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系統識別號 U0002-2206201222203500
中文論文名稱 在隨建即連無線網路中提高頻寬利用率之多頻道媒體存取協定
英文論文名稱 Multi-channel MAC Protocols with Bandwidth Utilization Enhancement in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊工程學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生中文姓名 呂昀融
研究生英文姓名 Yun-Jung Lu
學號 897410121
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2012-07-12
論文頁數 71頁
口試委員 指導教授-張志勇
委員-陳宗禧
委員-陳裕賢
委員-廖文華
委員-游國忠
委員-石貴平
委員-張志勇
中文關鍵字 多頻道  媒體存取控制  無線網路 
英文關鍵字 Multi-channel  MAC  Wireless Network 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學資訊工程
中文摘要 近年來,發展多頻道媒體存取協定已受到極大的關注與討論,並被認為是開發頻寬利用率的有效方法。在發展多頻道通訊協定時所遭遇最大的挑戰便是主機會面問題(Rendezvous Problem)與多頻道隱藏節點問題(Multi-Channel Hidden Terminal Problem)。為解決會面問題,有一些研究的作法,是讓所有主機週期性地在特定頻道的ATIM Window共同聚集,以安排資料交換的頻道,這樣的做法統稱Control Period Based(CPB),然而,這樣的作法會造成其它頻道ATIM Window的頻寬利用率降低。為改善CPB的頻寬利用率,另一STEPWISE的頻道模型被提出[21],其以階梯式的安排使得各頻道上的ATIM Window得以錯開,傳送節點能透過頻道對應函數取得接收節點所在的頻道,於接收者的頻道安排資料交換的時槽,但此類做法當遭遇網路頻道流量不均(Channel Traffic Unbalance Problem)時,將導致少數頻道壅擠,而其他頻道卻閒置的情形。
本論文提出兩個多頻道MAC協定,以提昇頻寬利用率。首先,針對CPB頻道模型而言之其餘頻道ATIM Window頻寬利用率低的缺點,本論文提出一多頻道MAC協定(ECU-MAC),其同樣基於CPB的頻道模型,使完成協調的通訊對能直接跳往資料頻道進行資料傳輸,同時克服衍伸性會面問題,進一步有效的利用所有頻道上的頻寬。實驗及分析顯示,ECU-MAC可有效增加頻寬利用率,並提升網路效能。除了CPB模型上的多頻道協定外,本論文亦針對STEPWISE的頻道模型現存的頻道流量不均的問題,進一步提出另一多頻道MAC協定(HSR-MAC),其雖亦採用STEPWISE的頻道模型,但透過節點維護各自頻道上的資料時槽的使用狀況,使網路流量得以從擁擠的頻道上轉移至閒置的頻道上進行傳輸,促使頻道利用率提升。因此,透過兩個多頻道MAC協定,頻寬利用率確實能大幅地改善效能。
英文摘要 Multi-channel MAC protocols have recently attracted significant attention in wireless networking research because they possess the ability to boost the capacity of wireless ad hoc networks. However, the common challenges in developing multi-channel MAC protocol are the Multi-channel Hidden Terminal (MHT) problem and the Rendezvous problem. To avoid the two problems, a typical solution [15] proposed in literature is the CPB-based channel model which arranges an ATIM (Ad hoc Traffic Indication Messages) window in each beacon interval and asks all stations switch to the ATIM window of a predefined channel to cope with the rendezvous problem. Though all stations can negotiate the communication schedules in an ATIM window, however, the ATIM windows of all channels other than the predefined channel cannot be used for data exchange, leading to low channel utilization.
To prevent the low utilization of ATIM windows as found in CPB-based channel model, a STEPWISE Channel Model is proposed in literature to fully utilize the ATIM window each channel. However, there exists the unbalanced traffic problem where some busy channels have contention and collision problems while the other idle channels have low channel utilization.
This thesis presents two multi-channel MAC protocols. To improve the channel utilization problem as found in CPB-based channel model, this thesis proposes an ECU-MAC aims to increase the channel utilization and improve the network throughputs. The main idea of the proposed ECU-MAC is to exploit the bandwidth resource of ATIM windows of all channels for exchanging data such that the network throughput and channel utilization can be improved. As a result, the transmission delay can be significantly reduced. Performance evaluation and analytical results reveal that the proposed ECU-MAC outperforms existing MMAC and DCA protocols in terms of network throughput and average packet delay.
This thesis also applies the STEPWISE channel model but improves the channel utilization by migrating the traffics from busy channels to the idle channels. The key concept of HSR-MAC is to construct the urgent zones of the idle channel and then migrate the traffics of busy channels to the urgent zones. As a result, the HSR-MAC could disperse the traffic from busy channel to idle channel and hence significantly improve the network throughputs. Compared with existing multi-channel MAC protocols, the proposed multi-channel MAC protocols prevents the MCHT and Rendezvous problems while improving the network throughput.
論文目次 Table of Contents IV
List of Figures VI
List of Tables VIII
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Chapter 2 Related Work 5
Chapter 3 The ECU-MAC Protocol 8
3.1 Network Environment and Problem Statement 8
3.1.1 Channel Model and Assumptions 8
3.1.2 Problem Statement 10
3.2 The ECU-MAC Protocol 13
3.2.1 The Basic Concept of ECU-MAC 14
3.2.2 Deaf Terminal Problem (Announce Phase) 17
3.2.3 Fairness for Data Channel Access 18
3.2.4 Rendezvous Enhancement (RE) Scheme 20
3.3 Throughput Analysis 21
3.3.1 Markov Chain Model 22
3.3.2 Throughput Analysis 24
3.4 Performance Study 25
3.4.1 Simulation Results 26
3.5 Summary 38
Chapter 4 The HSR-MAC Protocol 40
4.1 The Applied STEPWISE Channel Model 40
4.2 Network Environment and System Model 42
4.2.1 Motivation 42
4.2.2 System Model 43
4.2.3 Problem Formulation and Goal 44
4.3 The HSR-MAC Protocol 47
4.3.1 Data Slot State 47
4.3.2 The Design of Negotiation and Data Exchange Stages 51
4.3.2.1 Negotiation Stage 52
4.3.2.2 Data Exchange Stage 53
4.3.2.3 The HSR-MAC Algorithm 53
4.4 Performance Evaluation 56
4.4.1 Evaluation Environment 56
4.4.2 Evaluation Results 56
4.5 Summary 66
Chapter 5 Conclusions 67
References 69

List of Figures
Figure 2.1: The operation of negotiation and data exchange in MMAC 5
Figure 3.1: The channel model of our proposed protocol. 9
Figure 3.2: State diagram of sender, receiver and other stations. 14
Figure 3.3: Negotiation Procedure on the channel hneg 16
Figure 3.4: Three conditions in the Channel-Switching mode 17
Figure 3.5: Markov chain for the backoff window size 23
Figure 3.6: Aggregate Throughput vs. Packet Arrival Rate in a single-hop network 28
Figure 3.7: Average Packet Delay vs. Packet Arrival Rate in a single-hop network 30
Figure 3.8: Aggregate Throughput vs. Packet Arrival Rate in a multi-hop flow network 32
Figure 3.9: Average Packet Delay vs. Packet Arrival Rate in a multi-hop flow network 33
Figure 3.10: Channel Utilization/Control-Data Packet Ratio vs. Packet Arrival Rate 35
Figure 3.11: Average Packet Delay vs. Negotiation Window Size 36
Figure 3.12: Normalized Throughput vs. Number of Mean Nodes 37
Figure 3.13: Average Packet Delay vs. Number of Mean Nodes 38
Figure 4.1: The example of the STEPWISE channel model 41
Figure 4.2: The example of frame structure 44
Figure 4.3: An example of the next function 49
Figure 4.4: An example of urgent zone concept and SM 51
Figure 4.5: An example of Negotiation and Date-Exchange States 53
Figure 4.6: The state diagram of the sender in HSR-MAC 54
Figure 4.7: The state diagram of the receiver in HSR-MAC 54
Figure 4.8: The procedure of HSR-MAC Protocol 55
Figure 4.9: The comparison of MMAC, SMC-MAC and HSR-MAC in terms of throughput by varying offered traffics 58
Figure 4.10: The comparison of MMAC, SMC-MAC and HSR-MAC in terms of network throughput by varying the offered traffics 58
Figure 4.11: The comparison of MMAC, SMC-MAC and HSR-MAC in terms of average control overhead by varying number of one-hop neighbors 59
Figure 4.12: Data slot utilization of each channel at each second 60
Figure 4.13: The comparison of SMC-MAC and HSR-MAC in terms of channel utilization by varying channel-based traffic balance index 61
Figure 4.14: The comparison of channel utilization by varying station-based traffic balance index 62
Figure 4.15: The comparison of SMC-MAC and HSR-MAC in terms of channel utilization by varying the value of P 63
Figure 4.16: The comparison of network throughput by varying the offered traffics 64
Figure 4.17: The comparison of MMAC, SMC-MAC and HSR-MAC in terms of average packet delay by varying offered traffic 65
Figure 4.18: The comparison of packet drop ratio by varying delay bound 66

List of Tables
Table 3.1: The Abbreviations of Compared Mechanisms 25
Table 3.2: Simulation Parameters 25
Table 4.1: Simulation Parameters 56
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