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系統識別號 U0002-2306200810041700
中文論文名稱 化學混凝程序去除水中鉛、銻之研究
英文論文名稱 Removal of Lead and Antimony from Water by Chemical Coagulation Process
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 水資源及環境工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering
學年度 96
學期 2
出版年 97
研究生中文姓名 雷佳蓉
研究生英文姓名 Chia-Jung Lei
學號 695480714
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2008-06-12
論文頁數 75頁
口試委員 指導教授-徐錠基
委員-康世芳
委員-王根樹
中文關鍵字     混凝  多元氯化鋁  氯化鐵 
英文關鍵字 Lead  Antimony  Coagulation  Polyaluminum Chloride  Ferric Chloride 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學環境工程
中文摘要 本研究目的探討化學混凝去除鉛、銻及淨水場操作對策,以因應鉛、銻之新標準管制。以內灣淨水場原水為實驗水樣,於實驗水樣添加鉛、銻,採瓶杯實驗探討操作參數如混凝劑種類與加藥量、原水濁度、pH及前加氯去除鉛、銻之影響。
研究結果顯示單位混凝劑劑量去除鉛之效果高低依序為多元氯化鋁(PACl)、氯化鐵(FC)、硫酸鋁(Alum),鋁鹽或鐵鹽混凝pH範圍於7.0~8.5,鉛去除率可達80%以上。ㄧ般國內淨水場以沉澱水濁度控制混凝劑加藥量,當原水含鉛時,可採加強混凝提高混凝劑加藥量以降低清水鉛濃度。相對地,鋁鹽無法有效去除銻,其去除率低於25%;鐵鹽混凝可去除銻達70%以上。國內淨水場很少採用鐵鹽混凝劑,因此當原水含銻時,混凝操作需改採用鐵鹽混凝劑,可同時去除鉛、銻。鐵鹽混凝pH範圍於5.0~9.0皆可使銻(Ⅲ)去除率達70%以上,最佳pH範圍為5.5~6.5。去除銻(Ⅴ)所需單位鐵鹽混凝劑量為去除銻(Ⅲ)之1.43~2.76倍,前加氯將銻(Ⅲ)氧化為銻(Ⅴ),需增加混凝劑加藥量3~5倍。鐵鹽混凝同時去除鉛、銻(Ⅲ)為主時可操作於pH 7.0,若以去除銻(Ⅴ)為主則需操作於pH 5.0。此外活性碳吸附及石灰軟化皆可去除鉛。因此,淨水場採加強混凝僅可提高鉛去除,若為同時提高鉛、銻去除,則鐵鹽混凝為最佳經濟可行技術。
英文摘要 The objectives of this study are to investigate the removal of lead and antimony from water by chemical coagulation process and to evaluate the treatment alternatives for water treatment plant to meet the new standards. Raw water of Nei-Wan Water Plant was selected in study to assess the removal efficiency. Lead and antimony were spiked into the water samples and standard jar tests were conducted to determine the effects of solution pH, turbidity, the types and dosage of coagulant, and pre-chlorination on the removal of lead and antimony from spiked water.
The results showed that the removal efficiency of Pb (Pb removal per mg/L of coagulant) was in order of PACl, FC, and Alum. With aluminum- or ferric-based coagulants, an 80% removal of Pb was achieved at pH 7.0 to 8.5. Most of the water treatment plants in Taiwan use settled water turbidity as a reference to choose the coagulant dosage, it is recommended that the treatment plants can adopt enhanced coagulation to remove Pb when the concentration of Pb in raw water can’t meet the water quality standard. As a comparison, a poor removal of Sb (<25%) by aluminum-based coagulant was obtained. However, the Sb removal efficiency can reach 70% when iron-based coagulant was used. Since the domestic water treatment plants in Taiwan seldom use iron-based coagulant, it is recommended that the iron-based coagulant is used when the Sb concentration in raw water is high. In this way, both Pb and Sb can be removed simultaneously. In general, a 70% Sb removal can be reached at pH 5.0 to 9.0 by iron-based coagulant, and the optimum pH is between pH 5.5 and 6.5. The dosage of iron-based coagulant required for Sb(V) removal was about 1.43 to 2.76 times higher than that for removal of Sb(III). Oxidation of Sb(III) to Sb(V) due to pre-chlorination increased the coagulant dosages for about 3 to 5 times. When iron-based coagulant was used, it was observed that simultaneous removal of both Pb and Sb(III) can be obtained at the ~pH 7.0, however, better removal for Sb(V) can only be obtained at the pH 5.0. Both active carbon adsorption and lime softening are very effective for lead removal. It is concluded that enhanced coagulation with aluminum-based coagulants is useful for Pb removal. When simultaneous removal of Pb and Sb is necessary, it is recommended that iron-based coagulant should be used.
論文目次 目錄 Ⅰ
圖目錄 Ⅳ
表目錄 Ⅵ

第一章 前言 1
1-1 研究背景 1
1-2 研究目的 3
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2-1 鉛、銻化學性質 4
2-1-1 鉛 4
2-1-2 銻 8
2-2 國、內外飲用水水質標準鉛、銻之限值及控制技術 12
2-2-1 國內、外飲用水水質標準鉛、銻之限值 12
2-2-2 淨水處理去除鉛、銻技術 15
2-3 化學混凝原理及去除水中金屬 22
2-4 石灰軟化原理及去除水中金屬 26
第三章 研究方法與材料 28
3-1 台灣自來水公司原水及清水鉛、銻含量之統計 28
3-2 實驗材料及設備 28
3-2-1 淨水場原水 28
3-2-2 實驗藥品 30
3-2-3 實驗設備 31
3-3 評估實驗 32
3-3-1 化學混凝實驗 32
3-3-2 活性碳實驗 33
3-3-3 石灰軟化實驗 34
3-4 水質分析 35
第四章 結果與討論 38
4-1 台灣自來水公司原水及清水鉛、銻含量之統計 38
4-1-1 淨水場原水鉛、銻含量之統計 38
4-1-2 淨水場清水鉛、銻含量之統計 41
4-1-3 淨水場原水及清水鉛、銻含量綜合評析 44
4-2 化學混凝去除鉛 46
4-2-1 鋁鹽加藥量對去除鉛之影響 46
4-2-2 pH對鋁鹽去除鉛之影響 46
4-2-3 濁度對去除鉛之影響 47
4-2-4 混凝劑種類對去除鉛之比較 50
4-3 化學混凝去除銻 52
4-3-1 鋁鹽加藥量對去除銻(Ⅲ)之影響 52
4-3-2 混凝劑種類去除銻(Ⅲ)之比較 53
4-3-3 銻(Ⅲ)初始濃度對鐵鹽混凝去除銻之比較 55
4-3-4 pH對鐵鹽混凝去除銻(Ⅲ)之影響 56
4-3-5 鐵鹽混凝去除銻(Ⅲ)、銻(Ⅴ)之比較 58
4-3-6 前加氯對鐵鹽混凝去除銻(Ⅲ)之影響 59
4-4 pH對鐵鹽混凝同時去除鉛、銻之影響 60
4-5 鋁鹽或鐵鹽混凝去除鉛、銻之綜合評析 63
4-6 粉末活性碳吸附去除銻 65
4-6-1 粉末活性碳改善鋁鹽去除銻(Ⅲ) 65
4-6-2 粉末活性碳動力吸附去除銻(Ⅲ) 67
4-6-3 粉末活性碳等溫吸附去除銻(Ⅲ) 67
4-6-4 粉末活性碳等溫吸附同時去除鉛、銻之比較 69
4-7 石灰軟化 70
第五章 結論與建議 72
參考文獻 73

圖目錄
圖2-1 水中鉛之E-pH圖 7
圖2-2 水中銻之E-pH圖 11
圖4-1 原水中鉛濃度累積分布圖(樣本數:670個) 40
圖4-2 原水中銻濃度累積分布圖(樣本數:299個) 40
圖4-3 清水中鉛濃度累積分布圖(樣品數:697個) 42
圖4-4 清水中銻濃度累積分布圖(樣品數:673個) 43
圖4-5 鋁鹽加藥量對混凝去除鉛之影響 48
圖4-6 pH對鋁鹽混凝去除鉛之影響 48
圖4-7 鋁鹽加藥量對混凝去除濁度及鉛之影響 49
圖4-8 濁度對鋁鹽加藥量去除鉛之比較 49
圖4-9 混凝劑種類對混凝去除鉛之比較 51
圖4-10 鋁鹽加藥量對混凝去除銻(Ⅲ)之影響 52
圖4-11 鋁鹽與鐵鹽混凝去除銻(Ⅲ)之比較 54
圖4-12 混凝劑種類對混凝去除銻(Ⅲ)之比較 54
圖4-13初始銻濃度對鐵鹽混凝去除銻(Ⅲ)之比較 57
圖4-14 pH對鐵鹽混凝去除銻(Ⅲ)之影響 57
圖4-15 鐵鹽混凝去除銻(Ⅲ)、銻(Ⅴ)及銻(Ⅲ)前加氯之比較 61
圖4-16 pH對鐵鹽混凝同時去除鉛、銻(Ⅲ)之比較 61
圖4-17 同時添加PAC及鋁鹽對混凝去除銻(Ⅲ)之影響 66
圖4-18 先添加PAC及鋁鹽對混凝去除銻(Ⅲ)之影響 66
圖4-19 粉末活性碳動力吸附去除銻(Ⅲ)之影響 68
圖4-20 粉末活性碳動力吸附去除銻之影響 68
圖4-21石灰軟化程序去除鉛、銻(Ⅲ)之比較 71


表目錄
表2-1 各國飲用水水質鉛、銻基準/標準比較表 12
表2-2 美國及日本淨水場原水與清水鉛、銻含量 13
表2-3 鉛、銻之最佳可行性技術 15
表2-4 傳統混凝去除鉛之效果 17
表2-5 石灰軟化去除銻 19
表2-6 水處理程序去除鉛、銻之效果 21
表2-7 砷處理之成本分析(美元/年) 25
表3-1 台灣自來水公司95年水質年報內灣淨水場 29
表3-2 內灣淨水場原水水質分析 30
表3-3感應耦合電漿質譜儀操作參數 36
表4-1 原水中鉛、銻含量之統計(單位: μg/L) 39
表4-2 清水中鉛、銻含量之統計(單位: μg/L) 42
表4-3 台灣自來水公司原水及清水鉛、銻含量之統計(單位: μg/L) 43
表4-4 pH對鐵鹽混凝同時去除鉛及Sb(Ⅲ)之影響 62
表4-5 鐵鹽混凝同時去除鉛及Sb(Ⅴ) 62
表4-6 粉末活性碳等溫吸附去除鉛、銻之比較 69

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行政院環境保護署「飲用水水質標準修正案」諮詢會議資料,民國
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蔣本基、張怡怡「飲用水水質資訊蒐集與法規整合之前置作業計畫」,
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