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系統識別號 U0002-2206200917244300
中文論文名稱 利用粒子群聚演算法與基因演算法最佳化室內中繼天線位置
英文論文名稱 Optimal Relay Antenna Location in Indoor Environment Using Particle Swarm Optimizer and Genetic Algorithm
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 電機工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Electrical Engineering
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生中文姓名 林金漢
研究生英文姓名 Chin-Han Lin
學號 696440030
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2009-06-11
論文頁數 96頁
口試委員 指導教授-丘建青
委員-丘建青
委員-李慶烈
委員-余金郎
委員-陳俊榮
委員-嚴雨田
中文關鍵字 粒子群聚演算法  基因演算法  位元錯誤率  失效率  射線彈跳追蹤法 
英文關鍵字 PSO  GA  BER  outage probability  SBR/Image 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學電機及電子
中文摘要 近年來超寬頻通信系統漸漸在無線通訊界佔有一席之地,最令人注目的是它的傳輸特性:低功率、抗干擾、低成本、高度安全性…等,目前已有許多超寬頻通訊在室內傳輸的相關文獻已經被發表,其大多的研究是以模擬或量測方式找出影響通道的統計參數後,並分析在此通道統計模型下的系統傳輸錯誤率。
本研究的目標是希望透過找到最佳位置的中繼天線,使系統的錯誤率降低,在一般室內環境中,無線訊號的傳遞容易受到環境的影響,如:電波信號經過牆壁、天花板、室內擺設的傢俱等,皆會造成無線電波到達接收天線的路徑有多重反射、繞射、透射等路徑效應,此一現象稱為多路徑效應(Multi-path Effect)。而此效應會造成符際間的干擾(InterSymbol Inference,ISI),導致通訊位元錯誤率(Bit Error Rate,BER)及失效率(Outage Probability)增加,造成通訊效率降低。因此,加入適當位置的中繼天線,及利用射線彈跳追蹤法可以模擬複雜環境、預測無線電波傳輸時的特性以及減少工作時間與成本可以改善通訊品質、減少錯誤率及失效率。為了得知無線訊號的脈衝響應(Impulse Responses),本文利用射線彈跳追蹤法(Shootin and Bouncing Ray/Image techniques,SBR/Image Techniques)和快速反傅立葉轉換(Inverse Fast Fourier Transform,IFFT)技術計算其脈衝響應,且使用二進制的脈波振幅調變(Binary Pulse Amplitude Modulation,BPAM)方法,進而計算超寬頻通訊系統的位元錯誤率及失效率。本篇論文裡,吾人分別針對兩種狀況,並利用粒子群聚演算法與基因演算法最佳化室內的中繼天線位置,之後探討其在超寬頻(Ultra-Wide Band,UWB)通訊上對降低位元錯誤率、失效率的影響。
這兩種不同的狀況分別為:在相同環境下,1.兩個中繼器的情況用不同的兩種搜尋方式來搜尋。首先,發射器在室內環境中心點位置、每個接收器以0.5公尺間隔均勻分佈在環境內、將室內劃分為兩個區塊,每個區塊各找一個中繼器的最佳位置,中繼器可在區塊內自由移動。另一種搜尋方式為在全區域內找到兩個中繼器的最佳位置,中繼器可在區塊內自由移動。2. 四個中繼器的情況用不同的兩種搜尋方式來搜尋。首先,發射器在室內環境中心點位置、每個接收器以0.5公尺間隔均勻分佈在環境內、將室內劃分為四個區塊,每個區塊各找一個中繼器的最佳位置,中繼器可在區塊內自由移動。另一種搜尋情況為在全區域內找到四個中繼器的最佳位置,中繼器可在區塊內自由移動。
最後得到粒子群聚演算法與基因演算法的數值結果,再將兩種演算法所得的結果代入射線彈跳追蹤法比較分析,吾人可發現透過兩種演算法所得的結果之一致性,因此,可驗證得到最佳中繼天線位置,進而有效降低環境失效率與錯誤率。
英文摘要 An optimization procedure for the location of the relay transceiver in ultra-wideband wireless communication system is presented. The impulse responses of different transceiver locations are computed by shooting and bouncing ray/image (SBR/Image) techniques and inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT).By using the impulse responses of these multi-path channels, the bit error rate (BER) performance for binary pulse amplitude modulation (BPAM) impulse radio UWB communication system are calculated. Based on the BER performance, the outage probability for any given relay location of the transceiver can be computed. The optimal relay antenna location for minimizing the outage probability is searched by genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimizer (PSO). The transmitter is in the center of the whole indoor environment and the receivers are uniform distributed with 1.5 meter intervals in the whole indoor environment. Two cases are considered as following. (I) Two relay transceivers with two different cases are employed. First, the whole space is divided into two areas and one relay transceiver is used in each area. The optimal relay antenna locations are searched in each area respectively. Second, the two optimal relay locations are searched in the whole space directly without any prior division. (II) Four relay transceivers with two different cases are employed. First, the whole space is divided into four areas and one relay transceiver is used in each area. The optimal relay antenna locations are searched in each area respectively. Second, the four optimal relay locations are searched in the whole space directly without any prior division. Numerical results have shown that our proposed method is effective for finding the optimal location for relay antenna to reduce BER and outage probability.
論文目次 目錄

第一章 概論 .....................1
1.1 研究背景 ...................1
1.2 研究動機 ...................6
1.3 研究內容簡介 .................8

第二章 粒子群聚演算法則及基因演算法則 ........9
2.1 前言 .....................9
2.2 基因演算法之基本概念 .............12
2.2.1 介紹基因演算法則中的運算方式 .........15
2.3 粒子群聚演算法之基本概念 ...........22
2.3.1 介紹粒子群聚演算法則中的運算方式 .......23
2.3.2 改良式粒子群聚最佳法 .............30

第三章 UWB通道計算模型 ............... 33
3.1 無線電波傳撥通道分析 .............33
3.2 通道計算模型分析 ...............35
3.2.1 利用射線追蹤法計算頻域響應 ..........36
3.2.2 利用何米特法與快速反傅立葉轉換計算出時域響應 .39
3.3 射線彈跳追蹤法程式流程分析 ..........41
3.4 系統模擬架構 .................45
3.4.1 發射訊號波形 .................46
3.4.2 位元錯誤率之計算 ...............47

第四章 模擬數值結果 .................51
4.1 模擬實驗環境及設定 ..............51
4.2 模擬結果分析 .................55

第五章 結論 .....................82

參考文獻 ....................... 84

附錄 ......................... 89

圖目錄

圖 1.1 UWB與傳統窄頻的FCC規範 ............3
圖 2.1 基因演算法之流程圖 ...............14
圖 2.2 基因演算法單點交配示意圖 ............18
圖 2.3 粒子速度計算示意圖 ...............23
圖 2.4 粒子群聚演算法之流程圖 .............24
圖 2.5 一維問題中,三種不同邊界條件示意圖 .......28
圖 2.6 改良式粒子群聚法流程圖 .............32
圖 3.1 求得通道脈衝響應的步驟 .............35
圖 3.2 何米特程序的信號處理步驟 ............40
圖 3.3 SBR/Image程式流程圖 ............. 44
圖 3.4 二位元脈衝振幅調變位元錯誤率系統架構圖 .....45
圖 3.5 傳送高斯二次微分脈波的波型 46
圖 3.6 FCC對室內及室外超寬頻系統的頻段及輻射能量限制.47
圖 4.1 地下室俯視圖 ..................52
圖 4.2 加入RX及reference relay position圖 .......53
圖 4.3 情況1(a)環境區塊劃分圖 .............56
圖 4.4 (a)GA-1、(b)GA-2不同iseed中繼天線位置失效率比較圖.......................... 57
圖 4.5 (a)PSO-1、(b)PSO-2不同iseed中繼天線位置失效率比較圖...........................58
圖 4.6 (a)GA-1、(b)GA-2不同iseed function call比較圖 . 59
圖 4.7 (a)PSO-1、(b)PSO-2不同iseed function call比較圖 .......................... 60
圖 4.8 GA不同iseed中繼天線位置失效率比較圖 ...... 63
圖 4.9 PSO不同iseed中繼天線位置失效率比較圖 ......63
圖 4.10 GA不同iseed function call比較圖 ........64
圖 4.11 PSO 不同 iseed function call比較圖 ...... 64
圖 4.12情況1(a)及情況1(b)其中繼器位置失效率分佈圖 ...65
圖 4.13情況2a環境區塊劃分圖 ..............67
圖 4.14 (a)GA-1、(b)GA-2、(c)GA-3、(d)GA-4不同iseed中繼天線位置失效率比較圖 ..................68-69
圖 4.15 (a)PSO-1、(b)PSO-2、(c)PSO-3、(d)PSO-4不同iseed中繼天線位置失效率比較圖 ................70-71
圖 4.16 (a)GA-1、(b)GA-2、(c)GA-3、(d)GA-4不同iseed function call比較圖 ................ 72-73
圖 4.17 (a)PSO-1、(b)PSO-2、(c)PSO-3、(d)PSO-4不同iseed function call比較圖 ................ 74-75
圖 4.18 情況2a中繼器位置失效率分佈圖 .........76
圖 4.19 GA不同iseed中繼天線位置失效率比較圖 ..... 79
圖 4.20 PSO不同iseed中繼天線位置失效率比較圖 .....79
圖 4.21 GA iseed function call比較圖 .........80
圖 4.22 PSO不同iseed function call比較圖 .......80
圖 4.23 情況2b中繼器位置失效率分佈圖 .........81

表目錄

表 2.1 基因演算法相關名詞解釋與中英對照表 ......10
表 2.2 粒子群聚演算法相關名詞解釋與中英對照表 ....11
表 4.1 基因法則設定參數 ...............54
表 4.2 粒子群演算法則設定參數 ............54
表 4.3 GA和PSO及其它中繼天線位置(SNR=40dB)失效率比較表.......................... 61
表 4.4 GA和PSO及其它中繼天線位置(SNR=40dB)失效率比較表.......................... 65
表 4.5 GA和PSO及其它中繼天線位置(SNR=40dB)失效率比較表.......................... 76
表 4.6 GA和PSO及其它中繼天線位置(SNR=40dB)失效率比較表.......................... 81
表 B.1 混擬土的材質係數 .............. 90
表 B.2 磚頭的材質係數 ............... 91
表 B.3 合成塑膠板的材質係數 ............ 92
表 B.4 鐵的材質係數 ................ 93
表 B.5 夾板的材質係數 ............... 94
表 B.6 合成纖維板的材質係數 ............ 95
表 B.7 木材的材質係數 ............... 96
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