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中文論文名稱 數據系統輔助下的偏鄉長照服務微型建築 – 以三芝鄉爲例
英文論文名稱 Data System Driven Micro Architecture for Elderly Care in Rural Area – A Case Study of Sanzhi District
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 建築學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Architecture
學年度 106
學期 1
出版年 107
研究生中文姓名 黃良毅
研究生英文姓名 Leong Yee, Wong
學號 604365022
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2018-01-19
論文頁數 139頁
口試委員 指導教授-柯純融
委員-邱暉智
委員-陳珍誠
委員-鄭晃二
中文關鍵字 偏鄉老人照顧系統  自足性社區  數據系統  微建築 
英文關鍵字 Rural Elderly Care System  Self-sustaining Community  Data System  Micro Architecture 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學土木工程及建築
中文摘要 本論文研究主要是探討偏鄉長照,探索與創造一個具有經濟自足性的系統,並且提升在地養老生活水平。臺灣在迎接高齡化社會早已從2007年開始,推行長照1.0 至長照2.0 有着幅大的升級,包括增加預算和服務項目,以達到“找得到,看得到,用得到”並且能服務更多人的長照服務。

長照政策範圍大多集中在都市,尺度從社區設施到城市基礎設施都考量了友善與長輩使用,都市密集與貫通的涵構方便於老人通行,長照機構成爲一個聚集點,提供空間服務。

研究基地選爲三芝,屬於低人口密度高齡化的地區。農業是當地主要產業,由於面臨少子化導致農業減弱,休耕土地逐漸增多,這現象同時也反應在臺灣多數的偏鄉地區。本研究針對了偏鄉的性質,整理出三大部分,成爲長照計劃主要研究對象,並整合串聯關係足以形成自足關係,涵蓋農業,社交與醫療。農業在偏鄉地區扮演著經濟棟梁的角色,在勞動力減少的情況下介入科技支援達到最佳農業盈利,支付當地社交活動和醫療活動的開銷,達到自足的效果。

偏鄉主要問題在於分散和斷連的聚落,長照設備需串聯每一戶人口,優化路徑抵達服務目的地。數據系統的應用把基地狀況參數化分析,迅速反應出最佳質詢作於設計判斷。本研究采用數據系統模擬路徑尋找,農地鏈接優化和點位涵蓋範圍分析。本數據系統有望於能讓后研究者使用上成爲基礎指南,也可以進行編改符合基地狀況。

研究最後將進一步按照數據分析的判斷進行空間上的設計,在基地每一個有需要的地點以最小的動作應用當地手法增加在地老化長照設備。
英文摘要 Objective of the thesis is to research on elderly care in rural Taiwan, developing a self-sustaining system financially, socially and healthcare. In preparing to enter the period of aging society, Taiwan authority had start Elderly long term care 1.0 since 2007, until today, the program had upgraded to 2.0 version with the expenditure and service coverage increased, served under the guideline of reachable, visible and usable serving wider range of people.

Elderly care today mostly been focused in urban areas, scale from community facilities to city infrastructure well equipped with elderly friendly aspect, it fits well under urban context of dense and well connected which makes the system effective. In general, urban elderly care service works as an institution to gather elderly under unify monitoring and care services.

The chosen site for research located at Sanzhi, a low density population undergoing aging trend in population. Agriculture is the main activity in Sanzhi, due to decreasing of young workforce resulting agriculture to decline, leaving crop land to fallow, these scenario reflect in most of rural area in Taiwan simultaneously. Research conducted from categorizing three main aspects that interrelated and create a self-sustaining elderly care loop for rural areas, which are Agriculture, Community Social and Healthcare. Agriculture support the main source of income for the community, technology function as replacement of the labor workforce that deteriorate due to aging, maintaining the financial cycle of the system. Profits from agriculture harvest are aim to support the amount of expenditure of community social activity as well and healthcare, self-sustaining the elderly care of the community.

The condition of rural areas which is loose and scattered required an approachable solution in elderly care system, in situation of road stream is limited and unconnected, finding the ideal route is crucial. Data System computerized the environmental condition and performs as optimization tool in environmental analysis. In the thesis research, Data System is used in shortest distance path finding, agriculture land optimization and location coverage radius analysis. These sets of system allow for future alteration according to site condition, and also expect to works as a base reference for future researcher in exploring related field.

Result of the analysis further developed into architectural design as spatial solution. The site condition contains wide potential to be treated architecturally with minimum touch, corresponding to community by the community.
論文目次 Chapter One - Introduction
1.1 – Design Motivation 1
1.1.1 – A preparation to welcome aging society 1
1.1.2 – Demographic changes in cities and rural areas 4
1.1.3 – Responsive to the era of connectivity 6
1.1.4 – Inter-connected medical facilities as a solution for global healthcare 8
1.1.4.1 – Healthcare system in rural areas 8
1.1.4.2 – The evolution of hospital 9
1.1.4.3 – Medical facilities connection from software to hardware 10
1.1.5 – A system network of elderly care 12
1.1.6 – Policies influence in Taiwan agriculture 15
1.1.6.1 – Fallow land policy 15
1.1.6.2 – Agriculture land rental policy 16
1.2 – Related Scope of Study 18
1.2.1 – Social gerontology 18
1.2.1.1 – Baby boomer in Canada 19
1.2.2 – Business and economy of aging society 21
1.2.2.1 – The economy life cycle and the support ratio 23
1.3 – Conclusion 25
1.4 – Design Objectives 28
1.4.1 – To create a self-sustaining rural elderly care system 28
Chapter Two – Literature Review
2.1 – Introduction 29
2.2 – Long Term Care system back into the community 30
2.2.1 – Challenges in promoting “Aging In Place” 31
2.2.2 – Financial resources for implementing Long Term Care 32
2.2.3 – Inadequate of man power supply in service provider 33
2.3 – Taiwan Long Term Care 2.0 35
2.3.1 – Aging population estimation in Taiwan 35
2.3.2 – Target and planning strategies 36
2.3.3 – Target audience of implementation 39
2.3.4 – Future planning and improvement for Long Term Care 41
2.4 – System analysis with Agent Based Modelling 42
2.4.1 – Type of agent based modelling engine 43
2.4.1.1 – Netlogo 43
2.4.1.2 – Swarm 44
2.4.1.3 – Rhinoceros and Grasshopper 44
2.4.2 – Agent Based Model application 45
2.4.2.1 – Schelling model of segregation 45
2.4.2.2 – Cellular automata 49
2.4.2.3 – Decoding Space plugin in Grasshopper 52
2.5 – Conclusion 54
Chapter Three – Site Data Analysis
3.1 – Introduction 55
3.2 – Geographical terrain 56
3.3 – Weather data 60
3.3.1 – Temperature 51
3.3.2 – Sunshine 63
3.3.3 – Rain fall 65
3.4 – Annual remarkable calendar 67
3.5 – Industrial 68
3.5.1 – Agriculture 68
3.5.2 – Production industry 69
3.5.3 – Art enthusiast industry 69
3.6 – Population 70
3.6.1 – Aging statistic in researched site 70
3.7 – Environment factor that shapes the community lifestyle 74
3.8 – Local healthcare service 77
3.9 – Conclusion 78
Chapter Four – Rural Elderly Care and Self Sustaining System
4.1 – Introduction 80
4.2 – Comparison of urban elderly care system and rural elderly care system 81
4.3 – Elements of rural elderly care system 84
4.3.1 – Agriculture 84
4.3.2 – Community social 87
4.3.3 – Healthcare 89
4.3.4 – Self-sustaining elderly care system Sankey diagram 90
4.4 – Data system simulation 85
4.4.1 – Existing site information (Basic drawing) 93
4.4.2 – Path optimization for nearest healthcare facilities 95
4.4.3 – Community center and open spaces connectivity & frequent used pathway 97
4.4.4 – Radius coverage optimization for activities spot 101
4.4.5 – Agriculture land plot optimization 103
4.4.6 – Community drone system 105
4.4.7 – Beekeeping simulation 108
4.5 – Conclusion 110
Chapter Five – Micro Architecture for community as mediator of simulated model
5.1 – Introduction 111
5.2 – Agriculture 112
5.3 – Community social 118
5.4 – Healthcare 122
5.5 – Conclusion 124
Chapter Six – Conclusion
6.1 – Advantages of researched proposal 125
6.2 – Defects of researched proposal for improvement 126
6.3 – Future application and development suggestion 127
Reference 128
Appendix 130


List of Figure
1.1 - Asian elderly care center 2
1.2 - Westerner culture of elderly care 2
1.3 - Elderly workforce in Japan 3
1.4 - life size dolls in Nagoro town, Japan 5
1.5 - Matternet drone first aid 7
1.6 - Haiti bad road condition 8
1.7 - Ancient Maastricht map 9
1.8 - Matternet drone resource supply 11
1.9 - CPR drone and drone ambulance 11
1.10 - SensFloor ® smart floor system 12
1.11 - Hino Poncho and robot shutter driverless shutter bus 13
1.12 - Fallow land in Sanzhi 15
1.13 - New café business in Sanzhi, Xinzhuang village 17
1.14 - Canadian age pyramid 20
1.15 - World population growth graph 21
1.16 - Philippine and Japan labor income comparison 24
2.1 - Netherland health insurance funding flow chart 32
2.2 - Taiwan population estimation figure 35
2.3 - Community care service system in Taiwan 38
2.4 - Elderly category survey 39
2.5 - Healthcare and elderly care category survey 40
2.6 - Netlogo 43
2.7 - Swarm 44
2.8 - Rhino3D and Grasshopper 45
2.9 - Schelling model of segregation from with threshold from left 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% 47
2.10 - Ethnic residential distribution of Yaffo in 1995 48
2.11 - Segregation pattern of Yaffo population 48
2.12 - Cellular automata diagram of the rule 30 49
2.13 - Pattern diagram in various rules in cellular automata 50
2.14 - Color gradient map of Tianjin City land use analysis 51
2.15 - Decoding Space street network generation analysis in Tanjong Pagar 52
2.16 - Decoding Space street network generation analysis of three neighborhood in Cape Town 53
3.1 - Ariel view of northern Taiwan and Location plan of northern Taiwan 56
3.2 - Panorama of Sanzhi District from Datun Mountain peak 57
3.3 - Stream system components 58
3.4 - Pattern of Dendritic, Parallel, Trellis, Rectangular, Angular and Contorted 58
3.5 - Temperature and scenario relation graph of Sanzhi district 61
3.6 - Sunshine and scenario relation graph of Sanzhi district 63
3.7 - Rain and scenario relation graph of Sanzhi district 65
3.8 - Remarkable annual event happening in Sanzhi base on community lifestyle and environment 67
3.9 - Terrace rice field in Sanzhi district 68
3.10 - Yacht construction hangar in Sanzhi district 69
3.11 - Street of coffee shops at Qianshuiwan, Sanzhi district 69
3.12 - Taiwan aging population area ranking 70
3.13 - New Taipei city aging population area ranking 71
3.14 - Sanzhi district aging population area ranking, gender count, and age count 72
3.15 - Sanzhi district population pyramid of year 2014, 2025 and 2040 73
3.16 - Healthcare facilities in Sanzhi town 77
4.1 - Diagram of urban elderly care services classification in Taiwan 82
4.2 - Diagram of rural elderly care element in Taiwan 83
4.3 - Rural elderly care system flow 84
4.4 - Food guide pyramid for older adult 85
4.5 - Agriculture production distribution in Sanzhi 86
4.6 - Exercise intensity in routine lifestyle of Sanzhi farmer 88
4.7 - Sankey diagram of self-sustaining elderly care system in rural Sanzhi 92
4.8 - Building and spaces indication plan in Grasshopper 93
4.9 - Residential boundary indication plan in Grasshopper 94
4.10 - Agricultural land boundary indication plan in Grasshopper 94
4.11 - Nearest healthcare facilities path optimization simulation in Grasshopper 96
4.12 - Distance diagram of open spaces and community center in users walkability 97
4.13 - Community center and open spaces connectivity simulation in Grasshopper 99
4.14 - Pathway frequency base on community center and open spaces connection simulation in Grasshopper 100
4.15 - Elderly walkability diagram base on various conditions 101
4.16 - Activities spot radius coverage optimization simulation in Grasshopper 102
4.17 - Self-sustaining and commercial agriculture land distribution ratio 103
4.18 - Agriculture land plot optimization simulation in Grasshopper 104
4.19 - Community drone system segmentation simulation in Grasshopper 106
4.20 - Agriculture drone control center sharing for small land simulation in Grasshopper 107
4.21 - Beekeeping simulation in Grasshopper 109
5.1 - Indoor aquaponics illustration scene 113
5.2 - Recessed plantation farm illustration scene 114
5.3 - Fish-paddy farm illustration scene 115
5.4 - Drying rack utility illustration scene 116
5.5 - working Gazebo utility illustration scene 117
5.6 - Meal gathering truck illustration scene 119
5.7 - Handicraft truck illustration scene 120
5.8 - Drone control center illustration scene 121
5.9 - Portable clinic truck illustration scene 123
參考文獻 Books reference
1. Alison J. Heppenstall, Andrew T. Crooks, Linda M. See, Michael Batty, 2012. Agent-Based Models of Geographical System. Springer

2. Bill Hillier, 2007. Space is the machine. Space Syntax

3. Zubin Khabazi, 2012. Generative Algorithms. Morphogenesism

4. Chris Reed & Nina-Marie Lister, 2014. Projective Ecologies. Harvard University Graduate School of Design

5. 倪宏坤, 2008. 休耕土地上種什麽. 環境質詢中心

6. 陳亮恭,楊惠君, 2015. 2025無齡世代. 康健雜志

7. 釋:謝宗哲,著:五十嵐太郎,2013. 關於現代建築的16章.田園城市

Magazine reference
1. Stephen Verderber, 2017. Design for health - Architects as first responders - Portable healthcare architecture in a climate-altered world. Architectural Design [vol 87]

Web reference
1. World Health Organization, 2017. Health expenditure, total percentage of GDP [online]
available at: https://www.iatp.org/files/Agricultures_Contribution_to_Rural_Development.htm

2. William Little ,2013. Aging of the elderly, Introduction to sociology. [online]
available at: https://opentextbc.ca/introductiontosociology/chapter/chapter13-aging-and-the-elderly

3. The Impact India, 2016. Project Lifeline Express. [online]
available at: https://www.impactindia.org/lle-volunteers.php

4. India Brand Equity Foundation, 2017. Healthcare industry in India. [online]
available at: https://www.ibef.org/industry/healthcare-india.aspx

5. Dr. Ananya Mandal, 2014. Disparities in access to health care. [online]
available at: https://www.news-medical.net/health/Disparities-in-Access-to-Health-Care.aspx
6. Dronethusiast, n.d. Meet Matternet, the startup that’s using drones to change the world. [online]
available at: https://www.dronethusiast.com/matternet-startup-thats-using-drones-change-world

7. Jeff Schank, 2010. Agent Based Models methodology and philosophy. [online]
available at: http://www.agent-based-models.com/blog/2010/03/30/agent-based-modeling/

8. Harding University, n.d. Schelling’s model of segregation. [online]
available at: http://nifty.stanford.edu/2014/mccown-schelling-model-segregation/

9. Weisstein, Eric W., n.d. Elementary Cellular Automaton. [online]
available at: http://mathworld.wolfram.com/ElementaryCellularAutomaton.html

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11. Pacific Bridge Medical, 2011. Poor hospital condition an increasing problem in India. [online]
available at: http://www.pacificbridgemedical.com/news-brief/poor-hospital-conditions-an-increasing-problem-in-india/

News reference
1. Rahi Gaikwad, 2016. The Lifeline Express: 25 years of changing live. The Hindu Post. [online]
available at: http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/mumbai/news/The-Lifeline-Express-25-years-of-changing-lives/article14493378.ece

2. Samarth Bansal, 2016. Indians spend 8 times more on private hospital than on govt. ones. The Hindu Post. [online]
available at: http://www.thehindu.com/data/Indians-spend-8-times-more-on-private-hospitals-than-on-govt.-ones/article14593186.ece

3. Jeanne Frank, 2016. A passage of hope on India’s hospital train. Al Jazeera Post. [online]
available at: http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/inpictures/2016/07/passage-hope-india-hospital-train-160717075710208.html
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