||Enhancing Taiwanese College EFL Leaners’ Knowledge of Formulaic Sequences Via Video-based Instruction
||Department of English
|| 此研究的目標是要探討使用顯性教學搭配影視教學法和隱性教學搭配影視教學法來教導以英語為外國語之英語低成就大學學生形式搭配詞。研究者募集62位來自台灣北部某所大學的學生參與本研究的實驗。這62位受試者有31位被分為實驗組，31位被分為控制組；實驗組授與顯性教學搭配影視教學法，而控制組則是授與隱性教學搭配影視教學法。實驗中所使用的教材是受試者選出的一部美國電視影集中的第一集到第五集；收集資料的工具有模擬標準多益測驗，多重選擇題測驗，和開放式問卷。模擬標準多益測驗的成績用來分配受試者至實驗組或控制組,確認兩組的受試者英文能力相似；多重選擇題測驗是由形式搭配詞所編輯而成的前測與後測；開放式問卷會在實驗組和控制組每一堂課結束前分發給受試者，其作用為收集兩組受試者對於課程內容、教學方法的感想與意見。研究結果顯示: (1) 以顯性教學教導形式搭配詞比起隱性教學有效；(2) 在語言使用方面，形式搭配詞具有充分的功能姓；(3) 形式搭配詞與單字文法截然不同；(4) 使用影視教學法教導形式搭配詞具有許多優點；(5) 態度在學習語言中扮演重要的角色。
||The purpose of this study aimed to investigate the effect of using formulaic sequences to teach low-achieving EFL university students. Sixty-two students were recruited as the subjects of this study. They were students in a university located in the northern part of Taiwan. Of them, 31 students were placed in the experimental group, and 31 students were placed in the control group. The experimental group received an explicit instruction whereas the control group was instructed by an implicit instruction. Five episodes from an American TV series which were selected by the students were used as the teaching materials. The instruments included one mock standardized TOEIC test, which served as an instrument to determine whether the students’ English proficiency was similar in both groups, one multiple-choice test (a formulaic sequence test that was taken by the students in both groups as a pre-test and a post-test), and one open-ended questionnaire which was distributed to the students in the experimental and control group at the end of each class. The results of this study showed that: (1) explicit teaching is better than implicit teaching in the instruction of formulaic sequences, (2) formulaic sequences bear the function of language use, (3) formulaic sequences are different from grammar and vocabulary, (4) there are advantages of using video-based instruction to teach formulaic sequences, and (5) attitudes towards learning play an important role in learning a language.
||TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chinese Abstract ....II
English Abstract .....III
Table of Contents......V
List of Tables......VIII
List of Figures......XI
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION......1
Background of the Study......1
Purpose of the Study and Research Questions......3
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW......5
Phraseology and Formulaic Sequences......5
Formulaic Sequences ......8
Acquisition of Formulaic Sequences in L1 and Learning of Acquisition of Formulaic Sequences in L2......8
Definition of Formulaic Sequences......11
The Functions of Formulaic Sequences......15
Formulaic Language as a Tool for Social- interaction......17
Formulaic Language as a Short-cut in Processing......19
Facilitating Language Production......22
Krashen's Six Hypotheses......23
The Acquisition-learning Hypothesis......24
The Natural Order Hypothesis......24
The Monitor Hypothesis......25
The Input Hypothesis......27
The Affective Filter Hypothesis......28
The Reading Hypothesis......30
Explicit Teaching and Implicit Teaching......34
Empirical Studies of the Necessity for Teaching Formulaic Sequences in Second Language Classroom......40
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY......46
At the Beginning Stage of the Experiment......50
The Experimental Stage......52
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS......60
Results of the Quantitative Data......60
Results of the Qualitative Data......63
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION......94
Explicit Teaching is Better Than Implicit Teaching in the Instruction of Formulaic Sequences......94
Formulaic Sequences Bear the Functions of Language Use......100
Formulaic Sequences are Different From Grammar and Vocabulary......102
The Advantages of Using Video-based Instruction to Teach Formulaic Sequences ......105
Attitudes Towards Learning Plays an Important Role in Learning a Language........110
CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSION......113
Summary of the Study......113
Limitation of the Study......115
Appendix A: Mock Standardized Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC).......134
Appendix B: The Backgrounds of the Participants in the Control Group and Experimental Group......139
Appendix C: The Open-ended Questionnaires (Chinese Version)......141
Appendix D: American TV series Grey’s Anatomy, Season 1......145
Appendix E: Questionnaire on American TV Series Used as the Teaching Material in Class (Chinese Version) ......146
Appendix F: Handouts for the Control Croup ......147
Appendix G: Work Sheets for the Control Croup (Chinese Version) ......152
Appendix H: Handouts for the Experimental Croup ......153
Appendix I: Work Sheets for the Experimental Croup (Chinese Version) ......158
Appendix J: Pre-test......159
Appendix K: Post-test......171
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1. Terms Used to Describe Aspects of Formulaicity in the Literature....12
Table 2. The Function of Formulaic Language (Wray, 2000; Wray & Perkins, 2000).....17
Table 3. Subcategorization of Processing by Functions of formulaic sequences Wray& Perkins (2000).....20
Table 4. Syllabus.....52
Table 5. A Descriptive Statistics of the Scores Earned by Both Groups on the Pre-test ....60
Table 6. A Descriptive Statistics of the Scores Earned by Both Groups on the Post-test ....61
Table 7. A Paired Sample t-Test for the Students’ Scores on the Pre-test and Post-test ......62
Table 8. An Independent Sample t-Test for the Students’ Scores on the Pre-test .....62
Table 9. An Independent Sample t-Test for the Students’ Scores on the Post-test .....63
Table 10. The Results of Question 1: Do you have the habit of watching English movies with both English and Chinese subtitles? Why? (First class) ........63
Table 11. The Results of Question 2: Before you take this class, have you ever noticed formulaic sequences? (First class) .......64
Table 12. The Results of Question 3: What do you think of the class today? (First class) .......65
Table 13. The Results of Question 4: Do you have any problems with the film played in the class today? (First class) ......66
Table 14. The Results of Question 5: Do you have any suggestions about the teaching in the class today? (First class) ......66
Table 15. The Results of Question 6: Do the FSs in the film and script’s handout today impress you? Why? (First class) ......67
Table 16. The Results of Question 1: What do you think of the class today? (Second class to fourth class). .....69
Table 17. The Results of Question 2: Do you have any problems with the film played in the class today? (Second class to fourth class) ......71
Table 18. The Results of Question 3: Do you have any suggestions for the teaching in the class today? (Second class)........72
Table 19. The Results of Question 3: Do you have any suggestions for the teaching in the class today? (Third class) .......73
Table 20. The Results of Question 3: Do you have any suggestions for the teaching in the class today? (Fourth class) ........73
Table 21. The Results of Question 4: Do the FSs in the film and script’s handout today impress you? Why? (Second class to fourth class) ......75
Table 22. The Results of Question 5: After taking this class, does finding FSs while watching the series become easier for you? (Second class) .......76
Table 23. The Results of Question 5: After taking this class, does finding FSs while watching the series become easier for you? (Third Class) ......76
Table 24. The Results of Question 5: After taking this class, does finding FSs while watching the series become easier for you? (Fourth Class) ......77
Table 25. The Results of Question 6: Is it necessary to increase the number of times that each episode to be played in each class? Why? (Fifth Class) .....81
Table 26. The Results of Question 7: Do you prefer to be instructed by telling you where the FSs are in the series and their meanings right after you watched each episode in the class, or to be taught to find the FSs in the series and their meanings by yourself first and then give you the answers in the next class? Why? (Fifth Class) .....82
Table 27. The Results of Question 8: How do you determine whether a sentence is an FS or not? (Fifth Class) .......84
Table 28. The Results of Question 9: Are there any differences between FSs you learned in the class, and vocabulary and grammar you learned before? (Fifth Class) .....85
Table 29. The Results of Question 10: After taking this class, are you interested in learning FSs? Why? (Fifth Class) ......87
Table 30. The Results of Question 11: Are you willing to learn FSs through movies, films, or series by yourself in your leisure time? (Fifth Class) ........89
Table 31. The Results of Question 12: After you learn the FSs, are there any differences or changes when you watch the episode in the class? (Fifth Class) .......91
Table 32. The Results of Question 13: What kinds of characteristics in a movie, a film, or a series will attract you to make use of these features to learn FSs in the classroom? (Fifth Class) ......92
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1. Function-based Category of Formulaic Sequences in English as a Target Language For L2 Learners ....16
Figure 2. Operation of the "Affective Filter" ......29
Figure 3. The Process of Learning Implicit Knowledge .....33
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