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系統識別號 U0002-2301200809485000
中文論文名稱 賀伯特.克羅利政治思想研究:1909-1921
英文論文名稱 Herbert Croly and His Political Thought: 1909-1921
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美國研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of American Studies
學年度 96
學期 1
出版年 97
研究生中文姓名 蔡青媖
研究生英文姓名 Chin-Ying Tsai
學號 693220039
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2007-12-27
論文頁數 141頁
口試委員 指導教授-戴萬欽
委員-魏良才
委員-吳玲君
中文關鍵字 賀伯特克羅利  進步主義時期  實證主義  實用主義  新共和週刊  老羅斯福總統  威爾遜總統 
英文關鍵字 Herbert Croly  Progressive Era  Positivism  Pragmatism  The New Republic  Theodore Roosevelt  Woodrow Wilson 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 十九世紀末、二十世紀初為美國歷史的重要轉折時期。工業化在此時期不僅帶來生產形式的轉變,更影響社會結構與人際互動。賀伯特•克羅利在此驟變的環境下,對美國民主的定義有著深刻的體察與省思。他在著作美國生活的展望中,有系統且鉅細靡遺地闡述其改革理念。許多歷史學者盛稱,此著作為研究美國進步主義運動的重要作品。而他在一九一四年創立的新共和週刊不僅是美國極具影響力的刊物之一,也間接地影響威爾遜政府的外交政策。
本論文首先探討克羅利在美國生活的展望與新共和週刊中的政治理念,並藉由分析他與老羅斯福和威爾遜之間的互動情形,將其改革理念與當時的政治環境相互結合。克羅利早年所接受的「實證主義」與「實用主義」哲學觀點,皆反映在其著作美國生活的展望與新共和週刊的文章。實證主義哲學灌輸克羅利利他精神以及反對有限政府的觀念,而實用主義哲學則啟發克羅利提倡實驗性的改革政策。此兩個哲學觀念影響克羅利極為深邃。
克羅利窮其畢生之力,孜孜探求協調個人自由與社會秩序之途徑。他未曾放棄藉由政府權力迫使人民行善的期望。然而,當他欲藉由政府權力迫使人民實踐社會責任之際,卻忽略多數時候道德行為應該出自個人意願的事實。當他滿懷熱忱地呼籲威爾遜政府,藉由戰爭向世界推廣其改革理念之際,卻忽視戰債賠償與政治鬥爭的實際問題。總的說來,克羅利提出的改革論點似乎過於理想化,但另一方面他提出的理念卻代表美國社會,即將由過去放任無為政策,轉型為管理性資本主義的過渡階段。
英文摘要 The late 19th century and early 20th century is a critical period in American history. Industrialization in American society not only changed the way of production but further brought about changes of social structure and interpersonal interaction as well. Confronted with such great impacts, Herbert Croly achieved profound understanding of American democracy and expressed his ideas of governmental role in societies. His main work, The Promise of American Life, in which he comprehensively presented his political ideas, was regarded as a must-read book to understand the Progressive Movement. Besides, his articles in The New Republic, which he founded in 1914 and has long been regarded as one of the most influential journals in the U.S, indirectly influenced Woodrow Wilson’s foreign policy.
This thesis mainly focuses on Croly’s political thought through the analyses of The Promise of American Life and his articles in The New Republic; besides, in order to integrate Croly’s thought with political circumstances at the time, this thesis also discusses Croly’s interaction with two influential Presidents, Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson. Croly was absorbed in the philosophies of Pragmatism and Positivism during his early years. Positivism inculcated Croly the ideas of altruism and expansion of governmental power. Pragmatism inspired Croly to promote experimental reform policies.
Croly devoted his life to coordinating personal liberty and social orders. He never gave up the hope of propelling people to practice virtues through governmental power. However, while advocating that government should be granted with more power to force people to carry out social responsibilities, he ignored the fact that moral behavior should derive from personal willingness. While zealously calling on the Wilson Administration to promote his political ideas to the whole world, he overlooked the problems of political struggles within the United States and international war debt. All in all, the reform ideas that Croly advocated are idealistic but they also signify that the American society was moving from laissez faire doctrine to managed capitalism.
論文目次 第一章 緒論-----------------------------------------1
第一節 研究動機與目的-------------------------------1
第二節 文獻探討-------------------------------------4
第三節 研究方法-------------------------------------5
第四節 研究範圍與限制-------------------------------8
第五節 研究架構-------------------------------------9
第二章 克羅利政治思想的淵源-------------------------11
第一節 實證主義對克羅利早年教育的影響---------------11
第二節 哈佛大學教育對克羅利政治理念的影響-----------18
第三章 克羅利在美國生活的前途裡的政治理念-----------27
第一節 由奴隸議題分析克羅利對自然權力的挑戰---------27
第二節 克羅利對經濟議題的主張-----------------------35
第三節 克羅利對外交政策的主張-----------------------44
第四章 克羅利與老羅斯福相互影響的關係---------------49
第一節 克羅利心中的理想領導者-----------------------49
第二節 老羅斯福總統的「新國家主義」-----------------58
第三節 克羅利與老羅斯福總統的進步黨-----------------64
第五章 克羅利在新共和週刊中的政治理念---------------71
第一節 新共和週刊的創刊背景與宗旨-------------------71
第二節 克羅利在新共和週刊中的政治主張(威爾遜政府時期-80
第三節 第一次世界大戰對克羅利政治思想的影響---------99
第六章 歷史學家對克羅利政治思想的評論---------------107
第一節 勒希對克羅政治思想之評論---------------------107
第二節 狄金斯對克羅利政治思想之評論-----------------109
第三節 洛克本伯格對克羅利政治思想之評論-------------112
第七章 結論-----------------------------------------119
附錄一、謝曼反托拉斯法--------------------------------123
附錄二、克萊頓反托拉斯法案----------------------------127
克羅利生平年表----------------------------------------132
書目--------------------------------------------------135
參考文獻 參考文獻
壹、 中文部分
一、 書籍
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胡東野譯,杜威(John Dewey)著,實用主義之發展。台北市:國華出版社,民國三十九年。
柯拉克夫斯基(Leszek Kolakowski)著,古特曼(Norbert Guterman)英譯,高俊一譯。理性的異化:實證主義思想史。台北市,聯經出版社事業公司,民國七十七年。頁58-62。
威廉.詹姆士(William James)著;陳羽綸&孫瑞禾譯,實用主義:一些舊思想方法的新名稱。北京:商務印書館,1989。頁44。
約翰•史密斯(John E. Smith)著,傅佩榮&蔡耀明譯;目的與思想—實用主義的意義。台北市:黎明文化事業股份有限公司,民國七十二年。頁1。.
逯扶東。西洋政治思想簡史。台北市:三民書局,民國九十一年。頁35-36。
傅崑成編譯。美國憲法逐條釋義。台北市:三民書局,民國八十年。頁177-212。
二、 學術期刊
郭銘松。<從財產權的思想典範論現代憲法功能的變遷>,歐美季刊,第二十九卷第三期,民國八十八年九月。頁143-180。
貳、 英文部分
1. Books
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___________. The Trumpet Soundeth: William Jennings Bryan and His Democracy 1896-1912. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1960. 43-60, 140-173.
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James, William, Doris Olin, ed. Pragmatism in Focus. New York: Routledge, 1992. 1-2.
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Lasch, Christopher. The New Radicalism in America, 1889-1963:The Intellectual as a Social Type. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1965.
Letwin, William. Law and Economic Policy in America: the Evolution of the Sherman Antitrust Act. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965.
Levy, David W. Herbert Croly of the New Republic: The Life and Thought of an American Progressive. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1985.
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2. Periodicals
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__________. “An Appeal to the President,” The New Republic 6, no. 75 (1916): 303~305.
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3. Dissertation
Stangl, Chris. Lightning Rod and Looking Glass: Herbert Croly and the Pragmatic Method in Political Thought (Wisconsin, Madison: University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2005).
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