions for Future Research…………………………………………………77

REFERNCES…………………………………………………………………..79
APPENDIX A: The “Shopping Problem” Mind Map…...…………………….84
APPENDIX B: The “Future Job” Mind Map………………………………….84
APPENDIX C: The “Hotel” Mind Map……………………………………….85
APPENDIX D: The Handout of “Dorm Rules” for the Pre-teaching Keyword
Group…………………………………………………………..86
APPENDIX E: The Handout of “An Unfair Experience at a Restaurant” for the Pre-teaching Keyword Group………………………………….87
APPENDIX F: The Handout of “Dorm Rules” for the Keyword Inference Group…………………………………………………………..88
APPENDIX G: The Handout of “An Unfair Experience at a Restaurant” for the Keyword Inference Group……………………………………..89
APPENDIX H: The “Dorm Rules” Passage…………………………………...90
APPENDIX I: The “An Unfair Experience” at a Restaurant Passage…………90
APPENDIX J: The First Post-test……………………………………………..91
APPENDIX K: The Second Post-test…………………………………………92

Lists of Tables

Table 1 Results of One-way ANOVA for the Pre-test………………………………..55
Table 2 Results of One-way ANOVA for the First Post-test…………………………56
Table 3 Results of One-way ANOVA for Main Effects of Treatment on the
Second Post-test………………………………………………………………..56
Table 4 T-test Results for Main Effects of the Pre-teaching Keyword Treatment and the Keyword Inference Treatment on the Second Post-test………………57
Table 5 T-test Results for Main Effects of the Pre-teaching Keyword Treatment and the Mind map Treatment on the Second Post-test………………………...58
Table 6 T-test Results for Main Effects of the Keyword Inference Treatment and the Mind map Treatment on the Second Post-test…………………………….58
Table 7 Results of One-way ANOVA for the Pre-test………………………………..59
Table 8 Results of One-way ANOVA for the First Post-test…………………………60
Table 9 Results of One-way ANOVA for the Second Post-test………………………60
Table 10 T-test Results for Main Effects of the Pre-teaching Keyword Treatment and the Keyword Inference Treatment on the Second Post-test………………61
Table 11 T-test Results for Main Effects of the Pre-teaching Keyword Treatment and the Mind map Treatment on the Second Post-test……………………61
Table 12 T-test Results for Main Effects of the Keyword Inference Treatment and the Mind map Treatment on the Second Post-test………………………...62

Lists of Figures

Figure 1 The “About Me” mind map………………………………………………....21

Figure 2 The branch of the “An Unpleasant Experience at a Restaurant”
mind map……………………………………………………………………..27

Figure 3 The “An Unpleasant Experience at a Restaurant” mind map……………28

Figure 4 The “Dorm Rules” mind map………………………………………………45

Figure 5 The “An Unpleasant Experience at a Restaurant” mind map……………46

Figure 6 The branch of the “love” mind map constructed by a subject……………52


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