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系統識別號 U0002-2305201419351400
中文論文名稱 多輸入多輸出超寬頻通訊系統之位元錯誤率研究
英文論文名稱 The study of bit error rate for multiple input multiple output ultra wideband system
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 電機工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Electrical Engineering
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生中文姓名 吳青澐
研究生英文姓名 Ching-Yun Wu
電子信箱 602440017@s02.tku.edu.tw
學號 602440017
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2014-05-28
論文頁數 75頁
口試委員 指導教授-丘建青
委員-方文賢
委員-李慶烈
中文關鍵字 多天線系統  超寬頻  錯誤率  實數型直交設計  耙式接收機 
英文關鍵字 Multi-antenna system  Ultra Wideband  Bit Error Rate  Real Orthogonal Design  RAKE receiver 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學電機及電子
中文摘要 在無線通訊系統中為了追求更高傳輸效能的透過結合和超寬頻(UWB)與多天線系統(MIMO)被賦予很高的期待。而改善相關的通訊品質和降低成本更是近幾年無線個人通訊網路中熱烈討論的議題。超寬頻主要是用在室內環境,但環境產生多路徑效應也影響著它的效能。多路徑效應造成的符際干擾(ISI)容易造成系統的錯誤率以及環境的失效率上升。因此,透過使用實數正交設計(ROD)可以有效的改善超寬頻多天線系統。首先,一個基地台可能在服務範圍內會上千移動通訊的使用者,而比較符合成本效益的做法是擴充基地的設備而不是在使用者端增加設計的成本。再來,使用實數正交設計的計算複雜度低也不需要將接收端的信號回授給傳送端。在這篇論文中,模擬環境透過使用射線彈跳追蹤法結合反複利葉轉換可以求出該環境的脈衝響應。因為模擬的頻譜相當大所對應到的時間解析度很高幾乎只有幾奈秒,我們考慮用耙式接收機(RAKE receiver)增加接收信號強度以抑制多路徑效應。再來,我們分析了超寬頻多天線系統使用不同實數正交設計方法的錯誤率效能。值得一提對於屋頂形狀研究相關研究是相對較少。在這篇論文的最後,我們比較了在使用不同維度的實數正交設計在不同模擬環境下的失效率(定義為錯誤率>10-6)。這個環境包含了常見的屋頂形狀包含平坦型、三角型、圓型、金字塔型以及梯形五種並討論了兩種材質。而我們得到在材質為鐵的平坦型屋頂會有最低的失效率,而這是因為在這個環境會有最嚴重的多路徑效應。
英文摘要 Ultra wideband (UWB) combined with multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) is expectable for satisfying high data rates in wireless communication. How to improve quality of communication and cost reduction have become hot research issues in wireless personal network. UWB is mainly applied to indoor environments characterized by multipath effect. Due to this effect, the inter-symbol interference that increases the bit error rate (BER) and outage probability of the UWB systems occurred. The application of real orthogonal design (ROD) in UWB-MIMO is beneficial. First, a base station may serves thousands of mobile end users. It seems more economical to add equipment to base stations rather than the mobile end user. Second, the transmitter does not require any feedback from receiver and its low computation complexity. In this thesis, the ray-tracing techniques and inverse fast Fourier transform are employed to get the impulse response of simulated environments. Based on the large bandwidth, the scale
of time resolution is approximately several nanoseconds. So we take account of the RAKE receiver to increase received signal strength in order to reduce multipath effect. Then, analyzing the BER performance of the UWB-MIMO system when using ROD schemes with RAKE are briefly discussed.Significantly, fewer results are reported for the case of roof shaper. In this thesis intends to compare the outage probability for proposed scheme in different simulated environments. These five roof shapes including the flat shape roof, the triangular shape roof, the arched shape roof, the pyramid shape roof, and the mansard shape roof are constructed by materials of concrete and iron. As the result, we can conclude that the performance of outage probability with iron flat shape roof is better than the other shape roof with high order RAKE finger. Both for concrete and iron cases, it is found that the strong multipath effect for the flat shape roof is the largest.
論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background 1
1.1.1 UWB 1
1.1.2 MIMO 2
1.2 Research Motivation 3
1.3 Chapter Outline 4
CHAPTER 2 DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM 5
2.1 Ray-tracing process 5
2.1.1 Channel impulse response in frequency domain 6
2.1.2 Signal analysis using IFFT and Hermitian processing 9
2.2 Orthogonal designs for UWB system 11
2.3 RAKE receiver 13
CHAPTER 3 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF BER 15

3.1. Encoding, Decoding and Diversity Combining 15
3.1.1 BER formula with ROD 27
3.1.2 BER formula without ROD 28
3.2 Two-ray reflection model 31
3.3 Summary 37
CHAPTER 4 NUMERICAL RESULT 38
4.1 The simulated environments 38
4.2 Simulation Results and Discussions 45
4.2.1 CASE A 46
4.2.2 CASE B 53
4.2.3 CASE C 60
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS 67
APPENDIX A: TABLE OF MATERIALS 68
REFERENCES 74

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1. 1 Benefit of MIMO 2
Figure 2. 1 System block diagram 5
Figure 2. 2 Flow chart of the ray-tracing process 8
Figure 2. 3 Hermitian processing and Inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) 10
Figure 2. 4 Principle of the A-rake 14
Figure 2. 5 Principle of the S-rake 14
Figure 2. 6 Principle of the P-rake 14
Figure 3. 1 System block diagram corresponding to the RAKE finger NF 15
Figure 3. 2 The transmitted signal as a train of pulses 17
Figure 3. 3 System block of UWB-MIMO without ROD 28
Figure 3. 4 A sketch of two-ray reflection model 31
Figure 3. 5 Illustrates how the ISI is incurred by the reflection wave. 32
Figure 3. 6 The antenna received signal in case1 33
Figure 3. 7 The antenna received signal in case5 33
Figure 3. 8 The antenna received signal in case9 34
Figure 3. 9 BER performance comparison for NT=2,NR=2 case 34
Figure 3. 10 BER performance comparison for NT=4,NR=4 case 35
Figure 3. 11 BER performance comparison for NT=8,NR=8 case 35
Figure 3. 12 BER performance comparison at middle reflection distance 36
Figure 3. 13 Comparison BER performance with and without the ROD of size 2 36
Figure 4. 1 The simulated environment (top view) 41
Figure 4. 2 The location of transmitting and receiving points in the simulated environment 42
Figure 4. 3 Types of roof shapes 43
Figure 4. 4 (CaseA) Outage comparison for all roof shapes, NF=1 46
Figure 4. 5 (CaseA) Outage comparison for all roof shapes, NF=2 46
Figure 4. 6 (CaseA) Outage comparison for all roof shapes, NF=3 47
Figure 4. 7 (CaseA) Outage comparison for all roof shapes, NF=4 47
Figure 4. 8 (CaseA) Outage comparison for arched roof 48
Figure 4. 9 (CaseA) Distribution area of bad receiving for arched roof when SNR=64dB 48
Figure 4. 10 (CaseA) Outage comparison for flat roof 49
Figure 4. 11 (CaseA) Distribution area of bad receiving for flat roof when SNR=64dB 49
Figure 4. 12 (CaseA) Outage comparison for mansard roof 50
Figure 4. 13 (CaseA) Distribution area of bad receiving for mansard roof when SNR=64dB 50
Figure 4. 14 (CaseA) Outage comparison for pyramid roof 51
Figure 4. 15 (CaseA) Distribution area of bad receiving for pyramid roof when SNR=64dB 51
Figure 4. 16 (CaseA) Outage comparison for triangular roof 52
Figure 4. 17 (CaseA) Distribution area of bad receiving for triangular roof when SNR=64dB 52
Figure 4. 18 (CaseB) Outage comparison for all roof shapes, NF=1 53
Figure 4. 19 (CaseB) Outage comparison for all roof shapes, NF=2 53
Figure 4. 20 (CaseB) Outage comparison for all roof shapes, NF=3 54
Figure 4. 21 (CaseB) Outage comparison for all roof shapes, NF=4 54
Figure 4. 22 (CaseB) Outage comparison for arched roof 55
Figure 4. 23 (CaseB) Distribution area of bad receiving for arched roof when SNR=66dB 55
Figure 4. 24 (CaseB) Outage comparison for flat roof 56
Figure 4. 25 (CaseB) Distribution area of bad receiving for flat roof when SNR=66dB 56
Figure 4. 26 (CaseB) Outage comparison for mansard roof 57
Figure 4. 27 (CaseB) Distribution area of bad receiving for mansard roof when SNR=66dB 57
Figure 4. 28 (CaseB) Outage comparison for pyramid roof 58
Figure 4. 29 (CaseB) Distribution area of bad receiving for pyramid roof when SNR=66dB 58
Figure 4. 30 (CaseB) Outage comparison for triangular roof 59
Figure 4. 31 (CaseB) Distribution area of bad receiving for triangular roof when SNR=66dB 59
Figure 4. 32 (CaseC) Outage comparison for all roof shapes, NF=1 60
Figure 4. 33 (CaseC) Outage comparison for all roof shapes, NF=2 60
Figure 4. 34 (CaseC) Outage comparison for all roof shapes, NF=3 61
Figure 4. 35 (CaseC) Outage comparison for all roof shapes, NF=4 61
Figure 4. 36 (CaseC) Outage comparison for arched roof 62
Figure 4. 37 (CaseC) Distribution area of bad receiving for arched roof when SNR=68dB 62
Figure 4. 38 (CaseC) Outage comparison for flat roof 63
Figure 4. 39 (CaseC) Distribution area of bad receiving for flat roof when SNR=68dB 63
Figure 4. 40 (CaseC) Outage comparison for mansard roof 64
Figure 4. 41 (CaseC) Distribution area of bad receiving for mansard roof when SNR=68dB 64
Figure 4. 42 (CaseC) Outage comparison for pyramid roof 65
Figure 4. 43 (CaseC) Distribution area of bad receiving for pyramid roof when SNR=68dB 65
Figure 4. 44 (CaseC) Outage comparison for triangular roof 66
Figure 4. 45 (CaseC) Distribution area of bad receiving for triangular roof when SNR=68dB 66


LIST OF TABLES
Table 3. 1 The encoding and transmission sequence 16
Table 3. 2 Three positions of antenna array in multi-antenna system 32
Table 4. 1 The power delay profile in all concrete cases 44
Table 4. 2 The power delay profile in all iron cases 44
Table A. 1 Concrete 68
Table A. 2 Cloth Partition 69
Table A. 3 Structure Wood 70
Table A. 4 Iron 71
Table A. 5 Brick 72
Table A. 6 Plywood 73
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