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系統識別號 U0002-2306201009385800
中文論文名稱 自動水質監測系統實場應用評估試驗
英文論文名稱 An on-site assessment of advanced water quality monitoring system for lake and reservoir
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 水資源及環境工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生中文姓名 徐悅珊
研究生英文姓名 Yueh-Shan Hsu
學號 697480837
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2009-06-04
論文頁數 79頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳俊成
委員-康世芳
委員-鄭耀文
中文關鍵字 湖泊水質  水質即時監測  水庫管理  EcoMapper  Devol Pond 
英文關鍵字 Water Quality  Water Quality Monitoring  Reservoir Manager  Lake  EcoMapper  Devol Pond 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學環境工程
中文摘要 EcoMapper為一體積小,重量輕,可由單人操作之全自動水質監測微型潛艇,可於水質與水深之全域監測,若能實際運用於湖泊水庫之水質水量監測,可提供一即時方便且低成本之湖泊水庫監測方式。本次研究應用EcoMapper進行實場水質水量監測分析,以確認EcoMapper實場監測之穩定性及數據精確性。實場驗證以美國麻州的 Devol Pond為測試場址。近年來該湖近水質逐漸惡化,每到夏季即因大量的水生植物與藻類過量繁殖,便造成當地居民極大之困擾。本次研究應用Ecomapper對Devol Pond水質水量的連續監測,並同時以人工搭乘小船方式,於定點使用YSI多水質參數監測器監測水質、使用沙奇盤量測透明度,且採取水樣進行分析。監測之參數包含有湖泊深度、pH值、溫度、濁度、溶氧、導電度與葉綠素a,水樣之分析參數則為總磷與總氮。研究結果顯示EcoMapper於實場之技術可行性方面,除pH監測值尚需進一步之評估判斷外,其餘監測參數結果與定點水質監測結果情況相符,實場監測之穩定性及數據精確性都在可接受範圍,操作也十分方便。至於Devol Pond的水質目前呈現優養化,其水質營養鹽限制因子主要為磷,白天時因大量藻類行光合作用,處於鹼性範圍且含氧量為過飽和狀態。未來應對Devol Pond持續進行長期之水質監控,以確認湖泊水質之變化,與營養鹽之來源,以徹底改善日漸趨劣之水質。
英文摘要 EcoMapper, a system that integrated an autonomous underwater vehicle(AUV) with water quality monitoring sensors, designed specifically for mapping water quality, water currents and bathymetry. If applied in water quality and volume monitoring in reservoir or lake, the system can provide a tool for efficient, economic and reliable monitoring. The objective of this study is to confirm the applicability of the EcoMapper system in on-site water quality and volume monitoring. The system’s stability and accuracy was assessed in the demonstration of monitoring the water quality and volume of a Devol Pond in Massachusetts. In this study, we use EcoMapper to mapping the water quality and depth of Devol Pond in comparing with the data obtained from YSI Multiparameter Sondes and Secchi disk measurement in the 15 sites and sampling at some specific sites for later analysis. The parameters considered are depth, temperature, pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, chlorophyll a , TP, TN, and transparency. The results of this study indicated that EcoMapper system is an efficient, stable and accurate tool for on-site application in water quality monitoring except that the pH sensor revealed some time lag in dynamic measuring. From eutrophic indexes analysis, the water quality in Devol Pond is now in eutrophic status. The factor that cause eutrophication is believed to be phosphorus limited. The measured DO mostly are in supersaturating and alkaline state because of active photosynthesis in the daytime.
論文目次 目錄
謝 誌 ..................................................................................................................... I
中文摘要 ............................................................................................................. II
英文摘要 ............................................................................................................ IV
目錄 ....................................................................................................................
圖目錄 ................................................................................................................ IX
表目錄 ................................................................................................................ XI
第一章前言 .......................................................................................................... 1
1-1 研究源起 ................................................................................................... 1
1-2 研究目的 ................................................................................................... 4
1-3 研究內容 ................................................................................................... 6
第二章 文獻回顧 ............................................................................................ 8
2-1 湖泊分類 ................................................................................................... 8
2-2 水質監測技術回顧 ................................................................................. 10
2-2-1 傳統水質監測技術 ....................................................................... 10
2-2-2 先進水質監測技術的發展 ........................................................... 13
2-3 國內水庫監測方式 ................................................................................. 17
2-3-1 國內水庫水質監測與檢驗方法 ................................................... 17
2-3-2 國內淤積監測方式 ....................................................................... 19
2-4 水庫優養化指標 ..................................................................................... 20
2-4-1 卡爾森水體優養指數值 ............................................................... 20
2-4-2 單一參數優養化指標 ................................................................... 21
2-5 國內水庫狀況 ......................................................................................... 23
2-5-1 國內水庫水質狀況 ....................................................................... 23
2-5-2 國內水庫淤積狀況 ....................................................................... 26
2-6 地理資訊系統 ......................................................................................... 28
第三章 研究方法 .......................................................................................... 30
3-1 監測及採樣儀器 ..................................................................................... 30
3-1-1 YSI 多水質參數即時監測器 ....................................................... 30
3-1-2 Iver 2- AUV 自動潛艇 ................................................................. 33
3-1-3 EcoMapper 自動水質監測微型潛艇 ........................................... 34
3-1-4 水樣採樣與透明度儀器 ............................................................... 37
3-1-5 分析儀器 ....................................................................................... 38
3-1-6 實場介紹 ....................................................................................... 38
3-2 監測及採樣作業 ..................................................................................... 41
3-2-1 EcoMapper 監測路線規劃與實地作業 ....................................... 42
3-2-2 定點監測及採樣點規劃與現地作業 ........................................... 44
3-3 利用GIS 內插分析EcoMapper 數據 .................................................... 48
3-4 採樣水質分析方法 ................................................................................. 49
3-5-1 總磷分析方法 ............................................................................... 49
3-5-2 總氮分析方法 ............................................................................... 50
第四章 結果與討論 ...................................................................................... 51
4-1 EcoMapper 實場示範測試結果評估 .................................................... 51
4-1-1 EcoMapper 全湖測值結果分析 ................................................... 51
4-1-2 EcoMapper 測值可行性分析 ....................................................... 61
4-2 Devol Pond 水質環境評估 ..................................................................... 66
第五章 結論與建議 ...................................................................................... 74
5-1 結論 ......................................................................................................... 74
5-2 建議 ......................................................................................................... 76
參考文獻 ............................................................................................................ 77
圖目錄
圖1-1 研究關聯圖 ............................................................................................ 7
圖2-1 湖泊分類示意圖 .................................................................................... 9
圖2-2 溢流道水質監測系統 .......................................................................... 11
圖2-3 現地水質監測系統 .............................................................................. 12
圖2-4 自動式水質監測系統 .......................................................................... 12
圖2-5 YSI 監測浮筒 ...................................................................................... 15
圖2-6 MARVIN 自動研究船鑑 .................................................................... 16
圖2-7 第一台裝有多監測器的AUV ............................................................ 16
圖2-8 97 年台灣本島21 座主要水庫卡爾森指數比較圖 .......................... 25
圖2-9 97 年台灣本島21 座水庫優養化程度百分比圖 .............................. 25
圖3-1 YSI 多水質參數監測器6600V2 ........................................................ 32
圖3-2 Iver 2- AUV .......................................................................................... 33
圖3-3 EcoMapper 現地執行任務照片 .......................................................... 35
圖3-4 EcoMapper 裝置設備圖 ...................................................................... 36
圖3-5 EcoMapper 使用流程 .......................................................................... 36
圖3-6 採樣及監測儀器 .................................................................................. 37
圖3-7 HACH DR-4000 分光光度計 ............................................................. 38
圖3-8 Devol Pond 地理位置 .......................................................................... 39
圖3-9 Devol Pond ........................................................................................... 40
圖3-10 Devol Pond 湖面與岸邊水質惡化現況 ......................................... 40
圖3-11 EcoMapper 監測路線圖 ................................................................... 42
圖3-12 EcoMapper 監測實況 ....................................................................... 43
圖3-13 實驗室內校正水質監測器 .............................................................. 45
圖3-14 Devol Pond 監測點與採樣點 ......................................................... 46
圖3-15 定點採樣監測實況 .......................................................................... 46
圖3-16 測點實場現況 .................................................................................. 47
圖3-17 採取水樣 .......................................................................................... 49
圖4-1 湖泊深度分布圖 (ft) ........................................................................... 52
圖4-2 溫度分布圖(℃) ................................................................................... 53
圖4-3 pH 值分布圖 ........................................................................................ 54
圖4-4 YSI pH 計量測速度確認圖(一).......................................................... 56
圖4-5 YSI pH 計量測速度確認圖(二).......................................................... 56
圖4-6 濁度分布圖(NTU) ............................................................................... 57
圖4-7 溶氧量分布圖(mg/L) .......................................................................... 58
圖4-8 單位導電度分布圖(ms/cm) ................................................................ 59
圖4-9 葉綠素a 分布圖(μg/L)........................................................................ 60
圖4-10 Devol Pond 垂直監測數據(S2) ...................................................... 69
表目錄
表2-1 水庫水質監測項目與檢測方法 .......................................................... 18
表2-2 OECD 單一參數判斷優養化之標準 .................................................. 21
表2-3 USEPA 優養化判定指標 .................................................................... 22
表2-4 Carlson 單一參數判斷優養化之標準 ................................................ 22
表2-5 97 年台灣本島21 座主要水庫卡爾森指數彙整表 .......................... 24
表2-6 民國97 年北部公告水庫水量運用及泥砂淤積分析 ...................... 27
表3-1 水質監測計詳表 .................................................................................. 31
表3-2 Devol Pond 水質採樣與監測點位置 .................................................. 45
表4-1 Devol Pond 各項水質監測資料 ......................................................... 64
表4-2 Devol Pond 優養化相關水質監測結果 ............................................. 65
表4-3 Devol Pond 水優養化卡爾森指標分析結果 .................................... 73
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