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系統識別號 U0002-2307201221414900
中文論文名稱 無線感知網路之多頻道媒體存取控制技術
英文論文名稱 A Multi-Channel MAC Protocol for Cognitive Radio Networks
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生中文姓名 藍念慈
研究生英文姓名 Nian-Ci Lan
學號 600410020
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
第二語文別 英文
口試日期 2012-06-07
論文頁數 137頁
口試委員 指導教授-張志勇
指導教授-鄭建富
委員-廖文華
委員-張兆村
委員-游國忠
委員-張志勇
中文關鍵字 感知無線電  媒介存取控制通訊協定  感知網路  多頻道 
英文關鍵字 Cognitive Radio  MAC protocol  CRNs  Multi-Channel 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學資訊工程
中文摘要 近年來,由於無線網路使用者日益增加,開發多頻道利用率已受到學者們的重視,而會面問題與多頻道隱藏節點問題是Multi-Channel中首要解決的兩大挑戰,如何發展一好的協定以克服其兩大挑戰,已成為一熱門的研究議題。此外,由於Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs)環境,皆為多頻道之網路環境,因此,亦必須克服會面問題與多頻道隱藏節點問題,且現存之次級使用者(Secondary Users,SUs)如何能達到不影響優先使用者(Primary Users,PUs)傳輸的前提下,尋找並使用其頻道傳輸,亦為一重要的研究議題。因此,本論文針對CRNs環境與一般多頻道網路環境研發出三種不同的MAC Protocol,分別為SMC-CR-MAC、QM-MAC與HM-MAC,其中SMC-CR-MAC作用於CRNs中,QM-MAC與HM-MAC則作用於一般的多頻道網路環境中。SMC-CR-MAC,將解決SUs會面與頻寬資源浪費的問題,使各個SUs能夠在不影響PUs的情況下進行資料傳輸,提高頻寬利用率以及降低SUs的資料傳輸延遲時間。透過QM-MAC,能夠提高網路效能,HM-MAC則針對QM-MAC所產生的公平性問題進行修改,進一步達到網路平衡。
英文摘要 Recently, developing the Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol has been considered in such a way for improving the utilization of wireless spectrum. However, to develop the multi-channel MAC protocol, there are two challenges need to be considered, the Rendezvous Problem and Multi-Channel Hidden Terminal Problem. To handle the rendezvous problem, some literatures can be classified into the control-channel based (CCB) channel model. In this channel model, all node stay on the control channel to reserve the proper data channel for data exchange. Nevertheless, the channel model will introduced the multi-channel hidden terminal problem. Herein, to overcome the above-mentioned problems, other previous studies can fall into the class of control-period based channel model (CPB) channel model. In this channel model, all nodes stay on the ATIM window of the predefined channel to exchange control packets to reserve the data window. However, since all nodes should switch to the default channel for participating in the ATIM windows, the ATIM windows of all channels other than the default channel will not be used, resulting in poor network performance.
This thesis firstly proposed two multi-channel MAC protocols which aim at improving the channel utilization without rendezvous and multi-channel hidden terminal problems. The first MAC protocol, named QM-MAC, employs the concept of the Quorum system. By applying the Quorum system, the node only equips with one transceiver can resolve the rendezvous and multi-channel hidden terminal problems. Moreover, the network throughput can be obviously improved. On the other hand, in the second multi-channel MAC protocol, called HM-MAC, applies the Hadamard matrix to increase the network performance in terms of the utilization of control window, traffic load-balanced, and network throughput.
As a result, the wireless spectrum can be fully utilized, however, the wireless spectrum demand has greatly increased in the last few decades because that the rapid deployment of new wireless devices and applications. Cognitive Radio (CR) is a novel and promising spectrum management technique proposed recently, which is able to alleviate the inefficient spectrum utilization and spectrum scarcity problems by opportunistically employing portions of the licensed bands.
To ensure that the operation of licensed users will not be adversely affected, this paper proposes a stepwise multi-channel MAC protocol, called SMC-CR-MAC. By applying the proposed SMC-CR-MAC protocol, the spectrum utilization can be maximized, hence increasing the network throughput. In addition, two types of the detection situations are considered. According to the detection situation, several problems might occur, resulting in the failure data exchange. To successfully exchange data between sender and receiver, the proposed SMC-CR-MAC applies Contiguous Channel Swap and Sender-Receiver Channel Swap approaches. By applying above two approaches, the rendezvous, packet collision and the channel congestion problems can be overcome. Simulation results show that the proposed QM-MAC, HM-MAC and SMC-CR-MAC protocols can obviously improve the network performance in terms of utilization of wireless spectrum, traffic load-balanced, and network throughput.
論文目次 目錄
圖目錄 VI
表目錄 IX
第一章 簡介 1
第二章 相關研究 8
第三章 SMC-CR-MAC Protocol 12
3.1 網路環境與問題描述 12
3.1.1 網路環境 12
3.1.2 問題描述 13
3.2 THE PROPOSED MAC PROTOCOL 17
3.2.1 Channel Model 17
3.2.2 Homogeneous Sensing Situation 22
3.2.3 Heterogeneous Sensing Situation 32
3.3 SMC-CR-MAC流程圖與演算法 36
3.4 實驗數據及結果 41
3.4.1 實驗環境 41
3.4.2 模擬結果 42
第四章 QM-MAC Protocol 55
4.1 網路環境與問題描述 55
4.2 Preliminary 59
4.3 THE PROPOSED MAC PROTOCOL 61
4.3.1 Applied Channel Model 61
4.3.2 Basic QM-MAC 63
4.3.3 Advanced QM-MAC 70
4.4 實驗數據及結果 80
4.4.1 模擬環境 80
4.4.2 模擬結果 81
第五章 HM-MAC Protocol 90
5.1 網路環境與問題描述 90
5.2 THE PROPOSED MAC PROTOCOL 94
5.2.1 Applied Channel Model 94
5.2.2 HM-MAC 96
5.3 HM-MAC流程圖與演算法 109
5.4 實驗數據及結果 111
5.4.1 模擬環境 111
5.4.2 模擬結果 112
第六章 結論 120
參考文獻 123
附錄—英文論文 128

圖目錄
圖1.1 無線感知網路示意圖 2
圖3.1 The Channel Model of SMC-CR-MAC 18
圖3.2 Bitmap用法之示意圖 21
圖3.3 SU傳輸對執行CCSA以尋找合適的頻道進行會面 28
圖3.4 SU執行SRCSA以繼續未完成的資料傳輸 32
圖3.5 SMC-CR-MAC之流程圖 36
圖3.6 The procedure of SMC-CR-MAC protocol 37
圖3.7 HOSS的處理程序 38
圖3.8 HESS的處理程序 40
圖3.9 在沒有PU出現的情況下,不同頻道數對於網路吞吐量的影響 43
圖3.10 當PU出現在control channel/ATIM window對於SU傳輸對會面機率的影響 44
圖3.11 當PU出現在control channel/ATIM window對於SU傳輸對網路吞吐量的影響 46
圖3.12 當PU出現在 data channel/DATA window對於SU傳輸對網路吞吐量的影響 47
圖3.13 PU出現的機率與時間長對於平均封包延遲時間及網路吞吐量的影響 49
圖3.14 SU傳輸對數量對於網路吞吐量的影響 50
圖3.15 SU傳輸對數對於頻道流量標準差的影響 52
圖3.16 PU出現的時間長短對於網路吞吐量的影響 53
圖3.17 PU出現的機率與時間長度對於網路吞吐量的影響 54
圖4.1 The Channel Model of QM-MAC 63
圖4.2 Basic QM-MAC之主機會面與排程 66
圖4.3 Primary Matrix用法之例子 70
圖4.4 Advanced QM-MAC之主機會面與排程 73
圖4.5 Advanced QM-MAC之主機會面公平化 75
圖4.6 QM-MAC之流程圖 78
圖4.7 The procedure of QM-MAC protocol 79
圖4.8 不同頻道數對於主機在ATIM Winodw中會面成功率的影響 82
圖4.9 不同頻道數對於網路吞吐量的影響 84
圖4.10 不同的網路流量對於網路吞吐量的影響 85
圖4.11 不同的網路流量對於平均延遲時間的影響 86
圖4.12 不同的傳輸對數量對於網路吞吐量的影響 87
圖4.13 不同的傳輸對數量對於封包碰撞率的影響 88
圖4.14 不同的contol slot數量對於網路吞吐量的影響 89
圖5.1 The Channel Model of HM-MAC 96
圖5.2 HM-MAC之不同頻道主機會面與排程 101
圖5.3 HM-MAC之相同頻道主機會面與排程 104
圖5.4 HM-MAC之例子 106
圖5.5 HM-MAC之流程圖 109
圖5.6 The procedure of HM-MAC protocol 110
圖5.7 不同頻道數對於主機在ATIM Winodw中會面成功率的影響 113
圖5.8 不同頻道數對於網路吞吐量的影響 114
圖5.9 不同的網路流量對於網路吞吐量的影響 115
圖5.10 不同的網路流量對於平均延遲時間的影響 116
圖5.11 不同的傳輸對數量對於網路吞吐量的影響 118
圖5.12 不同的傳輸對數量對於封包碰撞率的影響 119

表目錄
表3.1 SMC-CR-MAC實驗參數 42
表4.1 QM-MAC符號表 56
表4.2 QM-MAC實驗參數 81
表5.1 HM-MAC符號表 91
表5.2 HM-MAC實驗參數 112
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