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中文論文名稱 冷戰後法國重返北約組織之研究
英文論文名稱 The study of France's return to NATO after the Cold War
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 國際事務與戰略研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生中文姓名 林永翰
研究生英文姓名 Yung-Han Lin
學號 696330165
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2010-06-18
論文頁數 158頁
口試委員 指導教授-李大中
委員-鄭大誠
委員-王高成
中文關鍵字 法國  北約  歐洲安全自主  北約轉型  戴高樂主義  大西洋聯盟 
英文關鍵字 France  NATO  European Security Autonomy  NATO Transformation  Gaullism  Transatlantic Community 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學政治學
學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 本論文主要探討法國在後冷戰時期如何重返北大西洋公約組織,並且討論最終是什麼原因讓法國在1966年退出該組織後,從原本排擠美國與北約組織在歐洲之影響力,轉變而成參與對北約組織的整合進程,甚至明確表示改造北約組織內部的決策程序與軍事結構,與強化歐盟的防衛行動能力是維護歐洲安全一體的兩面,充分發揮其在北約組織中的影響力。

在本論文中欲達到的研究目的有:
檢視冷戰結束後,法國與北約組織之間的互動關係,以及法國逐步重返北約組織軍事架構的過程;
分析後冷戰時代,北約組織轉型對於法國及歐洲安全與防衛的意涵及影響為何;
了解法國建構歐洲安全自主之意涵,即其與北約組織產生競合之課題;
以國家層次、國際層次,以及全球層次等三方面因素分析法國重新返回北約組織過程中,行為及態度轉變的根本考量。
英文摘要 The purpose of this thesis is to discuss how France, in the Post-Cold War era, returned to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). This thesis attempts to discuss the dynamics of France’s shift; namely, what made the country to change its former stance of rejecting the influence from the United States and NATO in Europe after withdrawing from the organization in 1966 and to rejoin the integration process of NATO. Moreover, it made a clear indication of its willingness in transforming the decision-making procedure and the military structure within NATO as well as strengthening the defense ability of the European Union. The aforementioned are two sides of European security which would make France fully enlarge its influence in NATO.

The purposes of this thesis are as follows:
It is to see the interaction and interrelation between France and NATO, and the process of France’s return to NATO’s military structure;
It tends to analyze the meaning and the effect of NATO’s transformation towards French and European security and defense;
It helps to understand the meaning of France’s establishment of European security autonomy and the competition and cooperation between itself and NATO;
It analyzes France’s basic consideration in the process of the returning to NATO which can be classified into three levels: domestic level, international level and global level.
論文目次 第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
一、研究動機 1
二、研究目的 3
第二節 研究方法 4
一、歷史研究法 4
二、文獻分析法 5
三、比較分析法 5
第三節 研究範圍與限制 6
一、研究範圍 6
二、研究限制 8
第四節 研究架構與架構圖 9
一、研究架構 9
二、架構圖 11
第五節 文獻檢閱 12
第二章 冷戰期間法國加入及退出北約組織的動機 17
第一節 法國加入北約組織的背景及原因 17
一、緊密的兩極國際體系 17
二、經濟問題 20
三、安全問題 21
第二節 第四共和與北約組織的疏離 23
一、北約組織內部的地位問題 24
二、重新武裝西德問題 25
三、發展核武問題 27
四、蘇伊士運河事件 28
五、海外殖民地戰爭問題 29
第三節 法國退出北約組織的動機及過程 33
一、戴高樂主義的外交思維 33
二、鬆散的兩極國際體系 36
三、北約組織安全保障的可信度 36
四、退出北約組織的過程 37
第四節 小結 40
第三章 北約組織轉型對法國及歐洲的影響 43
第一節 北約組織轉型的背景 43
一、國際體系的改變 44
二、歐洲安全環境的變遷 45
三、美國的全球戰略 49
第二節 北約組織轉型的意涵 50
一、擴充政治職能 51
二、境外的危機處理與維和行動 55
三、強化架構內的歐洲支柱 57
四、東擴吸納新成員 59
第三節 北約組織轉型的影響 61
一、對美國的意義 61
二、對歐洲盟國的意義 63
三、對法國的影響 65
第四節 小結 73
第四章 法國推動歐洲安全自主與北約組織之競合 77
第一節 法國領導歐洲建立外交政策整合的背景與發展 78
一、歐洲政治合作(EPC)的開端 79
二、單一歐洲法(SEA)予以法制化 81
三、歐洲聯盟條約形成共同外交暨安全政策(CFSP) 82
四、阿姆斯特丹條約的補強 85
第二節 法國推動歐洲建立自主軍事行動能力的發展 87
一、歐洲聯軍的建立 88
二、北約架構內的歐洲安全暨防衛實體(ESDI) 91
三、聖馬洛高峰會與歐洲安全暨防衛政策(ESDP)的建立 95
第三節 法國領導歐洲安全自主的影響 98
一、對美國與北約組織產生之影響 98
二、對法國產生之影響 102
第四節 小結 104
第五章 法國重返北約組織的過程及影響 107
第一節 法國重新返回北約組織的過程 108
一、密特朗執政時期(1991-1995):遲緩地整合 108
二、席哈克執政時期(1995-2007):加速並擴大整合進程 111
三、薩科奇執政時期(2007至今):全面重返 116
第二節 法國重新返回北約組織的影響 121
一、對北約組織的影響 122
二、對「歐洲安全暨防衛政策」的影響 124
三、對法國國家安全的影響 126
四、對法、美關係的影響 127
第三節 小結 129
第六章 結論與研究心得 131
一、法國與北約組織互動的內、外部因素 131
二、法國戴高樂主義的堅持與延續 133
三、被迫與主動 136
四、歐洲安全自主能力發展的前景 136
五、北約組織在大西洋安全防衛的地位 138
參考資料 141

參考文獻 一、中文專書

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四、英文期刊與專文

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NATO. “Declaration on Peace and Cooperation,” http://www.nato.int/cps/en/SID-E8568909-D9E9E9B3/natolive/official_texts_23846.htm?selectedLocale=en (accessed March 23, 2010);
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NATO. “France moves on reintegrating NATO’s military structure,” http://www.nato.int/shape/news/2009/07/090727a.html (accessed May 13, 2010).
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NATO. “Ministerial Meeting of the North Atlantic Council held at NATO Headquarters: Final Communiqué,” (Brussels: 5 December 1995) http://www.nato.int/docu/comm/49-95/c951205a.htm (accessed March 28, 2010).
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NATO. “Study on NATO Enlargement, Chapter 3: How NACC and PfP can contribute concretely to the enlargement process,” http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/official_texts_24733.htm?selectedLocale=en (accessed March 24, 2010).
NATO. “The Alliance’s Strategic Concept,” http://www.nato.int/cps/en/SID-5F9D6EAB-C9F79329/natolive/official_texts_27433.htm?selectedLocale=en (accessed March 27, 2010).
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Western European Union. “Extraordinary Meeting of WEU Council of Ministers on the Situation in Yugoslavia,” (Helsinki, 10 July 1992) http://www.weu.int/documents/920710en.pdf (accessed April 9, 2010).

六、英文報紙與網路資料

“France wants to strip down NATO command,” AFP, 11 May 2010. http://www.spacewar.com/reports/France_wants_to_strip_down_NATO_command_999.html (accessed May 14, 2010).
“Sarkozy marches France back into NATO command,” AFP, 11 March 2009. http://www.spacewar.com/reports/Sarkozy_marches_France_back_into_NATO_command_999.html (accessed May 12, 2010).
Aboville, Benoît de. “NATO needs a makeover,” Guardian, 11 March 2009. http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2009/mar/11/france-nato (accessed May 13, 2010).
Cragg, Anthony. “A new Strategic Concept for a new era,” NATO Review 47, no. 2 (1999): pp.19-22. http://www.nato.int/docu/review/1999/9902-04.htm (accessed March 23, 2010).
Daley, Suzanne. “For First Time, NATO Invokes Joint Defense Pact with U.S.,” New York Times, 13 September 2001. http://www.nytimes.com/2001/09/13/us/after-attacks-alliance-for-first-time-nato-invokes-joint-defense-pact-with-us.html (accessed March 28, 2010).
Erlanger, Steven. “France Will Take Full NATO Membership Again, With Greater Military Role,” New York Times, 11 March 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/12/world/europe/12france.html?_r=2 (accessed March 10, 2010).
Erlanger, Steven. “Sarkozy Embraces NATO, and Bigger Role of France,” New York Times, 7 March 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/08/world/europe/08nato.html?_r=1 (accessed May 8, 2010).
European Navigator. “Treaty of Alliance and Mutual Assistance between the United Kingdom and France (Dunkirk, 4 March 1947),” http://www.ena.lu/treaty_alliance_mutual_assistance_united_kingdom_france_dunkirk_march_1947-2-3147-1.pdf (accessed March 11, 2010).
Gill, Lucy. “French split over rejoining NATO,” BBC News, 11 March 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7937126.stm (accessed May 12, 2010).
Herpen, Marcel H. Van. “Sarkozy, France and NATO: Will Sarkozy’s Rapprochement to NATO Be Sustainable?” SETA Policy Brief, pp.1-21. http://setavakfi.org/ups/dosya/17212.pdf (accessed May 13, 2010).
Kempe, Frederik. “US, Bonn Clash Over Pact with France,” The Wall Street Journal, 27 May 1992, 9.
Keohane, Daniel. “10 Years After St. Malo,” ISS Analysis (October 2008): pp.1-2. http://www.iss.europa.eu/uploads/media/10_yrs_after_St_Malo.pdf (accessed May 14, 2010).
Milner, Laurie. “The Suez Crisis,” BBC – History: British History in-depth, http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/modern/suez_01.shtml#six (accessed February 20, 2010).
Moran, Michael. “Military Strategy and NATO Reintegration,” Council on Foreign Relations, 12 March 2009. http://www.cfr.org/publication/16619/ (accessed May 13, 2010).
Nuclear Age Peace Foundation. “Flexible Response,” http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/key-issues/nuclear-weapons/history/cold-war/strategy/strategy-flexible-response.htm (accessed March 1, 2010).
Pop, Valentina. “Obama, Sarkozy mark France’s full return to NATO,” EU Observer, 3 April 2009. http://euobserver.com/9/27909 (accessed May 14, 2010).
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U.S. Department of State, Timeline of U.S. Diplomatic History (1945-1952). “The Truman Doctrine, 1947,” http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/cwr/82210.htm (accessed January 26, 2010).
U.S. Department of State, Timeline of U.S. Diplomatic History (1945-1952). “North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 1949,” http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/cwr/102468.htm (accessed January 29, 2010).
U.S. Department of State, Timeline of U.S. Diplomatic History (1945-1952). “Marshall Plan, 1948,” http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/cwr/16328.htm (accessed January 26, 2010).
U.S. Department of State, Timeline of U.S. Diplomatic History (1945-1952). “Berlin Crises,” http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/cwr/17378.htm (accessed January 29, 2010).
U.S. Department of State, Timeline of U.S. Diplomatic History (1953-1960). “The Warsaw Treaty Organization, 1955,” http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/lw/90304.htm (accessed January 29, 2010).
U.S. Department of State, Timeline of U.S. Diplomatic History (1953-1960). “Suez Crisis, 1956,” http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/lw/97179.htm (accessed February 20, 2010).
U.S. Department of State, Timeline of U.S. Diplomatic History (1953-1960). “The Eisenhower Doctrine, 1957,” http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/lw/82548.htm (accessed February 20, 2010).
U.S. Department of State, Timeline of U.S. Diplomatic History (1953-1960). “Dien Bien Phu & the Fall of French Indochina, 1954,” http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/lw/88114.htm (accessed February 17, 2010).
U.S. Department of State, Timeline of U.S. Diplomatic History (1953-1960). “Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), 1954,” http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/lw/88315.htm (accessed February 18, 2010).
U.S. Department of State, Timeline of U.S. Diplomatic History (1953-1960). “The Berlin Crisis, 1958-1961,” http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/lw/103638.htm (accessed March 1, 2010).
U.S. Department of State, Timeline of U.S. Diplomatic History (1989-2000). “The Post-Cold War Era,” http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/pcw/index.htm (accessed March 12, 2010).
U.S. Department of State, Timeline of U.S. Diplomatic History (1989-2000). “2 + 4 talk,” http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/pcw/90304.htm (accessed March 12, 2010).
U.S. Department of State. “Erasing History: Ethnic Cleansing in Kosovo,” (May 1999) http://www.state.gov/www/regions/eur/rpt_9905_ethnic_ksvo_1.html (accessed March 28, 2010).
Vinocur, John. “Germany moves to ally U.S. fears on EU defense,” New York Times, 28 October 2003. http://www.nytimes.com/2003/10/28/news/28iht-nato.html?scp=5&sq=Tervuren&st=cse (accessed on May 8, 2010).

七、法文專書

Chapsal, Jacques et Lancelot, Alain. La vie plitique en France depuis 1940. Paris: PUF, 1979.
Dumoulin, Michel. La Communauté Européenne de Défense: Leçons pour Demain? Bruxelles: PIE Lang, 2000.
Gerbet, Pierre. La Construction de l’Europe. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1999.
Gerbet, Pierre. La Construction de l’Europe. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1983.
Zorgbibe, Charles. Histoire de l’Otan. Bruxelles: Editions Complexe, 2002.

八、法文期刊與專文

Andréani, Gilles. “La France et l’OTAN après la guerre froide,” Politique étrangère 63, no. 1 (1998): pp.77-92.
Andréani, Jacques. “Les relations franco-américaines,” Politique étrangère 60, no.4 (1995): pp.891-902.
Cambadélis, Jean-Christophe. “Nicolas Sarkozy est partout, la France est nulle part,” Revue internationale et stratégique, no. 77 (2010): pp.77-85.
Hoffmann, Stanley. “Dilemmes et Stratégies de la France Dans la Nouvelle Europe (1989-1991),” Politique étrangère 57, no. 4 (1992): pp.879-892.
Howorth, Jolyon. “La France, l’OTAN et la sécurité européenne: statu quo ingérable, renouveau introuvable,” Politique étrangère 67, no. 4 (2002): pp.1001-1016.
Juppé, Alain. “Quel horizon pour la politique étrangère de la France?” Politique étrangère 60, no. 1 (1995): pp.245-259.
Kramer, Steven Philip. ‘‘La Question Française,’’ Politique étrangère 56, no. 4 (1991): pp.959-974.
Le Rider, Jacques. “Un an après l’unification: retour à la normalité de la nation allemand ?” Politique étrangère 56, no. 4 (1991): pp.913-927.
Millon, Charles. “La France et la Rénovation de l’Alliance Atlantique,” Revue de l’OTAN 44, no.3 (1996): pp.23-36.

九、法文官方文件

Portail du Gouvernement. “La France dans l’Otan,” 12 mars 2009. http://www.gouvernement.fr/gouvernement/la-france-dans-l-otan (accessed May 14, 2010).
Présidence de la Républic. Défense et Sécurité nationale: Le Livre blanc. Paris: Odile Jacob, 2008.

十、法文報紙與網路資料

“La France gardera une liberté d’appréciation totale,” Le Monde, 18 juin 2008.
“Le Livre blanc sur la défense et la sécurité nationale,” Le Monde, 20 juin 2008. http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/carnet/2008-06-20-Livre-blanc (accessed May 8, 2010).
Fressoz, Françoise. “Le scud d’Alain Juppé contre la politique de défense de Nicolas Sarkozy,” Le Monde, 20 juin 2008. http://www.lemonde.fr/cgi-bin/ACHATS/acheter.cgi?offre=ARCHIVES&type_item=ART_ARCH_30J&objet_id=1040866&clef=ARC-TRK-NC_01 (acessed May 11, 2010).
Ministère des Affaires étrangères et européennes. “La France et l’OTAN: La place de la France dans l’Organisation du Traité de l’Atlantique Nord,” février 2009. http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/fr/actions-france_830/onu-organisations-internationales_1032/organisations-internationales-europe_1126/otan_1134/france-otan_9044/place-france-dans-otan_19899.html (accessed May 23, 2010).
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