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系統識別號 U0002-2207201015150600
中文論文名稱 美國新氣候法發展之研究
英文論文名稱 The Analysis of The U.S. New Climate Laws Development
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 國際貿易學系國際企業學碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of International Trade
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生中文姓名 蔡欣潔
研究生英文姓名 Sin-Jie Tsai
學號 697550936
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2010-06-21
論文頁數 143頁
口試委員 指導教授-林江峰
委員-李成
委員-陳財家
中文關鍵字 聯合國氣候變遷綱要公約  京都議定書  潔淨空氣法  美國潔淨能源與安全法  潔淨能源工作與美國電力法  氣候變遷 
英文關鍵字 UNFCCC  Kyoto Protocol  Clean Air Act  American Clean Energy and Security Act  Clean Energy Jobs and American Power Act  Climate Change 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學商學
中文摘要 近年京都議定書即將於2012年到期,為儘速達成新的國際排放減量協議,UNFCCC於2007年起便展開後京都時期的氣候協商,重要議題包含2012年後減量目標、調適資金、碳交易以及技術移轉等,而在2009年底哥本哈根會議中,由美國等五國協商出的哥本哈根協定並不具法律規範之性質,而在該協定的擬定過程中,美國一直扮演著相當重要的主導角色,故美國後京都時期的動向普遍受到國際關注。
若從美國歷年相關立法來看,其潔淨空氣法(CAA)在Massachusetts v. EPA訴訟案後雖已納入溫室氣體管制,但因溫室氣體的影響層面過於廣泛,並不適合規範作為管制溫室氣體的主要規範,而美國總統歐巴馬在2008年上任後宣布將制訂新的能源與氣候政策作為其任內最優先執行的政策,為回應其綠色新政,眾議院及參議院分別在2009年提出新的氣候法案-美國潔淨能源與安全法(ACES)與潔淨能源工作與美國電力法(CEJAPA),兩法規範即使略有差異,皆不脫離氣候變遷調適措施與潔淨能源科技發展等架構,配合再生能源使用標準(RPS)與再生燃油標準(RFS)的實施,將可協助美國有效達成減量目標。
若從UNFCCC與美國之間的互動關係來看,因UNFCCC爭議問題遲遲無法解決,且美國後京都時期之主張容易引起已開發及開發中國家的對立,故美國須藉雙邊或多邊協談方式緩和兩方衝突,以促進UNFCCC協議的達成,此外,後京都時期UNFCCC協議的達成將對美國新氣候法造成影響,因此,美國可在後京都協商中積極推廣其氣候法的優點,並結合自身主張立場來影響國際氣候談判的結果,以利美國未來氣候法的進一步發展。
英文摘要 Recently the Kyoto Protocol would be expired at the end of 2012, in order to reach a new agreement of global emission reduction, the post-Kyoto negotiations under UNFCCC have been held since 2007. The major issues include reduction targets after 2012, adaptation fund, carbon trade and technology transfer. The 2009 conference was held in Copenhagen, Denmark. After the conference, delegates approved the Copenhagen Accord, which was discussed by U.S. and other four developing countries, is not legally binding. Even so, the America played an important role in the negoitation process, and most countries around the world usually pay attention to U.S. movements during the post-Kyoto negotiation period.

For the past years, the U.S. Clean Air Act(CAA)regulate greenhouse gas after Massachusetts v. EPA, however, the CAA is not appropriate to regulate greenhouse gas because the influence of greenhouse gas emission is extensive. In 2008, the U.S. President Obama announced that he would set a new energy and climate policy as a top priority during his presidential terms. To respond to Obama’s green policy announcement, the House of Representitives and Senate set two climate laws, American Clean Energy and Security Act(ACES)and Clean Energy Jobs and American Power Act(CEJAPA)in 2009. Although these two laws have many different regulations, they both have a framework about climate mitigation, adaptation and clean energy technology development. If the U.S. government operate the framework with renewable portfolio standards(RPS)and renewable fuel standards(RFS), they would reach their redution target effectively.

Focusing on the interation between UNFCCC and U.S., the dispute of UNFCCC could not be settled and the U.S. position on climate change would lead to some conflict between developed and developing countries. To reach an agreement among both side, U.S. must use bilateral or multilateral negotiation ways to mitigate the conflict between developed and developing countries. Besides, the UNFCCC agreement in post-Kyoto period may have some influnces on U.S. new climate law. If the U.S. can promote the advantages of their new climate law and stand their climate position to effect the result of the post-Kyoto negotiation, the U.S. new climate laws may be carry out more smoothly.
論文目次 目錄
第一章 序論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 3
第三節 研究方法與架構 4
第四節 研究限制 6
第五節 名詞定義 7
第二章 後京都時期UNFCCC之發展 9
第一節 聯合國氣候變遷綱要公約(UNFCCC) 9
第二節 京都議定書(KYOTO PROTOCOL) 16
第三節 京都議定書執行概況 24
第四節 後京都時期UNFCCC協商之進展 33
第五節 小結 45
第三章 美國空氣污染管制規範 46
第一節 潔淨空氣法規範(CAA) 46
第二節 MASSACHUSETTS V. EPA 57
第三節 CAA之未來發展 64
第四節 小結 67
第四章 美國潔淨能源規範與措施 68
第一節 美國歷年能源政策法 68
第二節 美國潔淨能源標準 75
第三節 美國潔淨能源與安全法 82
第四節 潔淨能源工作與美國電力法 95
第五節 小結 107
第五章 UNFCCC與美國之互動與未來發展 108
第一節 後京都時期UNFCCC爭論之問題 108
第二節 美國後京都時期之主張立場 114
第三節 後京都時期UNFCCC與美國主張立場之關聯與互動 118
第四節 UNFCCC協議對美國未來氣候法之影響與發展 122
第五節 小結 127
第六章 結論與建議 128
第一節 研究結論 128
第二節 研究建議 130
第三節 後續研究之建議 131
參考文獻 132

圖目錄
圖1-1 1961-1990年全球均溫、海平面及北極白雪積雪變化圖 1
圖1-2 全球氣溫異常圖 2
圖1-3 研究架構圖 5
圖4-1 再生能源發電之來源範疇 76

表目錄
表2-1 聯合國氣候變遷綱要公約締約國之分類 13
表2-2 京都議定書下各國GHG減量目標(1990年排放為準) 17
表2-3 新大綱二氧化碳削減對策 28
表2-4 後京都時期聯合國氣後變遷會議與對話 41
表2-5 附件一國家中程減量目標(2020年以前) 43
表2-6 開發中國家中期減緩行動(2020年前) 44
表3-1 潔淨空氣法對運輸部門之排放管制 53
表4-1 美國各州再生能源使用之目標 77
表4-2 再生電力標準年度目標 82
表4-3 排放權拍賣後的所得分配 92
表4-4 潔淨能源工作與美國電力法溫室氣體減量目標(2005年排放水準) 99
表4-5 美國排放額度拍賣收益之用途與分配額度 104
表4-6 美國潔淨能源與安全法與潔淨能源工作與美國電力法規範差異 105
表5-1 後京都時期聯合國氣候變遷綱要公約議題與美國主張之關聯表 119

參考文獻 一、中文部分
(一)中文書籍
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(二)期刊與論文
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二、英文部份
(一)英文期刊
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(二)英文法規
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41.Massachusetts v. EPA, 549 U.S. 497, April 2, 2007.
42.Mark Holt & Gene Whitney, Green House Gas Legislation: Summery and Analysis of H.R. 2425 as Reported to House Committee on Energy and Commerce, CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVICES R40896, June 17, 2009, p.1.
43.Mandantory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Rule; Final Rule, 74 Federal Register 56264, October 30, 2009.
44.Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act(PURPA), Public Law 95-617, 16 U.S.C. §2601,92 Stat. 3117, 95th Congress, November 9, 1978.
45.Report of the Conference of the Parties on its thirteen session, held in Bali from 3 to 15 December 2007, FCCC/CP/2007/6/Add.1, p.2.
46.Proposed Mandatory Reproting Rule of GHGs, 74 Federal Register 16448, April 10, 2009.
47.Propoese Endangerment and Cause or Contribute Findings for GHGs Under Section 202(a) of the Clean Air Act, 74 Federal Register 18886, 18894, April 24, 2009.
48.Report of the COP serving as the meeting of the parties to the Kyoto Protocol on its fourth session , held in Poznan from 1 to 12 December 2008, FCCC/KP/CMP/2008/7/Add 1, 18 March, 2009, p.2.
49.Renewable Fuel Standards (RFS2):EPA Proposes New Regulations for the National Renewable Fuel Standard Program for 2010 and Beyond, Office of Transportation and Air Qualioty, EPA-420-F-09-023, May, 2009, p.1.
50.Report of the Conference of Parties on its fifteenth session, held in Copenhagen from 7 to 19 December 2009, FCCC/CP/2009/11/Add.1.
51.Salvatore Lazzari, Energy Tax Policy: History and Current Issues, CRS Report, RL33578, October 30, 2008, p.12.
52.The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, Senate, National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting Bill 2007-Revised Explanatory Memorandum, 2007, p.5.
53.The EU climate and energy package, L 140, Volume 52, June 5, 2009.
54.United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC), 1771 U.N.T.S. 107, May 9, 1992.
55.U.S. House of Representatives, American Clean Energy and Security Act 2009, H.R. 2454, 111th Congress, June 26, 2009.
56.U.S. Senate , Clean Energy Jobs and American Power Act 2009, S.1733, 111th Congress, September 30, 2009.
57.U.S. Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, Clean Energy Jobs and American Power Act, S. 1733 in the 111th Congress, November 5, 2009.

三、參考網址
1.EUROPA:http://eur-lex.europa.eu/
2.National Council for Science and the Environment:http://ncseonline.org/
3.聯合國氣候變遷綱要公約網站(UNFCCC):http://www.unfccc.com.
4.跨政府氣候變遷研究小組官方網站(IPCC):http://www.ipcc.ch/
5.美國環境保護署(EPA):http://www.epa.gov/
6.聯合國環境規範署:http://www.unep.fr/en/
7.日本環境署:http://www.env.go.jp/
8.澳洲氣候變遷管理署:http://www.climatechange.gov.au
9.美國國務院:http://www.state.gov/
10.國際能源總署(International Energy Agency, IEA):http://www.iea.org/
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