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系統識別號 U0002-2307200710003100
中文論文名稱 梭佛克里斯及莎士比亞四悲劇中英雄違抗神諭之研究
英文論文名稱 A Study of the Hero’s Disdain of Augury in Four of Sophoclean and Shakespearen Tragedies
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 95
學期 2
出版年 96
研究生中文姓名 劉 佳 瑜
研究生英文姓名 Chia-yu Liu
學號 887010022
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2007-06-15
論文頁數 216頁
口試委員 指導教授-宋美璍
委員-黃美序
委員-黃逸民
委員-蔡振興
委員-王名楷
中文關鍵字 神諭  英雄神化  聖言  預言  模稜兩可話語 
英文關鍵字 augury  heroization  oracle  prophecy  equvocation 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本論文旨在研究悲劇中英雄違抗神諭—即拒絕神諭、徵兆、預言、神靈、及先知。在梭佛克里斯之《伊底帕斯王》和《伊底帕斯在科羅那斯》及莎士比亞之《哈姆雷特》和《馬克白》中,英雄為其尊榮權貴而向神靈及先知挑戰。
在《伊底帕斯王》劇裡,預言必定應驗也意味著命運終會實現。在《伊底帕斯在科羅那斯》劇裡,伊底帕斯不再與神明對立,終於成為神話英雄。
哈姆雷特曾一度反抗鬼魂所託付之任務,但終為其父報仇。其特殊的身份及鬼魂的託付使他成為命運的俘虜。在《馬克白》劇裡,馬克白的政治野心使他不斷地信任巫婆,最後他照字面解釋幽靈的話語而導致滅亡,他真是巫婆及神靈之玩物。



英文摘要 This dissertation examines the hero’s disdain of augury including the refusal of signs, oracles, prophecies, spirits or seers to speak of the future. In Sophocles’ Oedipus the King and Oedipus at Colonus and Shakespeare’s Hamlet and Macbeth, the heroes challenge the gods and the prophets in order to claim their own values.
In Oedipus the King, the oracle which is bound to prove true appears to suggest a destiny which is bound to be fulfilled. In Oedipus at Colonus, Oedipus becomes a collaborator with Apollo instead of being an opponent of the divine. In this play, it presents us with the heroization of Oedipus, who blesses friends and curses enemies.
Like young Oedipus, Hamlet resists a fate imposed by an authority that he questions. Hamlet has his revenge not in murder but in effective use of language. Being subject to his birth, fastened by Claudius, and commanded by the ghost, Hamlet is the captive of his fate. In Macbeth, Macbeth’s political ambition causes him to cooperate and continue trusting the witches until the final scene. He takes the apparitions’ equivocal words literally and is misled into disaster. He is the plaything of supernatural powers.


論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i

ABSTRACT (Chinese) ii TABLE OF CONTENTS iii
Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………1

Chapter One: Supernatural Signs: Representation of Augury…………………………23
I. Signs, Oracles, and Prophecies
II. Ghosts and Witches

Chapter Two: Oedipus the King: the Breach between the Divine and the Human …48
I. The Oracle in Athenian Culture and in Tragedy
II. Oedipus and Oracles

Chapter Three: Oedipus at Colonus: Oedipus’s Heroization………………………101
I. Oedipus’s Curses and Blessings
II. A Hero of Cults

Chapter Four: Hamlet: “A Pipe for Fortune’s Finger”……………………………131
I. Hamlet and Oedipus
II. Hamlet: the Defier of Augury

Chapter Five: Macbeth: The Plaything of the Supernatural Powers…………………161
I. The Annoying Prophecy
II. The Equivocation of the Witches

Chapter Six: Conclusion…………………………………………………………………192

Works Cited………………………………………………………………………………203

參考文獻 Works Cited
I. Primary Texts
Sophocles. The Oedipus Plays of Sophocles. Trans. Paul Roches. New York: New American Library, 1986. All quotations from Sophocles’ plays are taken from this version.
Shakespeare, William. “The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark.” The Riverside Shakespeare. Ed. G. Blakemore Evans. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1974. All quotations from Hamlet are taken from this version.
---. “ The Tragedy of Macbeth.” The Riverside Shakespeare. Ed. G. Blakemore Evans. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1974. All quotations from Macbeth are taken from this version.
1I. Greek Tragedies
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Blundell, Mary Whitlock. A Study in Sophocles and Greek Ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1989.
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Bowra, C. M. Sophoclean Tragedy. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1944.
Burian, Peter. “Soppliant and Savior: Oedipus at Colonus.” Phoenix 28 (1974 ): 408-29.
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Flaceliire, Robert. Greek Oracles. Trans. Douglas Garman. New York: W. H. Norton, 1965.
Fontenrose, Joseph. The Delphic Oracle: Its Responses and Operations with a Catalogue of Responses. Berkeley: U of California P, 1978.
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Girard, Rene. Violence and the Sacred. Trans. Patrick Gregory. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1977.
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Gregory, Justina. “ The Encounter at the Crossroads in Sophocles’ Oedipus Tyrannus.” The Journal of Hellenic Studies 115 (1995): 141-46.
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Lesky, Albin. Greek Tragedy. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1965.
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Nietzche, Friedrich. The Birth of Tragedy and the Case of Wagner. Trans. Walter Kaufmann. New York: Random, 1967.
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Redfield, James M. Nature and Culture in “The Iliad”: The Tragedy of Hector.
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---. Sophocles’ Tragic World: Divinity, Nature, Society. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1995.
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