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系統識別號 U0002-2306201411183100
中文論文名稱 觀光休閒產業的發展是否能降低所得分配不均及消弭貧窮?
英文論文名稱 Does tourism reduce poverty and income inequality? A dynamic panel data approach
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 經濟學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Economics
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生中文姓名 洪汶璟
研究生英文姓名 Wen-Ching Hung
電子信箱 idun80412@hotmail.com
學號 602570078
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2014-06-20
論文頁數 65頁
口試委員 指導教授-林亦珍
委員-黃台心
委員-李鈞元
中文關鍵字 觀光  貧窮  所得分配  動態縱橫資料模型 
英文關鍵字 Tourism  income inequality  poverty  dynamic panel data model 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本文旨在探討觀光發展,在提升經濟成長的同時,是否能消弭貧窮和改善所得分配?應用動態縱橫資料模型於67個國家1996-2011年之資料,我們發現發展觀光的確可以降低吉尼係數和高所得者的所得份額,並提升低所得者的所得份額。此外,本文實證結果顯示,發展觀光可降低貧窮率和貧窮缺口。不過,在觀光休閒產業的發展程度較高的國家,發展觀光卻會使得貧窮和所得分配惡化。
英文摘要 The goal of this thesis is to examine whether tourism alleviates poverty and income inequality. We apply the dynamic panel data model to data from 67 countries over the period 1996-2011 and find that tourism is negatively associated with the Gini coefficient and the income share of the highest quintile and positively associated with the income share of the lowest quintile. We also find that tourism is negatively linked to poverty gap and poverty headcount ratio. These results suggest that tourism can be used as a mechanism to reduce poverty and income inequality.
論文目次 目錄
表目錄 II
圖目錄 III
第一章 序論 1
第二章 文獻回顧 4
第一節 觀光發展與經濟成長 4
第二節 觀光發展與貧窮、所得分配 7
第三節 動態縱橫資料模型的應用 10
第三章 資料來源與變數定義 12
第四章 研究方法 20
第五章 研究結果-觀光發展與所得分配 23
第一節 觀光發展與吉尼係數之關係 23
第二節 觀光發展與所得份額之關係 25
第六章 研究結果-觀光發展與貧窮 40
第一節 觀光發展與貧窮缺口之關係 40
第二節 觀光發展與貧窮率之關係 46
第七章 結論與政策建議 55
參考文獻 57

表目錄
表 3- 1 應變數定義 16
表 3- 2 應變數敘述統計量 16
表 3- 3 觀光變數定義 17
表 3- 4 觀光變數敘述統計量 17
表 3- 5 控制變數定義 18
表 3- 6 控制變數敘述統計量 18
表 3- 7 樣本國家 19
表 5- 1 迴歸結果-Giniall和WBarrivals的關係 30
表 5- 2 迴歸結果-Giniall和WBRecForPTI的關係 31
表 5- 3 迴歸結果-ISHH10和WBarrivals的關係 32
表 5- 4 迴歸結果-ISHH20和capinvtoGDP的關係 33
表 5- 5 迴歸結果-ISHL10和TTDirectToEmpToPop的關係 34
表 5- 6 迴歸結果-ISHL10和WBarrivals的關係 35
表 5- 7 迴歸結果-ISHL10和WBRecForPTI的關係 36
表 5- 8 迴歸結果-ISHL20和LeisureToGDP的關係 37
表 5- 9 迴歸結果-ISHL20和WBarrivals的關係 38
表 5- 10 迴歸結果-ISHL20和WBRecForTravelItems的關係 39
表 6- 1 迴歸結果-PGat2ADay和capinvtoGDP的關係 49
表 6- 2 迴歸結果-PGat2ADay和WBarrivals的關係 50
表 6- 3 迴歸結果-PGat125ADay和capinvtoGDP的關係 51
表 6- 4 迴歸結果-PHRat2ADay和capinvtoGDP的關係 52
表 6- 5 迴歸結果-PHRat125ADay和capinvtoGDP的關係 53
表 6- 6 迴歸結果-PHRat125ADay和WBarrivals的關係 54

圖目錄
圖 1- 1 旅遊與觀光產值佔國內生產毛額的比重 2
圖 1- 2 旅遊與觀光從業人口佔總人口的比重 3
圖 5- 1 國籍航空從外國入境觀光客收到的收入占國內生產毛額的比重對吉尼係數的邊際效果 24
圖 5- 2 國外入境遊客人數占總人口比例對前10%所得的人口之所得占總所得的比例的邊際效果 25
圖 5- 3 觀光休閒業就業人口占總人口的比例對後10%所得的人口之所得占總所得的比例的邊際效果 27
圖 5- 4 國籍航空從外國入境觀光客所收到的收入占國內生產毛額比重對後10%所得的人口之所得占總所得的比例的邊際效果 27
圖 5- 5 國外遊客及本國居民在本國休閒旅遊支出占國內生產毛額的比例對後20%所得的人口之所得占總所得的比例的邊際效果 29
圖 5- 6 國外入境遊客人數占總人口比例對後20%所得的人口之所得占總所得比例的邊際效果 29
圖 6- 1 觀光產業的資本投資金額占國內生產毛額的比例對貧窮缺口(每人每日所得2美元)的邊際效果 41
圖 6- 2 在不同平均受教年數之下,外國入境遊客人數占總人口之比例對貧窮缺口(每人每日所得2美元)的邊際效果 43
圖 6- 3 外國入境遊客人數占總人口之比例對貧窮缺口(每人每日所得2美元)的邊際效果 43
圖 6- 4 在不同平均受教年數之下,外國入境遊客人數占總人口之比例對貧窮缺口(每人每日所得2美元)的邊際效果 44
圖 6- 5 在不同入境觀光客人數占總人口比重之下,平均受教育年數對貧窮缺口(每人每日所得2美元)的邊際效果 44
圖 6- 6 觀光產業的資本投資金額占國內生產毛額的比重對貧窮缺口(每人每日所得1.25美元)的邊際效果 45
圖 6- 7 觀光產業的資本投資金額占國內生產毛額的比重對每人每日所得低於2美元的貧窮人口占總人口比例的邊際效果 46
圖 6- 8 觀光產業的資本投資金額占國內生產毛額的比重對每人每日所得低於1.25美元的貧窮人口占總人口比例的邊際效果 47
圖 6- 9 外國入境遊客人數占總人口之比例對每人每日所得低於1.25美元的貧窮人口占總人口比例的邊際效果 48

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