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系統識別號 U0002-2301201312263700
中文論文名稱 WCO SAFE架構下跨境貨物的監控與追蹤管理
英文論文名稱 The Tracking and Tracing of Cross Border Cargo Under WCO SAFE Framework
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 國際企業學系碩士在職專班
系所名稱(英) Executive Master's Program Of Business Administration (EMBA) In International Busines
學年度 101
學期 1
出版年 102
研究生中文姓名 湯東樺
研究生英文姓名 Dong-Hua Tung
學號 799550271
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2013-01-05
論文頁數 83頁
口試委員 指導教授-蔡政言
指導教授-孫嘉祈
委員-黃麗樺
委員-楊佳翰
委員-蔡政言
中文關鍵字 安全  便捷  供應鏈透明度  單一窗口  資料蒐集  優質經貿網絡 
英文關鍵字 CBRDM  Cross Border  Data Collection  Integrated Supply Chain Management  Logistics Performance Index  RKC  SICIS  UN/ECE  Single Window  UCR  UneDocs  WCO Data Model  WCO SAFE 
學科別分類
中文摘要 過去,國際間各項貿易與關務合作,都以致力於促進國際貿易通關便捷、提高物流與供應鏈管理效率、降低成本為目標,然自2001年美國發生911恐怖攻擊事件後,貨物保安及供應鏈安全的議題就開始受到重視。世界關務組織(WCO)乃針對國際物流供應鏈之作業特性,於2005年提出WCO SAFE架構,透過關與關、關與業者之合作,確保貿易安全的前提下,逐步達成無縫隙之供應鏈管理;並藉由資料在各活動之間交換的透通性下,促成跨境貿易之便捷的需求。
2012年WCO更提出「供應鏈連結」(Supply-chain Connectivity)的年度主題,WCO強調海關應於境內、區域乃至全球等各個層次領域,強化與其他政府機關(OGAs)與相關業界之協調、合作與交流,藉由供應鏈與邊境管理相關公、私部門關係夥伴間之協同合作,改善供應鏈管理、加強邊境安全、並得以達成貿易便捷之目標。
根據2012年WTO的最新統計,2011年我國商品貿易之出、進口排名分別為全球第17及第18名,出、進口金額分別占全世界比重1.7%與1.5%。可見我國經貿與進出口貿易之密切關係,更不能自外於國際社會發展。本研究即從WCO SAFE架構下,就跨國供應鏈透明度,與供應鏈資訊的應用,探討如何藉資通訊技術(ICT)在管理機制與管理技術上的應用,實現WCO SAFE架構下的貿易便捷與安全外,並試以前瞻角度探索透明供應鏈的建立方法。為能強化我國競爭優勢,本文於進行美國、歐盟推動經驗比較後,於第5章提出:
1. 採用CBRDM為基礎資料模型,提高跨境貿易資料在商業、運輸與跨境管理各面向之可用性;
2. 運用現代化科技方法,建立無縫蒐集資料程序,提升供應鏈透明度;
3. 積極運用中央資料庫內容,建立服務型單一窗口,推動運籌服務業發展。
等數項應有助於安全與便捷供應鏈建構方法的建議,或可作為我國相關機關推動跨境貨物之監控與追蹤管理之參考;並得以逐步達成「發展台灣為東亞海空運樞紐」之長期政策目標。
英文摘要 Before September 11, 2001, the goal of the cooperation of international trade and customs governance is effort to increase the convenient of international trade, to improve the efficiency of logistics and supply chain management, reduce costs. After the 911 terrorist attacks the cargo and supply chain security issues began to be taken seriously. WCO SAFE was proposed on the basic characteristics of international logistics supply chain's operations in 2005, through the cooperation of Customs-Customs and Customs-Business, to ensure trade security of the premise, and gradually reached gapless of supply chain management. By the transparency of information exchange between the various activities, contributed to the demand for convenient cross-border trade.
WCO also proposed “Supply-chain Connectivity” as the annual theme of 2012, stressed that the customs should strengthen the coordination, cooperation and dealing with other government agencies (OGAs) and the related industries in the fields of domestic, regional and even global level through a collaboration between the supply chain and border management-related public-private sector relations partners, to improve supply chain management, to strengthen border security and trade facilitation goals are fulfilled.
According to the latest WTO statistics, in 2011, the export and import value amount of Taiwan are ranked as 17th and 18th, the export and import value amount occupies 1.7% and 1.5% in worldwide, respectively. This presents the importance of the import/export trade to Taiwan’s economic, and why Taiwan cannot be outside in the development of the international community obviously. This study studies the relationship between the security of global supply chain and the transparency of the global supply chain on the base of WCO SAFE framework, and the application of information and communication technology (ICT) in the safety of supply chain management of WCO trade facilitation, on a forward-looking perspective and try to explore the establishment of a transparent supply chain. After the Comparison of Taiwan, United States, the European Union’s related experiences, this study prompt the suggestions in chapter five for strengthen Taiwan’s trade and logistics competitive advantage as:
1. CBRDM based data model, to improve cross-border trade in the availability of information in the commercial, transport and cross-border management-oriented applications;
2. Use of modern technologies to establish the seamless information collection procedures to enhance the transparency of the supply chain;
3. Make good use of central database which gathered the data from customs, harbor/airports administrations, and the other government agencies with the service-oriented single window, to support the logistics services development.
The above could be referenced by the relevant government departments to increase the performance of cross-border cargo tracking and tracing, which may also contribute to construct a safe and efficient supply chain. To reach the long-term policy goal of "To developed Taiwan become key air/seas logistics hub of East Asia" in phases.
論文目次 目錄
壹、 緒論 ················································ 1
一、 研究動機與目的 ······································································· 1
二、 研究範圍與方向 ······································································· 3
三、 研究方法 ·················································································· 5
貳、 文獻探討 ············································ 8
一、 WCO SAFE全球貿易安全與便捷標準架構 ··························· 8
二、 國際安全供應鏈的風險與威脅 ············································· 13
三、 跨境貨物的跟蹤與追蹤 ························································· 17
參、 以安全為基礎的跨境貨物管理國際現況 ·················· 24
一、 美國的發展 ············································································ 24
二、 歐盟的發展 ············································································ 28
三、 我國的發展 ············································································ 41
肆、 WCO SAFE工具之實務應用 ····························· 47
一、 UCR與供應鏈資訊關聯 ························································ 47
二、 跨境交易貨物資訊的蒐集 ····················································· 55
三、 單一窗口的建置與應用 ························································· 63
伍、 結論與建議 ········································· 72
參考文件列表 ··········································· 77
圖目錄
【圖1】研究方法 ·················································································· 6
【圖2】WCO SAFE架構發展時序 ······················································ 9
【圖3】WCO SAFE 4個核心要素與2大支柱關聯 ·························· 11
【圖4】UN/CEFACT國際供應鏈模型 ·············································· 14
【圖5】供應鏈風險管理 ····································································· 15
【圖6】供應鏈中監管、交易與物流處理層間之互動關係 ·············· 17
【圖7】供應鏈管理的變遷 ································································· 19
【圖8】貿易與運輸領域參與者及其功能 ········································· 20
【圖9】風險的循環 ············································································ 21
【圖10】Authorized Supply Chain ······················································ 23
【圖11】美國進口管理 ······································································· 27
【圖12】歐盟電子化海關的發展與構成方案 ···································· 30
【圖13】歐盟電子化海關系統架構 ··················································· 31
【圖14】歐盟進口ENS主要作業程序 ·············································· 33
【圖15】歐盟出口EXS主要作業程序 ·············································· 36
【圖16】歐盟轉運主要作業程序 ······················································· 38
【圖17】TIR通行證 ··········································································· 40
【圖18】歐盟海關管理系統發展時序 ··············································· 41
【圖19】「優質經貿網絡計畫綱要」業務目標導向計畫架構 ········ 43
【圖20】優質經貿網絡計畫-貿易安全 ·············································· 44
【圖21】美國、歐盟與我國推動貿易安全措施時間的比較 ············ 45
【圖22】國際物流供應鏈與各國貿易安全措施關聯與範圍對照 ····· 46
【圖23】WCO UCR具體格式(英國為例) ········································· 48
【圖24】WCO UCR應用基本模型 ···················································· 49
【圖25】貨物移動追蹤稽核資訊的建立 ··········································· 49
【圖26】國際供應鏈活動中參與者角色關聯 ···································· 50
【圖27】UNeDocs國際貿易參考模型 ··············································· 51
【圖28】UNeDocs跨境貿易高階實體關聯圖 ··································· 52
【圖29】跨境貨物管理法定程序範圍中資訊來源 ···························· 55
【圖30】貨物跨境管理資料管線 ······················································· 55
【圖31】我國貨物跨境管理資料管線 ··············································· 57
【圖32】出口報單(N5203)的資料結構 ·············································· 58
【圖33】出口貨物艙單(N5202)的資料結構 ······································ 59
【圖34】單證合一進口報單(NX5105)的資料結構 ··························· 60
【圖35】進(轉)口貨物艙單(N5101)的資料結構································ 61
【圖36】轉運申請書(N5301)的資料結構 ·········································· 62
【圖37】資料角度的供應鏈作業管道 ··············································· 63
【圖38】單一窗口5階段發展地圖 ··················································· 65
【圖39】SICIS系統開放連結架構 ···················································· 68
【圖40】海關功能的演變 ··································································· 69
【圖41】安全與便捷供應鏈建構方法建議 ········································ 75
表目錄
【表1】2012年我國與新加坡物流表現指標比較 ······························· 2
【表2】以我國為出發地相對於歐盟ENS之主要申報時限 ············· 32
【表3】以歐盟為出發地之EXS主要申報時限 ································ 35
【表4】我國通關程序的主要申報資訊(文件) ··································· 56
【表5】民國96~100年台灣各港口貨櫃裝卸量統計 ························ 70
【表6】民國99年台灣進出轉口報單數統計 ···································· 70
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