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系統識別號 U0002-2301200702011200
中文論文名稱 美國小布希政府之毒品防制政策(2001-2005)
英文論文名稱 The Anti-narcotic Policy of George W. Bush Administration(2001-2005)
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美國研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of American Studies
學年度 95
學期 1
出版年 96
研究生中文姓名 高竹君
研究生英文姓名 Jwu-Giun Kao
學號 693220054
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2006-12-30
論文頁數 120頁
口試委員 指導教授-戴萬欽
委員-姜家雄
委員-吳玲君
中文關鍵字 毒品防制  毒品走私  毒品濫用  毒品需求量  毒品走私集團 
英文關鍵字 drug control policy  drug abuse  drug trafficking  drug use 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 由於毒品問題已經造成了對美國社會和經濟上的巨大傷害,美國政府因此結合各級政府、民間團體和各個社區的力量,要求全國一致努力,積極的打擊毒品犯罪並試圖降低毒品使用率。本文之重要目的在於探討美國毒品防制政策制定之起因、毒品防制政策重要內容以及政策施行後所產生的成效和回應。

本篇論文討論如下議題:
一、美國毒品防制政策的背景
二、美國小布希政府國內與國際毒品防制政策之執行
三、美國小布希政府毒品防制政策之缺失和影響
四、美國小布希政府和墨西哥的毒品防制合作

透過對國內外相關防制毒品危害書籍等各種資料之研析瞭解,美國政府實施之毒品防制政策雖已獲致相當之成果,但仍有可持續加強之空間及途徑,本篇論文的主要結論如下:

一、美國似可持續加強完善的社會福利制度,和妥善的貧民戶救助配套措施,以從根本協助降低其國內之嚴重毒品危害。
二、美國反毒宣導和教育,係毒品防制工作非常重要的一環,美國政府若能夠堅持善用反毒教育的力量,將會獲致事半功倍的效果。
三、美國政府在預防國民使用毒品和毒品矯治的措施上,必須注重使民眾產生信任感,才能取得預防毒品危害之更大成效。
四、在國際合作打擊毒品走私方面,美國政府必須展現誠意和毒品來源國培養良好的互動和合作協商,以期建立全球共同打擊毒品走私犯罪之有效機制。

英文摘要 The U.S. Government wishes to unify the resources of all the states, civil anti-drug organizations, and communities, in order to combat drug abuse and its affiliated crimes that have caused significant social and economic damage to American society. The primary objective of the thesis is to analyze the main goals, inputs, directions, results and feedbacks of the U.S. Drug Control Policy of the Bush Administration during the years from 2001 to 2005.

This thesis has the following agenda:
1. An overview of the U.S. Drug Control Strategy.
2. Domestic and international anti-drug endeavors of the George W. Bush Administration.
3. The shortcomings and effects of the Bush Administration’s Drug Control Policy.
4. Bilateral anti-drug cooperation between the Mexican government and Bush Administration.

Through studies of many documents concerning the issue of drug control, it is apparent that even though the U.S. government has strongly enforced its drug control strategies every year, there are still many improvements to be made, and many social problems concomitant with the drug control policy to be solved. The main findings of the thesis are as follow:
1. The U.S. government has great room for improvement in its social welfare system, and must effectively coordinate welfare programs for the under-privileged in order to tackle drug abuse at its very roots.
2. The education and advocacy of anti-drug abuse is a crucial element of drug control. The U.S. government must continue in promoting anti-drug abuse education to achieve better results in reducing the cases of drug abuse.
3. While the U.S. government is preventing and reducing drug abuse, it is important to establish trust with the U.S. civilians in order to increase efficiency in drug abuse reduction.
4. As for moderating international drug trafficking, the U.S. government must display sincerity and forge better interaction with drug producing countries, and to maintain multilateral cooperation to eradicate drug trafficking across the world.

論文目次 第壹章 緒論………………………………………………………………………1
第一節 研究動機和目的………………………………………………………1
第二節 文獻回顧和研究理論…………………………………………………2
第三節 研究範圍與限制………………………………………………………7
第四節 章節安排與研究架構…………………………………………………8

第貳章 美國毒品防制政策的背景……………………………………………...10
第一節 美國毒品種類………………………………………………………...10
第二節 美國毒品市場的源起………………………………………………...16
第三節 美國緝毒局毒品防制之執行情形…………………………………...20

第參章 美國小布希政府國內與國際毒品防制政策之執行…………………...31
第一節 美國毒品防制政策制定之原因和美國社會之需求………………...31
第二節 美國現行毒品防制政策之模式與執行困境………………………...36
第三節 美國針對國際毒品走私實施的防制政策及阻礙…………………...41
第四節 美國與國際社會之毒品防制合作…………………………………...45

第肆章 美國小布希政府毒品防制政策之缺失和影響………………………..52
第一節 美國毒品防制政策之缺失…………………………………………..52
第二節 美國毒品防制政策之缺失所帶來的社會影響……………………..56
第三節 美國國會和媒體在毒品防制中所扮演的角色……………………..60
第四節 美國毒品防制政策之革新和未來努力方向………………………..65

第伍章 美國小布希政府和墨西哥的毒品防制合作…………………………..72
第一節 美國和墨西哥防制毒品走私關係之起源………………………….72
第二節 墨西哥毒品防制政策的弊病和對美國造成的衝擊……………….77
第三節 美國受墨西哥毒品走私影響所施行的應變措施………………….85
第四節 美國小布希政府和墨西哥政府的毒品防制合作………………….88

第陸章 結論………………………………………………………………….....93

附錄一……………………………………………………………………………...98

附錄二…………………………………………………………………………….100

附錄三…………………………………………………………………………….107

參考書目………………………………………………………………………….110






















表目錄
表 2-1 各種大麻代名詞………………………………………………………...12

表2-2 使用大麻的部分俚語和使用方式……………………………………....13

表2-3 2005年美國青少年使用古柯鹼(所有型態)之數據…………………….21

表2-4 美國緝毒局緝獲毒品(包括國際和國內)數據統計……………………..26

表3-1 美國聯邦和州立監獄所監禁之因購買毒品被逮捕之犯人占所有犯人之比率……………………………………………………………………….34

圖1-1 系統理論之輸出與輸入項………………………………………………..6

圖5-1 加州安非他命工廠緝獲數量……………………………………………76



參考文獻 一、中文部份

1. 官方出版品
法務部調查局編。中華民國八十四年經濟及毒品犯罪防制工作年報。民國
八十五年五月。
法務部調查局編。中華民國八十五年經濟及毒品犯罪防制工作年報。民國
八十六年五月。
法務部調查局編。中華民國八十六年經濟、毒品及洗錢犯罪防制工作年報。
民國八十七年五月。
法務部調查局編。中華民國九十一年經濟及毒品犯罪防制工作年報。民國
九十二年四月。
法務部調查局編。中華民國九十二年經濟及毒品犯罪防制工作年報。民國
九十三年四月。
法務部調查局編。中華民國九十三年經濟及毒品犯罪防制工作年報。民國
九十四年五月。
法務部編。九十四年反毒報告書。民國九十四年六月。
法務部編。九十二年反毒報告書。民國九十二年五月。

2. 期刊論文
任全鈞。「美國社區處遇毒品犯的現況與成效的評估 」。矯正月刊,第一三五期,
民國九十二年九月,頁18-19。
江振亨,林瑞欽。「認知行為團體療法對濫用藥物者輔導成效之研究」。犯罪學
期刊,第五期,民國八十九年六月, 頁20-48。
江振亨。「讀書治療對濫用藥物者處遇效果之研究」。犯罪學期刊,第十期,民國九十一年十二月,頁41-42。
何潮。「我遇上的製毒事件」。清流月刊。第十一卷第九期。民國九十二年三月,頁36-37。
李長錦。「與國際接軌」。刑事雙月刊,第五期,民國九十四年三月一日~四月三十日,頁30。
吳天雲。「洗錢防制與洗錢防制中心」。清流月刊,第十五卷第二期,八月號,民國九十五年八月一日,頁42-43。
周石棋。「由矯正模式看現代刑罰的發展」。矯正月刊,第一四一期,民國九十三年三月,頁35。
林瑞欽,黃秀瑄。「海洛因成癮者濫用藥物信念與用藥渴求信念初探」。犯罪學
期刊,第七卷第二期,民國九十三年十二月,頁31-32。
法務部調查局。「認識新型態毒品LSD」。清流月刊,民國九十四年十一月,頁13-15。
陳祖輝。「毒品犯罪戒治處遇成效概況之介紹」。犯罪學期刊,第十一期,民國九十二年六月,頁13-15。
黃徵男。「新興毒品與青少年藥物濫用」。矯正月刊,第一零八期,民國九十年,
頁25。
張翌雋。「緊急追毒令,兩岸緝毒戰」。刑事雙月刊,第十一期,民國九十五年三月一日至四月三十日,頁33-35。
楊士隆,任全鈞。「一般性犯罪理論與社會學習理論之實證檢驗:以犯罪矯正機
構吸毒少年為例」。犯罪學期刊,第三期,民國八十六十二月,頁34。
黎添來。「美國地下毒品工廠勘察防護裝備介紹」。刑事雙月刊,第四期,民國九十四年一月一日~二月二十八日,頁38。

3. 學位論文
黃乃琦。美國藥物(毒品)濫用之危機處理。淡江大學美國研究所碩士論文,民國七十七年十二月。

4. 網路資源
大紀元時報, “國際社會打擊靠毒品籌資的恐怖主義,”
(21 Sep.
2005)
大紀元時報, “美國緝毒報告:土耳其是歐亞毒品轉運大道,”
< http://www.epochtimes.com/b5/4/3/3/n477920.htm> (21 Sep. 2005)
大紀元時報, “美國和哥倫比亞領袖矢言加強反毒,”
(5 Aug. 2005)
大紀元時報, “亞太頭號毒梟陳光華澳洲落網,”
(5 Aug.
2005)
大紀元時報, “兩岸集資源料菲國設廠, 成跨國安毒犯罪最新趨勢,”
(28 Aug. 2005)
大紀元時報, “聯合國報告:全球毒品市場龐大危害至鉅,”
(29 Aug, 2005)

二、英文部分

1. Government Documents & Publications
Drug Policy Research Center. How Goes the War On Drugs. Santa Monica: RAND
Corporation, 2005.
Office of National Drug Control Policy. ONDCP Circular: Policy Coordination.
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, May 30, 2002.
──────. National Drug Control Strategy. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, February 2002.
──────. National Drug Control Strategy. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, February 2003.
──────. National Drug Control Strategy. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, March 2004.
──────. National Drug Control Strategy. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, February 2005.
──────. National Drug Control Strategy Data
Supplement. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, March 2004.
──────. Reducing Prescription Drug Abuse.
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2005.
──────. The National Drug Control Strategy.
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2004.
──────. Summary: FY2005 National Drug Control
Budget. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, February 2004.
──────. The High-Intensity Drug Trafficking Area
Program Annual Report 2004. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2004.
──────. ONDCP Circular: Andean Counter drug
Initiative Semi-Annual Financial Reporting Requirements. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, April 16, 2002.
──────. ONDCP: Policy Coordination. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, May 30, 2002.
──────. Federal Drug-Related Data Systems
Inventory. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, February 2003.
──────. National Synthetic Drugs Action Plan.
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, October 2004.
The Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission. Progress Report In Drug
Control. CICAD. 2003.
United States. Congress. Senate. House Judiciary Committee, Subcommittee on
Crime. Organized Crime, Drug Trafficking, and Terrorist Acts: Hearings before
the House Judiciary Committee, Subcommittee on Crime, December 13, 2000.
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000.
United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Government Reform, Subcommittee
on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources. Reauthorization of the
Office of National Drug Control Policy: Hearing before the House Committee
on Government Reform, Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and
Human Resources, One Hundred Ninth Congress, June 15, 2005. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2005.
United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on House Government Reform and
Oversight, Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human
Resources. National Drug Control Strategy: Hearings before the Committee on
House Government Reform and Oversight, Subcommittee on Criminal Justice,
Drug Policy, and Human Resources, February 26, 2002. Washington, D.C.: U.S.
Government Printing Office, 2002.
United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Government Reform, Subcommittee
on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources. Fiscal Year 2006 Drug
Budget: Hearing before the Hearings before the Committee on House
Government Reform and Oversight, Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug
Policy, and Human Resources, One Hundred Ninth Congress, February 10,
2005. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2005.
United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Government Reform, Subcommittee
on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources. U.S Air Interdiction
Efforts in South America after the Peru Incident: Hearing before the Hearings
before the Committee on House Government Reform and Oversight,
Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources, May 1,
2001. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2001.
United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Government Reform, Subcommittee
on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources. National Youth
Anti-Drug Media Campaign: How to Ensure the Program Operates Efficiently
and Effectively: Hearing before the Hearings before the Committee on House
Government Reform and Oversight, Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug
Policy, and Human Resources, August 1, 2001. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2001.
United States General Accounting Office, Drug Control: U.S. Drug Interdiction Issues
in Latin America, GAO, October 7, 1994.
United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention, Global Illicit Drug
Trends, New York: United Nations Publication, 2002.

2. Books
Berdal, Mats and Serrano, Monica. Transnational Organized Crime & International Security. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc. 2002.
Baum, Dan. Smoke and Mirrors. New York: Little, Brown, & Company. 1996.
Kao, Yuan-Hsing. Honolulu Police Department Drug Enforcement Strategies. Master Thesis. University of Chaminade. 1994.
King County Bar Association. Effective Drug Control: Toward A New Legal Framework. Washington, D.C.: King County Bar Association. 2005.
Morales, Edmundo, Cocaine. Arizona: University Press of Arizona. 1996.
Mabry, Donald J. The Latin American Narcotics Trade and U.S. National Security. Connecticut: Greenwood Press, Inc. 1989.
Menzel, Sewall H. Fire in the Andes. Maryland: University Press of America, Inc. 1996.
Pinger, Robert R, Payne, Wayne A., Hahn, Dale B. and Hahn, Ellen J. Drug Issues for Today. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 1998.
Toro, Maria Celia. Mexico’s “War” on Drugs. Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc. 1995.

3. Journal Articles
American Correctional Association. “Drug Courts: A Personalized Form of Justice.” The Electronic Journal of the U.S. Information Agency. Vol. 2, No. 3, June, 1997, pp. 24-28.
Conference of Mayors. “Declaring Illegal Drugs Enemy Number One.” The Electronic Journal of the U.S. Information Agency. Vol. 2, No. 3, June 1997,
pp. 33-36.
Dembo, Richard, Williams, Linda, and Schmeidler, James. “Drug Abuse Among Juvenile Detainees.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. Vol. 521, May, 1992, pp. 28-41.
Falco, Mathea. “Drug Prevention Makes A Difference.” The Electronic Journal of the U.S. Information Agency. Vol. 2, No. 3, June, 1997, pp. 20-23.
Grassley, Charles E. “The U.S. Effort to Fight Drug Use.” The Electronic Journal of the U.S. Information Agency. Vol. 2, No. 3, June, 1997, pp. 10-14.
Jackson-Jacobs, Curtis. “Hard Drugs in a Soft Context: Managing Trouble and Crack Use on a College Campus.” The Sociological Quarterly. Vol. 45, No. 4, 2004, pp. 835-853.
Jarlais, Don C. and Friedman, Samuel R. “AIDS and Legal Access to Sterile Drug Injection Equipment.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. Vol. 521, May, 1992, pp. 42-65.
Lesbner, Alan. “Addiction Is A Brain Disease.” The Electronic Journal of the U.S. Information Agency. Vol. 2, No. 3, June, 1997, pp. 15-19.
McCaffrey, Barry. “Dealing With Addiction.” The Electronic Journal of the U.S. Information Agency. Vol. 2, No. 3, June, 1997, pp. 5-9.
Mayes, Linda C. “Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Young Children’s Development.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. Vol. 521, May, 1992, pp. 11-27.
Mieczkowski, Tom. “New Approaches in Drug Testing: A Review of Hair Analysis.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. Vol. 521, May, 1992, pp. 132-150.
National Opinion Research Center of the University of Chicago. “Treatment Programs Reduce Drug Use.” The Electronic Journal of the U.S. Information Agency. Vol. 2, No. 3, June 1997, pp. 37-39.
Teasley, David. “Drug Use: A U.S. Concern for Over a Century.” The Electronic Journal of the U.S. Information Agency. Vol. 2, No. 3, June, 1997, pp. 29-32.
Visher, Christy A. ”Pretrial Drug Testing: Panacea or Pandora’s Box.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. Vol. 521, May, 1992,
pp. 112-131.

4. 報紙
Berenson, Alex. “Big Drug Makers See Sales Decline With Their Image.” The New York Times, Nov.14, 2005, Sec A, P.1, Column 2.
Berenson, Alex. “Pfizer Plans12% Cost Cut As Sales Lag.” The New York Times, Sec C, P.1, Column 5.
Bloomberg News. “Wyeth Will Eliminate 750 Drug Sales Jobs.” The New York Times, June.21, 2005, Sec C, P.16, Column 1.
Freudenheim, Milt. “To Promote a New Drug Benefit, Marketers Are Using Some Old Scripts.” The New York Times, Oct.3, 2005, Sec C, P.1, Column 2.
Freudenheim, Milt, and Pear, Robert. “A Drug Benefit Conundrum; Retirees Must Weigh Company Coverage Against Medicare Plan.” The New York Times, Nov.4, 2005, Sec C, P.1, Column 2.
Pear, Robert. “Drug Plans In Medicare Start Effort On Marketing.” The New York Times, Oct.1, 2005, Sec A, P.9, Column 6.

5. 網際網路
American Friends Service Committee. “Eight Myths About the War on Drugs.” (21 Oct, 2005)
Council on Hemispheric Affairs. “Washington Short-Sighted Toward Latin America.” < http://www.coha.org/information.php> (20 Oct, 2005)
Ginger Thompson. “In the Border Brutality, Discerning a Bright Side.”
(1 Nov. 2005)
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No.2. “The Contras, Cocaine, and Covert Operations.” (25 Sep, 2005)
Office of National Drug Control Policy. “International Money Laundering and Asset Forfeiture.” ONDCP Fact Sheet, Jan, 2002, (11 Nov, 2005)
Office of National Drug Control Policy. “Reducing Corruption.” ONDCP Fact Sheet, March, 2005, (11 Nov, 2005)
Office of National Drug Control Policy. “Breaking Cocaine Sources of Supply.” ONDCP Fact Sheet, Jan, 2001, (12 Nov, 2005)
Office of National Drug Control Policy. “Bilateral Cooperation with Mexico.” ONDCP Fact Sheet, March, 2005, (12 Nov, 2005)
Pear, Robert. “Confusion is Rife About Drug Plan as Sign-Up Nears.” New York Times, Nov.13, 2005,
< http://www.nytimes.com/2005/11/13/national/13drug.html#> (16 Nov, 2005)
U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. ”Mexican Heroin.” Drug Trafficking in the United States, 2005, (25 Sep. 2005).
U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. “Trafficking by Colombian and Mexican Organizations.” State Fact Sheets, 2005, (25 Sep. 2005)
U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. “Drug Discriptions.” (3 Nov, 2005)

6. 相關網站
Http://www.rand.org/index.html (Drug Policy Research Center)
Http://www.drugpolicy.org/homepage.cfm (Drug Policy Alliance)
http://dawninfo.samhsa.gov/old_dawn/default.asp (Drug Abuse Warning Network)
http://www.nida.nih.gov/NIDAHome.html (National Institute On Drug Abuse)
http://www.coalitioninstitute.org/ (National Community Anti-Drug Coalition Institute)
Http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/index.html (Office of National Drug Control Policy)
Http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/index.htm (U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration)
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