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系統識別號 U0002-2207201306334200
中文論文名稱 保守主義大師巴克利捍衛小政府理念之研究
英文論文名稱 William F. Buckley, Jr.’s Ideas in Defense of Limited Government
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Master's Program, Graduate Institute of the Americas
學年度 101
學期 2
出版年 102
研究生中文姓名 李彥明
研究生英文姓名 Yang-Ming Lee
電子信箱 deanbest5320@gmail.com
學號 697250149
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2013-06-19
論文頁數 125頁
口試委員 指導教授-李本京
委員-柯大衛
委員-吳珊珊
中文關鍵字 巴克利  保守主義  自由意志主義  奧地利經濟學派  當代自由主義  小政府  有限政府  國家評論  火線  諾克  肯達爾  柏恩漢  錢伯斯  海耶克  史密思 
英文關鍵字 William F. Buckley, Jr.  conservatism  libertarianism  Austrian School of Economics  modern liberalism  small government  limited government  National Review  Firing Line  Albert Jay Nock  Willmoore Kendall  James Burnham  Whittaker Chambers  Friedrich Hayek  Adam Smith 
學科別分類
中文摘要   以海耶克(1899-1992)為首的奧地利經濟學派(Austrian School of economics)逃離希特勒掌控下的奧地利,於1940年代來到美國撒下計劃性經濟必導致災難的種子。這樣的警訊喚醒了美國自由意志主義(libertarian)知識份子並獲得許多保守主義者的共鳴。巴克利(William F. Buckley, Jr., 1925-2008)是美國近代保守主義運動中重要的領袖人物之一,他自耶魯大學畢業後出版個人著作「耶魯的神與人」(God and Man at Yale),強力抨擊母校放任無神論及社會主義風氣在校園的蔓延違背了耶魯大學的傳統。

  1955年,巴克利展現其領導能力,帶領保守主義並且匯集三大派別──傳統主義派(Traditionalism)、自由意志主義派(Libertarianism)及反共主義派(Anti-Communism)的力量創建《國家評論》(National Review)雜誌並宣示將站在自由意志的這一邊,力抗政府的擴張。《國家評論》是一股政治行動,也意謂著保守主義運動正式到來,團結右派以迎戰羅斯福新政之後的當代自由主義。

  1965年,為迎戰共和黨內自由派年輕新秀林賽(John Lindsay),巴克利代表保守派領袖投入紐約市長選戰,雖未果,但已引起廣泛注意。隔年,巴克利開設電視公共性論壇節目《火線交鋒》(Firing Line),邀請諸多自由派人士及知名的政界知識份子參與辯論,節目中他展現出時而慵懶優雅,時而不留情面地批判對手的鮮明風格。此節目探討許多公共議題,並於1969年獲頒象徵美國電視界最高殊榮的艾美獎(Emmy Awards)。巴克利的出現及其努力大大改變了許多美國民眾對於保守主義既有的刻板概念。

  巴克利機智及諷刺好辯的人格特質與其家庭教育及求學背景有密切的關係。他出生於天主教家庭,然而也深受自由意志主義領袖人物諾克(Jay Nock)的啟發,凡此皆對於巴克利在捍衛小政府信念的歷程中產生深遠的影響。本文試圖透過對美國自由意志主義興起的歷史回顧檢視巴克利小政府理念的起源及奮鬥歷程,研究其如何在宗教信仰及自由意志思想中找到共通點,並探討其個人特質所發揮的作用。由於巴克利對經濟自由甚為重視,本文於最後藉由大政府與小政府之間的爭議,思索自由市場的價值。
英文摘要  Having avoided Hitler’s Anschluss in Austria in 1938, Friedrich Hayek became the one of the leading proponents of the Austrian School of Economics, settling first in England during the 1930s and 1940s and later in the U.S. in the 1950s. Hayek warned that planned economies would lead the way to political and economic servitude, and his call awakened and resonated among many libertarian and conservative intellectuals in the United States, among them William F. Buckley, Jr. — perhaps the most important of these young American conservatives. Buckley’s fame rose with the publication of his first book God and Man at Yale (1951), a scathing condemnation of his alma mater, Yale, for its open embrace of atheism and collectivism, so inimical to the school’s tradition of religious piety and fierce individualism.

 In 1955, Buckley institutionalized his three most important philosophical principles, namely traditionalism, libertarianism, and anti-communism, through the founding of the National Review, a magazine having the declared aims of promoting libertarian views and fighting the growth of big government. National Review was a political act signifying the formal arrival of a conservative movement whose purpose was to push back against an entrenched and growing American leftist movement dating from Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal era.

 In 1965, Buckley placed himself in the New York City mayoral campaign, but failed to be elected; nevertheless, he drew wild public attention to himself and his political views. Within one year, Buckley debuted on TV with his first program Firing Line, a public affairs show that lasted over thirty years, aimed at debating current affairs with leading liberal opponents and other prominent political intellectuals. Buckley, acting as host with a small studio audience and often an additional questioner having a different political view to his own, typically began the show with an elegant introduction of the guest and then proceeded to intellectually probe the strengths and weaknesses of their opinions. His skillful design and production of the show led to an Emmy Award in 1969.

 Over the years William F. Buckley, Jr. greatly changed the American stereotype of conservatives. Buckley was generally characterized as witty and often sarcastic. He was born into a Catholic family, and was largely influenced by Albert Jay Nock, a noted libertarian. This thesis seeks to examine the origin and development of Buckley’s ideas on small government by reviewing the rise of American libertarians and exploring (i) how he found common ground between religion and individual freedom and (ii) how his personal charisma functioned during his career. Finally, to better evaluate Buckley’s success, the thesis considers the value of free markets followed by economic freedom that Buckley was primarily concerned about in his political thinking.
論文目次 目錄
第一章 緒論1
  第一節 研究動機1
  第二節 研究目的4
  第三節 研究方法與限制6
第二章 自由意志主義派11
  第一節 古典自由主義在英國12
  第二節 在美國的復興21
  第三節 政府權力的界限30
第三章 巴克利的成長背景與保守主義運動37
  第一節 生平及成長背景37
  第二節 政治思想啟蒙41
  第三節 投入保守主義運動47
第四章 巴克利小政府理念的理論思維55
  第一節 思想淵源55
  第二節 核心價值60
  第三節 扮演的角色67
第五章 巴克利捍衛小政府理念的意義與貢獻75
  第一節 巴克利、雷根與高華德75
  第二節 巴克利與《國家評論》78
  第三節 巴克利與《火線交鋒》85
第六章 小政府與大政府之辯論91
  第一節 小政府思維--市場效率與個人自由91
  第二節 大政府考量--社會正義與平等95
  第三節 導火線:自利行為之爭辯99
第七章 結論105
參考文獻113
附錄 巴克利生平大事記124
參考文獻 壹、英文部份
I. Books
Bogus, Carl T. Buckley: William F. Buckley Jr. and the Rise of American Conservatism. New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2011.

Bridges, Linda and Coyne Jr., John R. Strictly Right: William F. Buckley Jr. and the American Conservative Movement. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley, 2007.

Bridges, Linda and Kimball, Roger, ed. Athwart History: Half a Century of Polemics, Animadversions, and Illuminations: A William F. Buckley Jr. Omnibus. New York: Encounter Books, 2010.

Brookhiser, Richard. Right Time, Right Place: Coming of Age With William F. Buckley Jr. and the Conservative Movement. New York: Basic Books, 2009.

Buckley, Priscilla L. Living It Up with National Review: A Memoir. Dallas, TX: Spence Pub. Co., 2005.

Buckley, William F. Jr. God and Man at Yale: The Superstitions of “Academic Freedom”. Chicago: Regnery, 1951.
__________________. Up From Liberalism. New York: Bantam Books, 1968.
__________________. The jeweler's eye. New York: Putnam, 1968.
__________________. American Conservative Thought in the Twentieth Century. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1971.
__________________. On the Firing Line: the Public Life of Our Public Figures. New York: Random House, 1989.
__________________. Nearer, My God: An Autobiography of Faith. New York: Doubleday, 1998.
__________________. Let Us Talk of Many Things: The Collected Speeches. Roseville, Calif.: Forum, 2000.
__________________. The Reagan I Knew. New York: Basic Books, 2008.

Buckley, William F. Jr. and Bozell, Patricia. Happy Days Were Here Again: Reflections of A Libertarian Journalist. New York: Random House, 1993.

Buzan, Barry. Waver, Ole. Wilde, Jaap de. Security: A New Framework for Analysis. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Pub, 1998.

Cowen, Tyler. The Great Stagnation: How America Ate All The Low-Hanging Fruit of Modern History, Got Sick, and Will (Eventually) Feel Better. New York: Dutton, 2011.

DiLorenzo, Thomas J. How Capitalism Saved America: the Untold History of Our Country, From the Pilgrims To the Present. New York: Crown Forum, 2004.

Edel, Wilbur. The Reagan Presidency: An Actor's Finest Performance. New York: Hippocrene Books, 1992.

Edwards, Lee. William F. Buckley Jr.: The Maker of a Movement. Wilmington, Del.: ISI Books, 2010.
___________. Conservative Revolution: the Movement That Remade America. New York, N.Y.: Free Press, 1999.

Ekirch, Jr., Arthur A. The Decline of American Liberalism. New York: Longmans, Green, 1955.

Friedman, Milton & Friedman, Rose D. Free To Choose. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1980.

Goldwater, Barry M. The Conscience of A Conservative. Buccaneer Books, 1990.

Gottfried, Paul and Fleming, Thomas. The Conservative Movement. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1988.

Harden, Nathan. Man, Sex, God, and Yale. New York: Thomas Dunne Books/St Martin's Press, 2012.

Hart, Jeffrey. The making of the American conservative mind: National review and its times. Wilmington, Del.: ISI Books, 2005.

Judis, John B. William F. Buckley, Jr.: Patron Saint of the Conservatives. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1988.

Levin, Mark. Liberty and tyranny: A Conservative Manifesto. New York: Threshold Editions, 2009.

Lott, Jeremy. William F. Buckley, Jr. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2010.

McGann, James G. Think Tanks and Policy Advice in the United States: Academics, Advisors and Advocates. Abingdon [England]; New York, N.Y.: Routledge, 2007.

McManus, John F. William F. Buckley, Jr.: Pied Piper for the Establishment. Appleton, Wis.: John Birch Society, 2002.

Mises, Ludwig von. Bureaucracy. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1944.

Murray, Charles. What It Means To Be A Libertarian. New York: Broadway Books, 1997.

Nash, George. The Conservative Intellectual Movement in America: Since 1945. New York: Basic Books, 1976.

Nock, Albert Jay. The Theory of Education in the United States. Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1949.
_____________. Memoirs of a Superfluous Man. Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute, 2007.

Nozick, Robert. Anarchy, State, and Utopia. New York: Basic Books, 1974.

Paterson, Isabel. The God of the Machine. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1943.

Rand, Ayn. The Fountainhead. New York: Plume, 2005, 1943.
________. Atlas Shrugged. New York: Random House, 1957.

Rand, Ayn and Branden, Nathaniel. The Virtue of Selfishness. New York: New American Library, 1964.

Rose, Richard. Understanding Big Government: The Programme Approach. London: Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1984.

Rothbard, Murray. The Essential Von Mises. Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute, 1980.
______________. For a New Liberty: The Libertarian Manifesto. Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute, 2000, 2nd edition.

Rossiter, Clinton, Conservatism in America. London: Harvard University Pres, 1982.

Rozell, Mark J. and Pontuso, James F. eds. American Conservative Opinion Leaders. Boulder: Westview Press, 1990.

Shaffer, Harry G. American Capitalism and the Changing Role of Government. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1999.

Viguerie, Richard A. The New Right: We’re Ready to Lead. Falls Church, VA: Viguerie Co., 1981.

II. Periodicals
Journal
Sherrill, Robert. “Squire Willie”, The Nation, June 11, 1988, p. 829.

Weekly magazines
Brinkley, Alan. “The Conservative at Sea”, The New Republic, May 30, 1988, pp. 29-30.

Buckley, William F. Jr. “John Lindsay, RIP”, National Review, January 22, 2001, p. 16.
___________________. “Under the Bed of Welfare”, National Review, September 25, 2000, p. 63.

Roberts, James. “Lee Edwards Praise Indispensable Bill Buckley”, Human Events, August 30, 2010, p. 18.

Roberts, Jim. “William F. Buckley Remembers Goldwater and Reagan”, Human Events, April 6, 2009, p. 19.

"The Sniper", Time, November 3, 1967, p. 70.

III. Dissertation
Lewis, Hyrum S. Sacralizing the Right: William F. Buckley, Jr., Whittaker Chambers, Will Herberg and the Transformation of Intellectual Conservatism, 1945-1964, PhD Dissertation (Los Angeles: University of South California, 2007).

IV. Websites
Backer, Hunter. “Two Happy Warriors Were We”, The American Spectator, January 7, 2009, at http://spectator.org/archives/2009/01/07/two-happy-warriors-were-we

Boaz, David. “Bill Buckley is dead. Has conservatism died with him?”, San Francisco Chronicle, February 28, 2008, at http://www.sfgate.com/default/article/Bill-Buckley-is-dead-Has-conservatism-died-with-3292885.php

Buckley, William F. Jr. “Our Mission Statement”, National Review Online, November 19, 1955, at http://www.nationalreview.com/node/223549

Chantrill, Christopher. “The Dirty Little Secret of Economics”, American Thinker, August 2, 2011, at http://www.americanthinker.com/2011/08/the_dirty_little_secret_of_economics.html

Conn, Steven. “Central Government: 13 Reasons Why Big Government Matters”, The Huffington Post, August 12, 2012, at http://www.huffingtonpost.com/steven-conn/central-government-book_b_1777321.html

Curran, Michael. “The Remnant”, American Thinker, Jan. 28, 2005, at http://www.americanthinker.com/2005/01/the_remnant.html

Edwards, Lee. “William F. Buckley Jr.: Conservative Icon”, The Heritage Foundation, December 18, 2012, at http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2012/12/william-f-buckley-jr-conservative-icon#_ftn16
____________. “Standing Athwart History: The Political Thought of William F. Buckley, Jr.”, The Heritage Foundation, May 5, 2010, at http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2010/05/standing-athwart-history-the-political-thought-of-william-f-buckley-jr#_ftnref14

Freire, J.P. ‘“Violent,” “angry,” “fear-mongering” Tea Party narrative debunked in one night’, The Examiner, November 1, 2010, at http://www.sfexaminer.com/blogs/beltway-confidential/2010/11/violent-angry-fear-mongering-tea-party-narrative-debunked-one-nigh

Gordon, David. “The Making of a Warmonger”, LewRockWell.com, at http://www.lewrockwell.com/gordon/gordon77.1.html

Hemingway, Mark. “Where There’s a Will, There’s Bill Buckley”, National Review Online, February 28, 2008, at http://www.nationalreview.com/articles/223791/where-theres-will-theres-bill-buckley/mark-hemingway

London, Herbert. “The Meaning of Limited Government”, NewsMax, May 10, 2011, at http://www.newsmax.com/HerbertLondon/limitedgovernment-teaparty-FoundingFathers-RonaldReagan/2011/05/10/id/395815

Manis, Jim ed., An Inquiry Into The Nature And Causes Of The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, p. 364, at http://www2.hn.psu.edu/faculty/jmanis/adam-smith/Wealth-Nations.pdf

McCarthy, Daniel. “Five Conservative Classics”, The American Conservative, September. 16, 2009 at http://www.theamericanconservative.com/mccarthy/five-conservative-classics/

Nock, Jay. “The New Deal and Prohibition”, Ludwig von Mises Institute, December 28, 2010, at https://mises.org/daily/4894/The-New-Deal-and-Prohibition

Rand, Ayn. “The Nature of Government” at http://www.aynrand.org/site/PageServer?pagename=arc_ayn_rand_the_nature_of_government
________. interviewed by Mike Wallace, at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ooKsv_SX4Y&feature=related

Riggenbach, Jeff. “Albert Jay Nock and the Libertarian Tradition”, Ludwig von Mises Institute, September 10, 2010, at http://mises.org/daily/4689/Albert-Jay-Nock-and-the-Libertarian-Tradition
_____________. “Anarchy, State, and Robert Nozick”, Ludwig von Mises Institute, November 26, 2010, at http://mises.org/daily/4862

Stiles, Andrew. “Dems Double Down on Medicare”, National Review Online, June 14, 2011, at http://www.nationalreview.com/corner/269625/dems-double-down-medicare-andrew-stiles

Stoyle, Mark. “Overview: Civil War and Revolution, 1603 - 1714”, BBC History, at http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/civil_war_revolution/overview_civil_war_revolution_01.shtml

Sunwall, Mark. “Albert Jay Nock's Laws of Political Process”, Ludwig von Mises Institute, August 23, 2007, at http://mises.org/daily/2577#2ii

Vallance, Edward. “The Glorious Revolution”, BBC History, at http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/civil_war_revolution/glorious_revolution_01.shtml

Viguerie, Richard A. “The Statist, Ruling Class's New Hero -- Bill Buckley?”, American Thinker, October 19, 2010, at http://www.americanthinker.com/2010/10/the_statist_ruling_classs_new.html

Zuckerman, Laurence. “How 'Firing Line' Transformed the Battleground”, The New York Times, December 18, 1999, at http://www.nytimes.com/books/00/07/16/specials/buckley-transformed.html

“How the Tea Party movement began”, theguardian, October 5, 2010, at http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/oct/05/us-midterm-elections-2010-tea-party-movement

”Tea Party Movement”, New York Times, December 26, 2012, at http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/t/tea_party_movement/index.html?8qa

“The Indispensable Bill Buckley”, Human Events, Sep. 5, 2010, at http://www.humanevents.com/2010/09/05/the-indispensable-bill-buckley/

“Biography of Ludwig von Mises (1881-1973)”, Ludwig von Mises Institute, at http://mises.org/page/1468/Biography-of-Ludwig-von-Mises-18811973
“What is Austrian Economics?”, Ludwig von Mises Institute, at http://mises.org/page/1443/What-is-Austrian-Economics

“Adam Smith Introduction- The old view of economics”, Adam Smith Institute, at http://www.adamsmith.org/adam-smith

Quotes from Thomas Jefferson, “When governments fear the people, there is liberty. When the people fear the government, there is tyranny.”, at http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Thomas_Jefferson

Wikipedia encyclopedia “Adam Smith”, Wikimedia Foundation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adam_Smith#cite_ref-25

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IuSfYagYdiY

http://www.ushistory.org/us/47a.asp

https://mises.org/store/Product2.aspx?ProductId=321

https://mises.org/store/Product2.aspx?ProductId=301

貳、中文部份
一、書籍
干學平、黃春興,2007。經濟學原理。台北:麥格羅.希爾。

巴利(Norman P. Barry)著,竺乾威譯。1999。《古典自由主義與自由至上主 義》(On Classical Liberalism and Libertarianism)。上海:上海人民。

布坎南(James Buchanan)著,顧肅譯。2002。《自由的界限:在無政府與利維 坦之間》(The Limits of Liberty: Between Anarchy and Leviathan)。台北:聯經。

布拉克(Walter Block)著,齊立文譯。2003。《百辯經濟學》(Defending the Undefendable)。台北:城邦文化。

史庫森(Mark Skousen)著,楊培雷譯。2006。《朋友還是對手:奧地利學派與芝加哥學派之爭》(Vienna and Chicago: Friends or Foes?)。上海:上海人民。

艾本斯坦(Alan Ebenstein)著,姚中秋譯。2005。《海耶克:20世紀古典自由主義大師》(Friedrich Hayek: A Biography)。台北:康德。
________,陳儀譯。2008。《傅利曼的選擇:從自由主義經濟學者到公共知識分子》(Milton Friedman: A Biography)。台北:財信。

林立樹,2007。美國通史。台北:五南。

拉爾(Deepak Lal)著,史軍譯。2012。《復活看不見的手:為古典自由主義辨護》(Reviving The Invisible Hand)。南京:譯林。

周育仁,2010。政治學新論。台北:翰蘆圖書。

柯文(Tyler Cowen)著,沈大白譯。2012。《大停滯:如何擺脫不成長困局》(The Great Stagnation: How America Ate All The Low-Hanging Fruit of Modern History, Got Sick, and Will (Eventually) Feel Better)。台北:早安財經。

施建生。2007。《偉大經濟學家海耶克》。台北:天下。

海爾布魯諾(Robert L. Heilbroner)著,唐欣偉譯。2010。《俗世哲學家:改變歷史的經濟學家》(The Worldly Philosopher: The Lives, Times, and Ideas of the Great Economic Thinkers)。台北:商周。

郭壽旺。2006。《華府智庫對美國臺海兩岸政策制定之影響:對李登輝總統九五年訪美案例之硏究》。台北:秀威資訊。

傅利曼(Milton Friedman)著,謝宗林譯。2011。《資本主義與自由》(Capitalism and Freedom)。台北:博雅書屋。

赫茲利特(Henry Hazlitt)著,羅耀宗譯。2005。《一課經濟學》(Economics in One Lesson)。台北:經濟新潮社。
________,高翠霜譯。2009。《通膨、美元、貨幣的一課經濟學》(What You Should Know About Inflation)。台北:經濟新潮社。

鮑茲(David Baoz)著,陳青藍譯。2009。《古典自由主義:入門讀物》(Libertarianism: A Primer)。北京:同心。

薩孟武。1978。《西洋政治思想史》。台北:三民。

薩麗(Razeen Sally)等著。秋風譯。2002。《哈耶克与古典自由主义》。貴陽:貴州人民。

顧肅。2006。《自由主義基本理念》。台北:左岸文化。

二、學術期刊
黃春興〈奧地利經濟學派經濟理論的一個學習架構〉,《南大商學評論》,2007年第1期,頁169。

劉志銘,〈經濟思想成長中的自發秩序傳統:從史密斯、門格爾爾到哈耶克〉,《江淮論壇》,第1期(2002年),頁29。

張志新,〈美國保守主義及其流派概述〉,《國際資料信息》,11期(2004年):11。

三、學位論文
石亭月,《美國對智利阿葉德至皮諾契政權之干預(1970~1990)》,台北:淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士論文,2006年),頁43-48。

陳正健,《後冷戰時期意識形態與美國外交-從民主黨與共和黨之意識形態分析(1989-2008)》,台北:淡江大學國際事務與戰略研究所碩士論文,2012年。

沈圃稼,《自由主義與美國政治傳統》,台北:淡江大學美洲研究所博士論文, 2011年)。

彭如婉,《論公民科的學科理論基礎: 重返政治》,台北:政治大學政治學系博士論文,2004年。

葉筱梅,《杜波伊斯博士領導美國黑人民權運動角色之研究》,台北:淡江大學美國研究所碩士論文,2005年。

四、網站資料
何志工,「美國兩大政黨的重要區別──“大政府”與“小政府”」,北美行,http://www.lanxun.com/bmx/bmx017/nm01701.htm

黃春興,”導讀:傅利曼的選擇”, http://mx.nthu.edu.tw/~cshwang/cs-more/cs-reviews/cs-reviews-doc/M%20Friedman-2008-0729.html
______,〈政治經濟學的定位和發展--奧地利經濟學派的觀點〉,http://mx.nthu.edu.tw/~cshwang/austrian-economics/austrian-essays/austrian-essays-doc/Definition%20and%20development%20of%20PE-2004web.html#_ftnref15

黃春興、干學平,〈強制的健康保險制度--是海耶克一貫的主張,還是矛盾?〉,http://mx.nthu.edu.tw/~cshwang/austrian-economics/austrian-essays/austrian-essays-doc/Hayek%20on%20health%20insurance.html

陳之嶽,「美國茶黨崛起來龍去脈」,亞洲週刊,http://www.yzzk.com/cfm/Content_Archive.cfm?Channel=aj&Path=3118067761/08aj1.cfm

陳智偉,「3A飛了 標普首降美債信評等」,蘋果日報,2011年8月7日,http://www.appledaily.com.tw/appledaily/article/finance/20110807/33580680/

董鼎山,「《國家評論》與威廉‧勃克萊」,《獨立中文筆會》,http://www.chinesepen.org/Article/srsh/200804/Article_20080411010245.shtml

歐陽娟,「好萊塢編劇大師:預想掙錢會毀了中國電影」,《文化中國-中國網》,2012年7月25日,http://big5.china.com.cn/gate/big5/cul.china.com.cn/xiju/2012-07/25/content_5187989.htm

「英國清教徒革命」,http://blog.yam.com/turbomons/article/2138355

「善於管理人才」,《經理人》,http://www.managertoday.com.tw/?p=106

http://www.scu.edu.tw/ba/homework/96STC_2.pdf
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