||The Role of Knowledge Sharing, Leader-Member Exchange, and Psychological Contract to Enhance Employee Creativity in Theme Park Work Team: An Empirical Study from Taiwan
||Doctoral Program, Department of Management Sciences
Team employee creativity
Moderated mediation model
||There is no doubt that tourism industry is the world’s largest service industry in terms of gross revenue. The development of tourism industry has brought new ideas, theory and practical application for tourism, leisure, and hospitality industry and attracted many researchers and practitioners. Therefore, related tourism issues are becoming research trend.
To build organization’s sustainable competitive advantage depends on organization innovation and the source of innovation is individual’s creativity. Based on this, the present study investigated the relationships among variables from three levels of individual, multi and team. At the individual level, to explore how knowledge sharing, leader-member exchange, and psychological contract affect employee creativity; at the cross-level, to explore the relationships among team knowledge sharing affects leader-member exchange and employee creativity; finally, to explore the relationships among team knowledge sharing, team creativity, and team innovation at the team level.
Theme park industry is an important part of the tourism industry which needs creativity and innovation to survive. This study use data from 43 team leaders and 215 team members in a theme park in Taiwan, who are engaged in offering creative and innovative customer services.
The results showed that, at the individual level, employees knowledge sharing enhanced the relationship quality between supervisors and subordinates, which in turn promoted their creativity; In addition, the psychological contract played a moderated role in moderating the mediation relationship among knowledge sharing, leader-member exchange, and employee creativity. At the cross-level, the study found team knowledge sharing enhanced the relationship quality between supervisors and subordinates, which in turn promoted their creativity. Finally, at the team level, the analysis showed that the team knowledge sharing improved team creativity; however, team creativity did not have a significant correlation with team innovation.
LIST OF FIGURES VII
LIST OF TABLES VIII
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 RESEARCH BACKGROUND 1
1.2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 12
1.3 STRUCTURE OF THE RESEARCH 13
1.4 RESEARCH PROCESS 14
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW AND HYPOTHESIS DEVELOPMENT16
2.1 THE RESEARCH TREND OF CREATIVITY 16
2.2 THEORETICAL FOUNDATION 20
2.2.1 Conceptual Framework 20
2.2.2 Knowledge Management (KM) 23
2.2.3 Social learning theory 24
2.2.4 Social exchange theory 25
2.3 RESEARCH VARIABLES 26
2.3.1 Knowledge Sharing 26
2.3.2 LMX 27
2.3.3 Employee Creativity 28
2.3.4 Psychological Contract 32
2.3.5 Team Innovation 34
2.4 RELATIONSHIPS AMONG RESEARCH VARIABLES 36
2.4.1 The Relationship between Employee Intention to Share Knowledge (EISK) and Employee Creativity (EC) 36
2.4.2 The Relationship between EISK and LMX 39
2.4.3 The Relationship between LMX and EC 40
2.4.4 The Individual-Level Mediating Effect of LMX 41
2.4.5 The moderation Effect of Psychological Contract (PSC) 43
2.4.6 The Moderated Mediation Effect among EISK, LMX, PSC, and EC 46
2.4.7 The Cross-Level Mediation Effect of LMX 47
2.4.8 Relationship between TISK, Team Creativity (TC) and Team Innovation (TI) 48
CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 50
3.1 INTEGRATED RESEARCH MODEL 50
3.2 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES 51
3.3 RESEARCH SETTING, SAMPLE, AND PROCEDURES 52
3.4 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF RESEARCH VARIABLE 56
3.5 RESEARCH VARIABLE MEASURES 57
3.5.1 Individual level variable 58
220.127.116.11 EISK 58
18.104.22.168 LMX 58
22.214.171.124 EC 59
126.96.36.199 PSC 61
3.5.2 Team level variable: TI 61
3.5.3 Control variable 62
3.6 DATA ANALYSIS METHOD 62
3.6.1 Descriptive Statistic Analysis 62
3.6.2 Validity, Reliability and CMV measurements 63
3.6.3 SPSS PROCESS 63
3.6.4 Variance Component Analysis 65
3.6.5 Hierarchical Linear Modeling Analysis 66
CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH RESULTS 67
4.1 RESEARCH VARIABLE DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS 67
4.2 VALIDITY, RELIABILITY AND CMV ANALYSIS 69
4.3 LEVEL OF ANALYSIS 74
4.3.1 Individual- Level Analysis 75
188.8.131.52 Tests of Simple Mediation 75
184.108.40.206 Tests of Moderation and the Moderated Mediation Effect 77
4.3.2 Cross-Level Analysis 79
220.127.116.11 Testing the Existence of a Multilevel Structure 80
18.104.22.168 Testing the Cross-Level Mediating Effect 81
4.3.3 Team-Level Analysis 84
CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION 85
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION 89
6.1 PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS 89
6.2 LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH 94
APPENDIX SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE 129
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE 1.1 INBOUND VISITORS IN TAIWAN FROM 2006 TO 2016 2
FIGURE 1.2 NUMBER OF THE INBOUND VISITORS VISITED THEME PARK (2011~2016) 3
FIGURE 1.3 RESEARCH PROCESS OF THIS STUDY 15
FIGURE 2.1 THE TREND OF CREATIVITY ARTICLES BY YEARS (2003-2017) 19
FIGURE 2.2 CREATIVITY KEYWORDS TRENDS (2003-2017) 19
FIGURE 2.3 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 23
FIGURE 3.1 THEORETICAL MULTI-LEVEL RESEARCH MODEL 51
FIGURE 4. 1 MODERATED EFFECT OF PSC ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LMX AND EC 79
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 1.1 TOP 10 ACTIVITIES THE INBOUND VISITORS PARTICIPATED IN TAIWAN (2011~2016) UNIT: PERSONS PER HUNDRED 2
TABLE 1.2 TOP 10 PLACES R.O.C. CITIZENS’ DOMESTIC TOURIST TRAVEL (2011~2016) 3
TABLE 1.3 GLOBAL THEME PARKS AND AMUSEMENT PARKS MARKETS 5
TABLE 1.4 THE GROWTH OF GLOBAL THEME PARK MARKET (2003~2012) 7
TABLE 2.1 THE DEFINITION OF CREATIVITY 30
TABLE 2.2 THE LEVEL OF CREATIVITY (2004-2016) 31
TABLE 2.3 KNOWLEDGE’S INFLUENCE ON CREATIVITY 38
TABLE 3.1 THE OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF RESEARCH VARIABLE 56
TABLE 4.1 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS OF QUESTIONNAIRE ITEMS OF RESEARCH VARIABLES 68
TABLE 4.2 MEASUREMENT MODEL 71
TABLE 4.3 THE FIT INDICES OF RESEARCH VARIABLES 72
TABLE 4.4 MEANS, STANDARD DEVIATIONS, AND CORRELATIONS 73
TABLE 4.5 TOTAL, DIRECT, AND INDIRECT STATISTICAL EFFECTS OF EC 76
TABLE 4.6 REGRESSION RESULTS FOR MODERATION MODEL 78
TABLE 4.7 REGRESSION RESULTS FOR MODERATED MEDIATION MODEL 78
TABLE 4.8 RESULTS BY MULTILEVEL ANALYSIS 82
TABLE 4.9 RANDOM COEFFICIENT REGRESSION MODEL 83
TABLE 4.10 THE RESULTS OF DEVIANCE TEST 84
TABLE 4.11 THE RESULT OF SIMPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS 85
TABLE 5.1 SUMMARY OF RESULTS FOR HYPOTHESES TESTING 86
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