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系統識別號 U0002-2206201215445300
中文論文名稱 聽力輔助對台灣大學生聽力的影響
英文論文名稱 Effects of Listening Support on the Aural Performance of Taiwanese EFL College Students
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生中文姓名 潘怡君
研究生英文姓名 Yi-Chun Pan
學號 896110052
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2012-06-11
論文頁數 246頁
口試委員 指導教授-黃月貴
委員-廖美玲
委員-李利徳
委員-張雅慧
委員-林怡弟
中文關鍵字 聽力輔助  字彙教學  聽力策略  反思學習 
英文關鍵字 listening support  lexical intervention  listening strategies  reflective learning  vocabulary  multiword units 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究旨在探討聽力輔助對台灣技術校院學生在多益聽力成績的效應。聽力輔助在本研究採用的是單字教學及反思學習。在單字教學中,老師透過不同類型活動教導學生聽力所須字詞。而在課後反思學習中,學生在七步驟的聽力練習後,反思自己的弱點並試著找出解決方法。

本研究的參與者是兩班共61名台灣大一技術學院學生,隨機分成實驗組及控制組。實驗組學生在18週大一英文課程中接受聽力輔助的介入,而控制組學生在課程中則先聽光碟,老師之後再解釋其內容。

本研究採用量化及質化資料分析三個研究題目。量化資料包括八次小考、期中考、期末考、多益摹擬前後測及字詞教學問卷,而質化資料包括聽力學習記錄及訪談。三個研究題目為:(1) 聽力輔助對多益聽力成績的影響, (2) 實驗組學生在聽力輔助介入下所呈現的聽力行為及(3) 實驗組學生對聽力輔助的觀感。

量化分析結果顯示,實驗組學生在小考及多益摹擬後測成績顯著高於控制組學生,而且聽力輔助介入效果,實驗組低程度學生大於其高程度學生。另外,質化分析結果顯示,實驗組學生在聽力輔助介入下,啟發他們使用有效的聽力策略。但是,也有策略使用不當的情形發生。這表示,老師必須提供其他額外輔助以改善狀況。有關對聽力輔助的觀感,學生普遍持正面意見。以上這些結果建議,聽力輔助可以用於課程中來增進學生理解多益。不過對於比較長及困難的內容,則須搭配其他形式聽力輔助。本文亦有深入探討,研究結果對英語聽力教學的啟示。

雖然本研究對於改善學生理解多益有正面貢獻,但學生後測平均成績在原使總分分100下只拿53分,表示還有進步空間。未來研究可以探討聽力習得部份,也就是以聽力內容為基礎,分析不同聽後學習活動,對強化學生能力以提升後續聽力理解的影響,這方面的研究有助老師設計更完善的聽力課程。
英文摘要 Listening comprehension can be a profoundly difficult skill for foreign language learners (L2) to develop, and thus it is critical for teachers to offer listening support to L2 learners to facilitate their understanding of aural text (Underwood, 1989). The current study conducted an investigation into the effectiveness of providing listening support to Taiwanese EFL technological students in terms of how such support affected their performance on the TOEIC (Test of English for International Communication), which is regarded as a high-stakes test around the world, particularly in Taiwan and other Asian nations (Gilfert, 1996; Lai, 2008; Miller, 2007; Phillips, 2006).

This study utilized lexical intervention and reflective learning as forms of listening support. During the course of lexical intervention, the teacher pre-taught related lexical items by employing a variety of oral activities (e.g. reading aloud and practicing conversation). As for extracurricular reflective learning, the students first engaged in seven-step listening, identified the causes of their incomprehension, and then determined methods for resolving those challenges.

Two intact classes with a total of 61 Taiwanese first-year technological college students were randomly assigned to either the experimental (EG) or control (CG) groups. Throughout the course of an 18-week required General English class, the EG received two forms of listening support: lexical instruction and reflective learning. In contrast, the CG received instruction comprised of listening followed by an explanation of the aural text to confirm comprehension.

Data for this study was collected both quantitatively and qualitatively. Quantitative data included test results drawn from eight listening quizzes, midterm and final exams, and the TOEIC listening test as well as responses to lexical intervention questionnaires. Qualitative data was comprised of reflection sheets and interview surveys. Both quantitative and qualitative data were used to determine answers to the three research questions: (1) What were the effects of listening support on the TOEIC aural performance of Taiwanese technological college students? (2) What types of listening behaviors did the treatment group exhibit? and (3) What were students’ perceptions of listening support in regard to their listening tasks?

The TOEIC aural performance of Taiwanese technological college students generally improved as a result of listening support. This determination was reached on the basis of the fact that EG participants earned better scores than their CG participant counterparts on both achievement tests (quizzes) and on the proficiency test (TOEIC listening post-test). In addition, the EG lower-proficiency students benefited more from listening support than their higher-proficiency counterparts did. Furthermore, students activated the use of effective listening behaviors (bottom-up and top-down alike) from listening support. However, counterproductive behaviors were identified during this process, suggesting that students should receive additional support when this occurs. It was also encouraging that students possessed a positive overall opinion of the role that listening support played in relation to their listening task performance. Given the strong and positive effect on L2 listening, educators should utilize listening support in the form of lexical intervention and reflective learning to improve the aural performance of students. It must however be noted that in some situations (e.g. listening to long and difficult text, such as TOEIC Part III: Short Conversations and Part IV: Short Talks), the addition of other alternatives might maximize the effects of listening support. This study provides pedagogical implications drawn from the findings of the three research questions to improve EFL teachers’ understanding of how to instruct listening, a skill that is both critical and difficult to develop.

While the study clearly contributes to improving student TOEIC listening scores, there is still room for improvement, as is evident by the fact that the mean score of the post-test was about 53 out of the total score of 100. Further investigation certainly could be conducted on the acquisition phase of listening by using listening texts as the basis for assisting L2 acquisition. Research undertaken to explore the effects of providing post-listening activities drawn from the listening texts will shed light on whether the acquisition phase of listening actually enhances student comprehension in future listening tasks. This line of study not only complements the present study, which focuses on the comprehension phase of listening, but is also quite valuable in terms of its ability to assist teachers in designing EFL listening courses.
論文目次 Acknowledgements....i
Chinese Abstract....ii
Abstract............iii
Table of Contents...vi
List of Tables......xi
List of Figures.....xiv

Chapter One Introduction............1
1.1 Motivation.......................1
1.2 Statement of the Problem.........3
1.3 Theoretical Background...........5
1.4 Purpose of the Study.............9
1.5 Research Questions..............14
1.6 Significance of the Study.......14
1.7 Definition of Terms.............15

Chapter Two Literature Review.........................19
2.1 Listening Processing and L2 Listener Difficulties..19
2.2 The Role of Vocabulary in Listening................23
2.3 Vocabulary and TOEIC Listening.....................26
2.4 Previous Research on the Effects of Vocabulary Pre-Instruction on Listening Comprehension.................27
2.5 Limitations of the Past Studies in Vocabulary Instruction............................................31
2.6 Lexical Intervention...............................33
2.6.1 Functions of Multiword Units in Listening........33
2.6.2 Positive Empirical Evidence for Multiword Unit Instruction in Listening...............................34
2.6.3 Methods for Instructing Multiword Units..........35
2.7 Reflective Learning................................42
2.7.1 Wilson’s Discovery Listening....................43
2.7.2 The Rationale for Reflective Learning............44
2.7.3 Three Stages of Reflective Learning..............46
2.7.4 The Purposes of Reflective Learning..............49
2.8 Summary of Literature Review.......................50

Chapter Three Methodology.............................53
3.1 The First Pilot Study..............................54
3.1.1 Participants .....................................54
3.1.2 Listening materials..............................55
3.1.3 The Instruction Model ............................56
3.1.4 The Procedure....................................56
3.1.5 Data analysis and results........................57
3.1.6 Unexplored issues................................58
3.2 The Second Pilot Study.............................59
3.2.1 Participants.....................................59
3.2.2 Instruments......................................61
3.2.3 The Procedure....................................62
3.2.4 Data Analysis and Results........................63
3.3 The Modifications of the Pilot Studies.............68
3.4The Main Study......................................69
3.4.1 Participants.....................................69
3.4.2 Research Design..................................72
3.4.3 Instruments......................................73
3.4.4 Material.........................................84
3.4.5 The Pedagogical Cycle for the Experimental Group 85
3.4.6 The Pedagogical Cycle for the Control Group......86
3.4.7 Criteria for Choosing Multiword Units............86
3.4.8 Procedure........................................87
3.4.9 Data Analysis....................................89

Chapter Four Results..................................92
4.1 Results of Research Question One...................93
4.1.1 First Sub-question: Immediate Effects of Lexical Intervention on Student Listening Quiz Performance.....94
4.1.2 Second Sub-question: Effects of Listening Support on Students’ Midterm and Final Exams.....................111
4.1.3 Third Sub-question: Effects of Listening Support on Students’ TOEIC Scores................................117
4.1.4 Fourth Sub-question: Effects of Listening Support on Students of Differing Levels...........................120
4.1.5 A Summary of Results for Research Question One...124
4.2 Results of Research Question Two...................126
4.2.1 Listening Challenges.............................126
4.2.2 Listening Behaviors..............................130
4.2.3 A Summary of Results for Research Question Two...144
4.3 Results of Research Question Three.................145
4.3.1 Students’ Perceptions of Lexical Intervention...146
4.3.2 Students’ Perceptions of Reflective Learning....149
4.3.3 A Summary of Results for Research Question Three.152

Chapter Five Discussion...............................154
5.1 Research Question 1: What are the Effects of Listening Support on EFL Technological College Students’ Aural Performance?...........................................154
5.1.1 Summary Results of the First Research Question...154
5.1.2 First Sub-Question: Immediate Effects of Lexical Intervention on Student Listening Quiz Performance.....155
5.1.3 Second Sub-Question: Effects of Listening Support on Student Midterm and Final Exams........................163
5.1.4 Third Sub-Question: Effects of Listening Support on Student TOEIC Performance..............................168
5.1.5 Fourth Sub-question: Effects of Listening Support on Students of Differing Levels...........................178
5.1.6 A Summary of Discussion for Research Question One181
5.2 Research Question 2: What Are the Listening Behaviors of Students in the EG?.................................182
5.2.1 Listening Challenges.............................183
5.2.2 Listening Behaviors..............................186
5.2.3 A Summary of Discussion for Research Question Two190
5.3 Research Question 3: What are student perceptions of listening support’s role in their listening tasks?....191
5.3.1 Lexical Intervention.............................192
5.3.2 Reflective Learning..............................200
5.3.3 A Summary of Discussion for Research Question Three
203

Chapter Six Conclusions...............................206
6.1 A Summary of the Major Findings....................206
6.2 Pedagogical Implications...........................213
6.3 Limitations of the Study...........................217
6.4 Suggestions for Further Research...................219

References.............................................221

Appendices.............................................242
Appendix A The Vocabulary Levels Test.................242
Appendix B Lexical Intervention Questionnaire.........243
Appendix C Reflection Sheet...........................244
Appendix D Listening Difficulty Questionnaire.........245

List of Tables
Table 3-1 Descriptive Statistics for TOEIC Listening Pre-test Scores............................................55
Table 3-2 Means and Standard Deviations of TOEIC Listening Pre- and Post-Test Scores....................58
Table 3-3 Descriptive Statistics for TOEIC Listening Pre-test Scores............................................60
Table 3-4 The Number of High and Low Language Proficiency Students in Each Group.................................60
Table 3-5 Instruments Used in the Second Pilot Study.61
Table 3-6 The Sequence of Activities for Each Group..63
Table 3-7 Descriptive Statistics for Two Groups on the Four Listening Quizzes.................................65
Table 3-8 Results of the Univariate GLM Analysis of the Effect of Lexical Support and Listening Proficiency on the Four Listening Quizzes.................................65
Table 3-9 Descriptive Statistics for Two Groups on the Final Exam.............................................66
Table 3-10 Results of the Univariate GLM Analysis of the Effect of Lexical Support and Listening Proficiency on the Final Exam.............................................66
Table 3-11 Descriptive Statistics for Two Groups on the POST TOEIC.............................................67
Table 3-12 Results of the Univariate GLM Analysis of the Eeffect of Lexical Support and Listening Proficiency on the POST TOEIC.............................................67
Table 3-13 Descriptive Statistics for TOEIC Listening Pre-test Scores............................................70
Table 3-14 The Number of High and Low Language Proficiency Students in Each Group.................................71
Table 3-15 Descriptive Statistics for Vocabulary Levels Test Scores............................................71
Table 3-16 Research Design............................73
Table 3-17 Instruments Used in the Study..............73
Table 3-18 TOEIC listening comprehension test.........75
Table 3-19 Listening Difficulties in Listening Process...81
Table 3-20 Listening Difficulties in Listen Factor....82
Table 3-21 Listening Difficulties in Text Factor......83
Table 3-22 The Sequence of Activities for Each Group..88
Table 3-23 Data Analysis Used in the Research.........90
Table 4-1 Summary of the Eight Listening Quizzes.....95
Table 4-2 Descriptive Statistics for Two Groups on the First Listening Quiz...................................96
Table 4-3 Results of the Univariate GLM Analysis of the Effect of Lexical Intervention and Listening Proficiency on the First Listening Quiz...............................97
Table 4-4 Descriptive Statistics for Two Groups on the Second Listening Quiz..................................98
Table 4-5 Results of the Univariate GLM Analysis of the Effect of Lexical Intervention and Listening Proficiency on the Second Listening Quiz..............................99
Table 4-6 Descriptive Statistics for Two Groups on the Third Listening Quiz..................................100
Table 4-7 Results of the Univariate GLM Analysis of the Effect of Lexical Intervention and Listening Proficiency on the Third Listening Quiz..............................100
Table 4-8 Descriptive Statistics for Two Groups on the Fourth Listening Quiz.................................101
Table 4-9 Results of the Univariate GLM Analysis of the Effect of Lexical Intervention and Listening Proficiency on the Fourth Listening Quiz.............................102
Table 4-10 Descriptive Statistics for Two Groups on the Fifth Listening Quiz..................................103
Table 4-11 Results of the Univariate GLM Analysis of the Effect of Lexical Intervention and Listening Proficiency on the Fifth Listening Quiz..............................103
Table 4-12 Descriptive Statistics for Two Groups on the Sixth Listening Quiz..................................104
Table 4-13 Results of the Univariate GLM Analysis of the Effect of Lexical Intervention and Listening Proficiency on the Sixth Listening Quiz..............................105
Table 4-14 Descriptive Statistics for Two Groups on the Seventh Listening Quiz................................106
Table 4-15 Results of the Univariate GLM Analysis of the Effect of Lexical Intervention and Listening Proficiency on the Seventh Listening Quiz............................106
Table 4-16 Descriptive Statistics for Two Groups on the Eighth Listening Quiz.................................108
Table 4-17 Results of the Univariate GLM Analysis of the Effect of Lexical Intervention and Listening Proficiency on the Eighth Listening Quiz.............................109
Table 4-18 Effect Size of Lexical Intervention for Each Listening Quiz........................................110
Table 4-19 Summary of the Midterm and Final Exams....112
Table 4-20 Descriptive Statistics for Two Groups on the Midterm...............................................113
Table 4-21 Results of the Univariate GLM Analysis of the Effect of Listening Support and Listening Proficiency on the Midterm Exam......................................114
Table 4-22 Descriptive Statistics for Two Groups on the Final Exam............................................115
Table 4-23 Results of the Univariate GLM Analysis of the Effect of Listening Support and Listening Proficiency on the Final Exam........................................115
Table 4-24 Descriptive Statistics for Two Groups on the TOEIC.................................................118
Table 4-25 Results of the Univariate GLM Analysis of the Effect of Listening Support and Listening Proficiency on the TOEIC Post-test...................................119
Table 4-26 Significance and Effect Size of Variables for the Each Part of the TOEIC............................120
Table 4-27 Descriptive Statistics for Two Levels on the TOEIC Scores..........................................122
Table 4-28 Means, Standard Deviations, SEMS, and Pared-Sample t Tests at Pre-test and Post-test for TOEIC Performance in Two Levels.............................122
Table 4-29 Effective and Counterproductive Listening Behaviors.............................................131
Table 4-30 Students Responding to Lexical Intervention..........................................147

List of Figures
Figure 4-1 The Effect of Proficiency on Listening Comprehension in Each Group ………...................107
Figure 4-2 Students’ Listening Performances for Eight Quizzes……………………………....................... 110
Figure 4-3 Students’ Listening Performances for Midterm and Final Exams......................................116
Figure 4-4 Students’ Listening Performances for the TOEIC ...............................................117
Figure 4-5 Lower-Level EG Student Pre- and Post- Scores on the TOEIC ...........................................123


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