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系統識別號 U0002-2301201420045200
中文論文名稱 歐盟解除中國武器禁運對美歐關係之影響
英文論文名稱 The Lifting of EU Arms Embargo against China – It’s Impact on US-EU Relations
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Master's Program, Graduate Institute of the Americas
學年度 102
學期 1
出版年 103
研究生中文姓名 周湘寧
研究生英文姓名 Hsiang-Ning Chou
學號 699250063
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2014-01-13
論文頁數 99頁
口試委員 指導教授-鄒忠科
委員-汪毓瑋
委員-張福昌
中文關鍵字 歐盟  美國的反對  美歐關係  中國  解除武器禁運 
英文關鍵字 the European Union  US’s Objection  US-EU Relations  China  lifting of arms embargo 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本論文探討美國反對歐盟解除對中國武器禁運之原因,並分析解禁之爭對美歐關係所形成之影響。
1989年天安門事件爆發,美國即刻立法施行對中國之武器禁運,歐盟(當時為歐洲共同體)隨後跟進。不同的是,歐盟對中國之武禁制裁僅止於「政治性聲明」,對歐盟會員國並無法律拘束力,各會員國仍依照國內的法規與程序裁定對中國之武器輸出。
2003年,法國與德國率先提議解禁,美國堅決反對,表示中國人權未見改善,不得貿然解除武禁;而且,解禁將使中國獲得先進武器與技術,改變台海地區的權力平衡,並危及美國在東亞地區的安全利益。2005年,歐盟即將宣布解禁之際,中國通過《反分裂國家法》,表示將針對台灣任何形式的獨立行為,採取非和平手段,歐盟於是中止解禁決議。解禁決議的中止,加上美國強烈反對,導致解禁議題至今仍然無解。
中國經貿實力強大,軍事現代化速度驚人,加上對先進軍事技術的強烈渴求,使美國戒慎恐懼。美國與歐盟對民主與人權之理念相近,擁有軍事同盟關係,經貿方面亦有高度互賴,然而,美國與歐盟面對中國崛起之態度大不相同,雙方為武禁議題爭論已久,因此,除了分析美國反對歐盟解禁之動機,筆者另外探討的問題,則是武禁之爭對美歐關係之影響。
英文摘要 This thesis aims to discuss US objection to EU’s lifting of arms embargo against China, and to analyze this arms embargo issue’s impact on US-EU relations.

1989, massacre in Tiananmen Square erupted, the US immediately imposed legislative sanctions on arms exports to China, and the European Union(the European Community at hat time) followed on. However, the EU’s arms embargo on China was merely a “political declaration”, which was not legally binding to EU’s member states, and each country still obeyed its own rules and procedures dealing with the sanction against China.


2003, France and Germany initiated the proposal for the lifting of arms embargo against China. The US objected firmly due to the unimproved human rights record in China; besides, China might gain access to advanced weapons and technology from Europe, which will change Cross-Strait’s balance of power, and further endanger US security benefit in East Asia.

2005, as the EU were about to lift the arms embargo, China passed “Anti-Secession Law”, indicating its will to execute non-peaceful measures if Taiwan acts in any forms of independence, which led to the suspension of the lifting of arms embargo.

China’s burgeoning economy, high speed of military modernization, and desire for advanced military technology has place the US on alert. The US and the EU share the idea of democracy and human rights and are militarily aligned, and are heavily interdependent on economy as well; however, they perceive different views about China’s rise and have long disputed on arms embargo; therefore, the US’s motives for objecting the lifting of arms embargo, and the issue’s impact on US-EU relations, will be articulated in this thesis.
論文目次 第一章、緒論 1
第一節、研究動機與研究目的 1
第二節、研究方法與理論應用 3
第三節、研究範圍與研究限制 6
第四節、文獻回顧與章節架構 7

第二章、解除武禁之爭論與歐盟各方政策考量 11
第一節、武禁爭議之緣起 11
第二節、解禁議題發展進程 18
第三節、歐盟解禁動機分析 22
第四節、歐盟各方政策考量 28

第三章、美國反對歐盟對中國武器解禁之政策考量 37
第一節、美國反對歐盟解禁之原因分析 37
第二節、美中歐三方互動與美國之利益權衡 53
第三節、美國與歐盟對中國政策之分歧 62

第四章、解禁對美歐關係未來發展之影響 65
第一節、美歐關係之發展 65
第二節、武禁爭議對美歐關係之影響 70
第三節、美國政策之選擇與美歐關係之維繫 75

第五章、結論 83

表目錄
表一、從 1990 年起,中國自歐洲採購之軍事相關系統.................................... 15
表二、歐盟對中國貿易額(百萬歐元) ................................................................... 25
表三、中國對歐盟貿易額(百萬歐元) ................................................................... 25
表四、中國官方公開軍事預算.............................................................................. 50
表五、歐盟對中國歷年的軍事出口總額(歐元) ................................................... 60
表六、美國 2012 年與主要貿易夥伴的商品貿易額(單位:十億美元) ............. 67
表七、美國與歐盟 2003 年至2012 年商品與服務貿易額(十億美元) ............... 68
表八、美國國防相關物品與服務:歐洲主要購買國.......................................... 74
表九、歐盟對美國歷年的軍事出口總額(歐元) ................................................... 74
表十、2003~2012 美國對歐盟主要會員國之軍事品項輸出額:德國 .............. 79
表十一、2003~2012 美國對歐盟主要會員國之軍事品項輸出額:法國 .......... 80
表十二、2003~2012 美國對歐盟主要會員國之軍事品項輸出額:英國 .......... 81

附錄
附錄一、1989 年歐盟對中國制裁措施................................................................. 87
附錄二、歐盟可自行解讀對中國武器禁運品項之法源依據.............................. 88
參考文獻 一、 中文

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4. 網路資源

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二、 英文

1. Government Documents & Publications

Archick, Kristin, Grimmett, Richard F. & Kan, Shirley, “European Union’s Arms Embargo on China: Implications and Options for U.S. Policy”. CRS Report for Congress. (Washington DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, May 27, 2005)

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2. Books

Buzan, Barry, Richard Little,Charles. The Logic of Anarchy. New York: Columbia University, 1993.

Cebeci, Munevver. Issues in EU and US Foreign Policy. Lexington, 2011.

Harding, Harry, A Fragile Relationship: The United States and China since 1972. Washington: Brookings, 1992.

McGuire, Steven & Smith, Michael. The European Union and the United States – Competition and Convergence in the Global Arena. Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

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3. Research Essays

Belligoli, Serena. “The EU and the US: Visions of China’s rise and of China’s growing presence in Africa », Union enropeenne-Chine, 2011

Casarini, Nicola.“The evolution of the EU-China relationship: from constructive engagement to strategic partnership”, EU Institute for Security Studies, 2006

Gill, Bates & Murphy, Melissa. “China-Europe Relations – Implications and Policy Responses for the United States”, CSIS, May 2008.


4. Thesis
Carson, Jano R. “The EU Arms Embargo on China, from 2001 to the Present: Implications for the United States.” MA Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, California, 2008.


5. Internet Resources

I. Online Articles

Austin, Greg. “The 1989 China Arms Ban: Putting Europe’s Position to Congress”, The Foreign Policy Centre , April, 2005 (accessed May 14, 2013)

Budd, Colin. “Obama Nation?: US-EU Relations after Lisbon: Reviving Transatlantic Cooperation”, LSE Research Online, 2010, available from http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/43586/
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II. Periodicals
Barysch, Katinka, Grant, Charles & Leonard,Mark. “Embracing the Dragon: The EU’s partnership with China”, Centre for European Reform (May 2005), available from http://www.cer.org.uk/sites/default/files/publications/attachments/pdf/2011/p_610_dragon_partnership-910.pdf

Bersick , Sebastian. “Strategic consideration in the US-China relationship and the role of European oft power”, Asia Europe Journal, Volume 4, Number 2, May 2006
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Carini, Nicola. “The evolution of EU-China relationship – from constructive engagement to strategic partnership”, The European Union Institute for Security Studies (October 2006), available from http://www.iss.europa.eu/publications/detail/article/the-evolution-of-the-eu-china-relationship-from-constructive-engagement-to-strategic-partnership/

Wacker, Gudrun. “Should the EU Arms Embargo against China Be Lifted? – Political and practical Implications”, Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik (April 2004), available from http://www.swp-berlin.org/fileadmin/contents/products/comments/SWPComment404Wkrxx.pdf

Mykal, Olena. “EU Attempts to Lift Arms Embargo on China and Security Balance in East Asia: Implications for East Asian Integration Process.”Global Institute for Asian Regional Integration (August 2008), available from
http://www.waseda-giari.jp/sysimg/imgs/200808si_21_olena_paper.pdf

Shambaugh, David & Wacker, Gudrun. “American and European Relations with China – Advancing Common Agendas”, Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik (June 2008), available from http://chinaperspectives.revues.org/4821

Vennesson, Pascal. “Lifting the EU Arms Embargo on China: Symbols and Strategy”, EurAmerica, Vol.37, Issue 3, (2007), available from
http://www.ea.sinica.edu.tw/eu_file/12014892804.pdf

Wacker, Gudun. “Lifting the EU arms embargo against China. U.S. and EU positions”, Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik (February 2005), available from http://www.swp-berlin.org/fileadmin/contents/products/arbeitspapiere/2005_02Wkr_eu_embargo_ks.pdf

Zaborowski, Marcin. “US China Policy: Implications for the EU”, European Union Institute, October 2005, available from http://www.iss.europa.eu/de/publikationen/detail/article/us-china-policy-implications-for-the-eu/

Zaborowski, Marcin. ‘EU-China security relations’, EU Institute for Security Studies, available from
http://www.iss.europa.eu/uploads/media/EU-China_security_relations.pdf


III. Online News

Binnendijk, Hans. “Rethinking U.S. Security Strategy”, The New York Times, March 24, 2013,available from
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/25/opinion/global/rethinking-us-security-strategy.html (accessed August 15, 2013)

Branigan, Tania. “China must tackle human rights, Mandelson says”, Guardian (8 Sep 2009), available from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/sep/08/mandelson-china-eu-arms-embargo
(accessed April 20, 2013)

Bumiller, Elisabeth. “Bush Voices Concern on Plan to Lift China Arms Embargo”, The New York Times, February 22, 2005, available from http://www.nytimes.com/2005/02/22/international/europe/22cnd-prexy.html?fta=y
(accessed March 19, 2013)

Fautre, Willy. “EU arms embargo against China and human rights”, EU Observer, June 17, 2009,
available from http://euobserver.com/opinion/28313 (accessed March 19, 2013)

Kurashige, Nanae. “Japan, France to establish committee to control arms exports”, The Asahi Shimbun, June 05, 2013, available from
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(accessed May 17, 2013)

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(accessed May 17, 2013)

Thomson, Mark. “Why China’s New Air Defense Zone Matters”, TIME, Dec. 04, 2013, available from http://swampland.time.com/2013/12/04/why-chinas-new-air-defense-zone-matters/
(accessed December 11, 2013)

Voice of America. “US Concerned About EU Plan to Lift China Arms Embargo”, October 30, 2009, available from http://m.voanews.com/a/302020.html
(accessed May 17, 2013)

Wolfe, Adam. “France, Germany seek to resume China arms sales”, Asia Times
, 12 February, 2004, available from http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China/FB12Ad06.html
(accessed May 17, 2013)

IV. Websites

European Council.“Council of Ministers Declaration on China”, available from
http://www.sipri.org/databases/embargoes/eu_arms_embargoes/china/eu-council-of-minister-declaration-on-china. (accessed December 27, 2013)

Ministry of Foreign Affairs Republic of China (Taiwan). “Appeal to the European Union to Maintain Its Arms Embargo on China”, available from http://www.mofa.gov.tw/EnOfficial/ArticleDetail/DetailDefault/df576d02-5706-40e6-8476-1de80da3834a?arfid=850653df-8ded-42f7-b824-06e8b1a3fc1f&opno=2f74fdfc-2b5e-4683-b051-3608957e43b6 (accessed June 13, 2013)

North Atlantic Treaty Organization. “NATO operations and missions”, available from http://www.nato.int/cps/nl/natolive/topics_52060.htm (accessed November 17, 2013)

SIPRI. “EU arms embargo on China”,
available from http://www.sipri.org/databases/embargoes/eu_arms_embargoes/china.
(accessed June 12, 2013)

SIPRI. “French statement on interpretation of EU arms embargo against China - Press conference with French Defence Minister”, April 8, 1997, available from
http://www.sipri.org/databases/embargoes/eu_arms_embargoes/china/french
(accessed June 12, 2013)
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