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系統識別號 U0002-2307201215280500
中文論文名稱 因應歐盟航空碳排稅之航空公司航線網路規劃研究
英文論文名稱 Airline network flight frequency determination and adjustment in response to EU airline emissions charges
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 運輸管理學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Transportation Management
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生中文姓名 吳佩璇
研究生英文姓名 Pei-Syuan Wu
學號 699660022
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2012-06-18
論文頁數 93頁
口試委員 指導教授-溫裕弘
委員-黃寬丞
委員-湯慶輝
中文關鍵字 航空公司航線網路規劃  歐盟碳交易機制  航空碳排稅  多目標規劃 
英文關鍵字 Airline Network Modeling  European Union Emissions Trading Scheme  Airline Emission Charges  Multiobjective Programming 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學管理學
中文摘要 歐盟從2012年起將開始把國際航空運輸納入碳排放交易機制(European Union Emissions Trading Scheme, EU ETS)中,以對抗全球氣候暖化。此舉對航空運輸業之影響深遠,即自2012年起,不論歐盟與非歐盟籍之航空公司,飛航歐洲境內起降航班及到離歐盟境內機場之航班,均納入EU ETS範圍內,徵收碳排放交易稅(簡稱碳排稅)。鑒此,航空運輸業之節能減碳將成為重要趨勢,且成為航空公司之核心營運策略。航空公司如何因應碳排稅進行營運策略之調整、重新規劃航線、班機頻次、機型指派,以達到節能減碳之目標,即成為值得深入研究與探討之議題。
本研究主要探討航空公司因應歐盟EU ETS航空碳排稅下之航線網路最適對策規劃,嘗試考慮航空碳排稅最小化、航空公司成本及旅客一般化成本最小化,並整合旅客需求互動架構,建構航空公司航線網路多目標規劃模式。透過模式求解與分析,探討航空公司航機減排措施與最適航線與班機因應調整規劃。並分析規劃結果在碳排量、班機頻次、營運成本、票價之影響,且探討旅客受票價調整之航線旅客運量反應變動,深入剖析目標函數值之間的權衡取捨率,以及碳排對策之正面效益與負面影響之間的相互權衡。最後,本研究以我國國籍航空公司為應用範例,進行模式驗證與求解,再透過情境分析與敏感度測試,探討重要參變數之影響,如碳排額度變動、碳交易價格變動、承載率變動、加入新型航機重新規劃以及新增航點重新規劃,分析航空公司因應對策所產生之碳排稅效益及其對航空公司成本與旅客一般化成本之影響,並推論航空公司具體可行之因應策略。本研究透過範例分析進行模式之求解,範例分析結果顯示,歐洲航線之承載率提高後,航線頻次會降低,可有效減少碳排稅。置換航機後顯示,使用新航機具有節省燃油之效益,大幅降低碳排稅,航空公司營運成本以及旅客一般化旅行成本亦會降低。當航點增加,改採轉機航線時,縮短進入歐洲航線之航距,具較有節省碳排稅之效益。綜上所述,航空公司可衡量本身機隊條件、各航線特性,規劃決策最適之航線、機型與頻次,以降低航空碳排稅對營運及旅客之衝擊。
英文摘要 Based on the implementation of the European Commission on including the aviation sector into the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS), airlines will face the severe challenge on airline emission charges. Non-European airlines will be included from 2012 with their flights that operate in and out of the European Union (EU). Therefore, how to design and planning a network in response to airline emission charges and changes in demand is very important for airlines to enhance their performance and remain competitive.
This study develops an airline network modeling responsive to airline emission charges, to determine the operational strategies in airline flight frequencies, routing, aircraft emission reduction, aircraft re-assignment. The demand-supply interaction for airline network resulted from the changes in passenger demand is also discussed. This study develops a multiobjective programming model for airline network planning that systematically minimizes the total emission charges, the total airline operating costs, and the total passenger generalized costs. This study proposes an algorithm that integrated weighted-sum method and an interative scheme to solve the airline network multiobjective programming problem with demand-supply interactions. A case study with selected airline flight networks and other data was provided to illustrate the results and the application of the proposed models. Moreover, a group of optimal airline network plans was determined by applying multiobjective programming. These groups of solutions not only provide flexibility in decision making with three objectives, but also show the trade-offs between benefits of emission reduction and costs of airline and passengers. Sensitivity analysis and scenario analysis were also discussed. The numerical results explored the effect of airline emissions charges on airline flight routing and frequencies, aircraft types and assignment, and network structure. The results of this study provide higher flexibility on decision-making for airline network design in response to airline emission charges.
論文目次 目 錄
誌謝 i
中文摘要 iii
英文摘要 iv
目 錄 v
表 目 錄 vi
圖 目 錄 vii
第一章 緒論 1
1.1背景與動機 1
1.2研究目的 2
1.3研究範圍 3
1.4研究流程與架構 4
第二章 文獻回顧 7
2.1歐盟EU ETS航空碳排稅規範 7
2.2航空網路規劃相關文獻 11
2.2.1經濟與計量分析方法 11
2.2.2作業研究/數學規劃模式 12
2.3航空碳排稅對航空公司影響相關文獻 15
2.4航空公司節油減碳之措施 17
2.5小結 25
第三章 模式建構 26
3.1航空公司航線網路與營運成本 26
3.2旅客一般化成本與反應函數 29
3.3航空碳排稅函數 32
3.4航空公司航線網路多目標規劃模式與求解 34
第四章 範例分析 38
4.1航空網路航線機型頻次規劃 38
4.2航空網路規劃分析 48
4.3敏感度與情境分析 56
4.4小結 84
第五章 結論與建議 86
5.1 結論 86
5.2 建議 88
參考文獻 89



表 目 錄
表2. 1餐車減重之減碳成效 20
表2. 2紙本減重之減碳效果 20
表2. 3航空公司之節油減碳措施比較 24
表4. 1 C航空公司網路之航線設定 41
表4. 2可行機型及承載率 41
表4. 3各機型相關資料 42
表4. 4 C航空公司起迄對之每週運量預測 42
表4. 5各航線可行機型之單位哩程成本 43
表4. 6各航線可行機型之耗油量 44
表4. 7旅客航線票價 46
表4. 8機場時間估算結果 46
表4. 9各航線之旅客旅行時間 47
表4. 10歐盟碳交易市場下C航空公司之碳額度 47
表4. 11航線網路規劃結果 52
表4. 12權重組合之非劣解彙整表 54
表4. 13碳排額度變動後之網路規劃結果 58
表4. 14碳交易價格變動之網路規劃結果 62
表4. 15承載率變動後之網路規劃結果 67
表4. 16各航線之新增候選機型與承載率 71
表4. 17新增候選航機之資料 71
表4. 18各航線之新增候選機型之單位哩程成本 72
表4. 19各航線之新增候選機型之航線耗油量 72
表4. 20加入新機型後重新規劃結果 74
表4. 21航空公司購置新機型之益本比 76
表4. 22 C航空公司新航點之航線設定 78
表4. 23新航點航線可行機型及承載率 78
表4. 24 C航空公司新航點之起迄對每週量預測 78
表4. 25新航點航線可行機型之單位哩程成本 79
表4. 26新航點航線之可行機型耗油量 79
表4. 27新航點航線之旅客票價 79
表4. 28新增航點之航線網路規劃結果 81




圖 目 錄
圖1. 1研究流程圖 5
圖1. 2研究架構圖 6
圖2. 1碳交易額度之情境示意圖 9
圖2. 2 EU ETS之工作與推動時程 10
圖3. 1多目標規劃與供需互動求解流程 36
圖4. 1航空公司航線網路示意圖 39
圖4. 2不同權重與相對應非劣解之目標空間 55
圖4. 3 Z1Z2之目標空間圖 55
圖4. 4 Z2Z3之目標空間圖 55
圖4. 5 Z1Z3之目標空間圖 55
圖4. 6不同免費碳額度下之航空公司營運成本變動情形 59
圖4. 7不同免費碳額度下之旅客一般化旅行成本變動情形 59
圖4. 8不同免費碳額度下之碳排稅變動情形 60
圖4. 9不同免費碳額度下之每位旅客之碳排稅比較 60
圖4. 10不同碳交易價格下之航空公司營運成本變動情形 63
圖4. 11不同碳交易價格下之旅客一般化旅行成本變動情形 63
圖4. 12不同碳交易價格下之碳排稅變動情形 64
圖4. 13不同碳交易價格下之每位旅客之碳排稅比較 64
圖4. 14不同承載率下之航空公司營運成本變動情形 68
圖4. 15不同承載率下之旅客一般化旅行成本變動情形 68
圖4. 16不同承載率下之碳排稅變動情形 69
圖4. 17不同承載率下之每位旅客之碳排稅比較 69
圖4. 18加入新機型後之航空公司營運成本變動情形 75
圖4. 19加入新機型後之旅客一般化旅行成本變動情形 75
圖4. 20加入新機型後之碳排稅變動情形 75
圖4. 21新增航點後之航空公司營運成本變動情形 82
圖4. 22新增航點後之旅客一般化旅行成本變動情形 82
圖4. 23新增航點後之碳排稅變動情形 83
圖4. 24新增航點前後之每位旅客之碳排稅比較 83
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