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系統識別號 U0002-2206201015313900
中文論文名稱 使用分散式排序機制改善車輛對無線基地台通訊之傳輸效能
英文論文名稱 Improving the Performance of Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Communication Using Distributed Sorting Mechanism
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 電機工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Electrical Engineering
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生中文姓名 廖國宏
研究生英文姓名 Kuo-Hung Liao
學號 697470010
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2010-06-11
論文頁數 65頁
口試委員 指導教授-李維聰
委員-林志敏
委員-吳庭育
委員-朱國志
中文關鍵字 車載網路  路旁基地台  車對基地台通訊  分散式協調功能 
英文關鍵字 VANET  RSU  V2I Communication  DCF 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學電機及電子
中文摘要 近年來網路的發達改變了人類的生活習慣;網路的服務類型豐富多變,也愈來愈貼近人們的生活。隨著網路技術的成熟與普及,網路應用層面也從一般的電子產品發展到車用電子。在這樣的演進之下,開始有一些車載通訊的標準或草案被訂定出來,例如由802.11發展而來的802.11p。
隨著802.11p草案的制定與發布,車載通訊也愈來愈廣為人知。因此車用隨意網路(Vehicular Ad Hoc Network, VANET)已經日益成熟,也有愈來愈多人投入相關研究。車用隨意網路的設備主要可以分為兩大類:一個是事前建置在道路旁的基地台(Road Site Unit, RSU又稱Infrastructure);另一個是移動的車輛(Vehicle)。而通訊也可以分為兩大類:一類是車輛對車輛的通訊(Vehicle to Vehicle, V2V),二是車輛對基地台的通訊(Vehicle to Infrastructure, V2I)。
由於建置RSU的成本高,因此在車載網路建置初期以及郊區人口稀疏的地方,為了節省成本,RSU的服務也許無法涵蓋所有路段。也就是說,車載網路中的RSU資源是相對珍貴的。為了更有效地利用RSU資源,我們提出了一個新的方法來提升車輛對基地台通訊的使用效率。
我們使用分散式排序機制(Distributed Sorting Mechanism, DSM),讓網路中的所有車輛可以個別運算優先順序,經由我們所提出來的機制排序之後,可以讓較具有優勢的車輛能夠優先上傳資料。除了本身具有優勢的車輛可以優先使用V2I通訊資源外,我們另外也考慮到即將脫離服務範圍的車輛;在特定的情況下,我們的機制也具有先到期先服務(Deadline First)的特性。此外,使用分散式機制可以簡化交握(Handoff)過程,進而節省網路負荷,達到充分利用RSU資源的目的。
英文摘要 In recent years, the development of network technologies has greatly changed human being’s living habits, and the abundant network services are also getting more and more close to human lives. With the maturity and popularization of network technologies, the network applications have developed from household electronic products to products for mobile vehicles. In such an evolution, several vehicular network standards and drafts have been released, like 802.11p that is extended from 802.11.
Owing to the establishment and release of the draft of 802.11p, VANET is becoming well-known and more and more people have involved in related researches. Generally, the equipments of VANET can be divided into two categories: Road Site Units (RSU) or Infrastructure, and moving vehicles. The communication of VANET also can be divided into two types: Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I).
Because it is expensive to establish RSU, the number of RSU is usually too few to cover areas like suburbs or areas with sparse population. In other words, the resource of RSU is rather precious in VANET. In order to promote the utility of RSU, we propose a novel mechanism to improve the efficiency of communication between vehicles and RSU (Vehicle to Infrastructure, V2I).
Our proposed mechanism in this paper is called “Distributed Sorting Mechanism (DSM)”. In DSM, every vehicle can individually calculate its own priority of communication and the time to compete and obtain the channel can be reduced. We further consider the vehicles moving away from the coverage of communication and adjust their priorities of communication appropriately. Moreover, DSM owns the characteristic of “Deadline First” in specific situations. Using DSM can not only simplify the handoff procedure and reduce the network overhead, but also achieve the adequate utilization of RSU resource.
論文目次 目 錄
第一章 緒論 - 1 -
1.1 前言 - 1 -
1.2 動機與目的 - 1 -
1.3 論文章節架構 - 3 -
第二章 VANET相關研究及背景介紹 - 5 -
2.1 VANET的起源—MANET - 6 -
2.2 VANET VS. MANET - 9 -
2.3 VANET網路架構 - 13 -
2.3.1 車輛對車輛通訊 (V2V Communications) - 14 -
2.3.2 車輛對基地台通訊 (V2I Communications) - 16 -
2.3.3 混合型通訊 (Hybrid of V2V and V2I) - 17 -
2.4 分散式協調功能 (IEEE 802.11 DCF) - 19 -
第三章 分散式排序機制 - 21 -
3.1 分散式排序機制概述及實驗場景介紹 - 21 -
3.2 計算WT值三步驟 - 24 -
3.3 Shift機制 - 31 -
3.4 DSM數學模型 - 34 -
3.5 適用於混合型通訊的DSM - 36 -
3.5.1 混合型通訊之架構及特性 - 36 -
3.5.2 DSM之搜集模式 - 39 -
3.5.3 DSM之先到期先服務模式 - 41 -
第四章 模擬結果與效能分析 - 44 -
4.1 實驗環境介紹 - 44 -
4.1.1 模擬場景與模擬參數 - 44 -
4.1.2 其他網路機制 - 46 -
4.2 模擬結果與分析 - 48 -
4.2.1 DSM參數探討及設定 - 48 -
4.2.2 DSM與其他排序機制比較 - 52 -
4.2.3 使用DSM改善混合型通訊機制 - 56 -
第五章 結論與未來展望 - 60 -
參考文獻 - 62 -

圖目錄
圖2.1 無線網路之INFRASTRUCTURE模式 - 6 -
圖2.2 無線網路之AD HOC模式 - 7 -
圖2.3 DSRC頻寬分配圖[1] - 13 -
圖2.4 車輛對車輛通訊(V2V) - 15 -
圖2.5 車輛對基地台通訊(V2I) - 17 -
圖2.6 混合型通訊(V2V AND V2I) - 18 -
圖2.7 IEEE 802.11 DCF之媒體存取競爭 - 19 -
圖3.1 RSU服務品質 - 22 -
圖3.2 加入DSM過後的競爭方式 - 23 -
圖3.3 計算WT值三步驟 - 25 -
圖3.4 服務品質與Tτ關係圖 - 26 -
圖3.5 計算WT值第一步:以地理位置區分優先順序 - 27 -
圖3.6 計算WT值第二步:以相對速度區分優先順序 - 29 -
圖3.7 計算WT值第三步:以資料量大小區分優先順序 - 30 -
圖3.8 以三步驟計算後的WT值 - 30 -
圖3.9 基本的Shift機制 - 32 -
圖3.10 不同等級的Shift機制 - 33 -
圖3.11 混合型通訊架構 - 37 -
圖3.12 適用於混合型通訊之DSM - 39 -
圖4.1 CVIA概述 - 47 -
圖4.2 N值與效能關係圖 - 49 -
圖4.3 工作模式切換臨界值與效能關係圖 - 51 -
圖4.4 服務完成率與車輛密度關係圖 - 53 -
圖4.5 資料新鮮度與車輛密度關係圖 - 55 -
圖4.6 平均吞吐量與車輛密度關係圖 - 57 -
圖4.7 封包重傳率與車輛密度關係圖 - 59 -


表目錄
表2.1 MANET與VANET特性比較表 - 10 -
表3.1 車速與速度等級對應表 - 28 -
表4.1 模擬參數表 - 45 -


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