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系統識別號 U0002-2206200911051700
中文論文名稱 高屏地區空氣品質的周末效應
英文論文名稱 The weekend effects of air quality in Kao-Pin area
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 水資源及環境工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生中文姓名 王偉政
研究生英文姓名 Wei-Jeng Wang
學號 696480770
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2009-06-10
論文頁數 52頁
口試委員 指導教授-江旭程
委員-吳清吉
委員-張能復
中文關鍵字 周末效應、滴定效應、高空累積 
英文關鍵字 weekend effects, titration effect, carryover aloft 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學環境工程
中文摘要 本研究使用歷年環保署空氣品質監測站數據,分析高屏地區臭氧及其前趨物濃度的周變化型態,發現高屏地區與國外許多都市中心一樣,周末光化反應前趨物濃度降至最低,但臭氧濃度反而比平日高的"周末效應"現象;而且發現臭氧濃度周變化有逐日累積的趨勢,並在周六到達最大值。
我們發現一些現象有利於臭氧周末效應,首先,觀察臭氧、Ox 和NOx 濃度周變化,氮氧化物濃度在周末減少會降低NOx 滴定效果,因此在周末有利臭氧濃度增加;其次,PM10 濃度均周末低於平日,這可能會增加太陽輻射到達地面,因此有利光化學反應;高屏地區都市下午O3/NOy 中位數皆落在5 左右,可概略判定為VOC-sensitive,周末NOx 排放量降低有利於臭氧濃度增加。
我們也發現前日午後總氧化劑濃度與當日最大八小時臭氧平均濃度呈現正相關,此可解釋臭氧濃度累積的現象;而當日上午NO 濃度與當日臭氧濃度呈現負相關,可能與NOx 滴定效應有關;我們用前日午後總氧化劑濃度和當日上午NO 濃度作自變數,建立一線性回歸模式以推估當日最大八小時臭氧平均濃度,所求得之臭氧濃度估計值與實測值的相關係數平方為0.3,証實此兩項因素能解釋臭氧濃度變化的30%。
英文摘要 The observations obtained from the air quality monitoring stations operated by Taiwan EPA were used to determine the weekly patterns of ozone concentrations in Kaohsiung and Pingtong area. It is found that the weekend concentrations of ozone precursors were lower than that of the weekdays; on the other hand, the weekend ozone concentrations are higher than that of weekdays. Similar to many large cities in the world, the so called “weekend effects of air quality” also occurs in this area. Moreover, it is noted that the daily averaged ozone concentrations were increased
monotonically from Monday to Saturday.
Several evidences were found that can explain the occurrence of the weekend effect. Firstly, we used the weekly patterns of O3, Ox, and NOx to show that the reductions of NOx concentrations on weekend may decrease the NOx titration effect. Hence, the weekend O3 concentrations will become higher. Secondly, the concentrations of PM10 were lower on weekend, which may increase the solar radiation that reaches the ground and thus increase the photochemical reaction rates. The median of afternoon O3/NOy were about 5, which indicates that this area is VOC-sensitive. The reductions of emission rates of NOx on weekend may increase the O3 concentrations.
We assume that the Ox may store in the elevated residual layer at night, and mixed with air near the ground next morning to increase the ground-level O3 concentrations. This assumption is confirmed by the fact that the previous days’ afternoon Ox concentrations were correlated with the maximum 8-hr O3 concentrations. A linear regression model was built to estimate the maximum 8-hr O3 concentration from the previous day’s afternoon Ox concentrations and morning NO concentrations. This model can explain 30% of the variations of the maximum 8-hr O3
concentrations.
論文目次 謝誌................................................................I
中文摘要...........................................................II
英文摘要..........................................................III
目錄...............................................................IV
表目錄..............................................................V
圖目錄.............................................................VI
第一章 前言........................................................1
1.1 空氣品質周末效應..............................................1
1.2 研究目的......................................................7
第二章 資料整理與分析方法..........................................9
2.1 南部地區空氣品質測站..........................................9
2.2 監測資料.....................................................11
2.3 數據處裡.....................................................13
第三章 結果與討論..................................................14
3.1 高屏地區的周末效應...........................................14
3.2 滴定效應:...................................................25
3.4 VOC、NOx 化學反應............................................38
3.5 氣膠與紫外線輻射.............................................42
3.6 模擬結果與實際值之比較.......................................45
第四章 結論與建議..................................................49
參考文獻...........................................................51
表目錄
表 2.1 儀器量測方法 12
表3.1 91-96年各測站臭氧日平均濃度周變化 18
表3.2 91-96年各測站最大8小時臭氧平均濃度周變化 19
表3.3 91-96年最大小時臭氧平均濃度周變化 20
表3.4 91-96年最大8小時臭氧濃度事件日統計 22
表3.5 91-96年最大小時臭氧濃度事件日統計 22
表3.6 12時-14時各測站總氧化劑周變化 37
表3.7 VOC敏感區、過渡區、NOx敏感區指標值 38
表3.8 91-96年周一在下午2點各測站O3/NOy數據群組,5%、50%、95%比值 40
表3.9 1-96年周二至周五在下午2點各測站O3/NOy數據群組,5%、50%、95%比值 40
表3.10 91-96年周六在下午2點各測站O3/NOy數據群組,5%、50%、95%比值 41
表3.11 91-96年周日在下午2點各測站O3/NOy數據群組,5%、50%、95%比值 41
表3.12 各測站迴歸係數與相關係數 46












圖目錄
圖 1.1臭氧等濃度線圖 5
圖 2.1 高屏地區測站分布圖 10
圖3.1 高屏地區臭氧日平均濃度周變化圖 15
圖3.2 各測站每日標準偏差圖 16
圖3.3 各測站每日標準偏差圖 17
圖 3.4 91-96年高屏地區NOx、NO2、NMHC日平均濃度周變化圖 24
圖3.5 91-96年高屏地區Ox、O3、NOx最大8小時平均濃度周變化圖 26
圖3.6 91-96年小港測站一周內每日每小時平均O3濃度、Ox濃度、NOx濃度 28
圖3.7 91-96年美濃測站一周內每日每小時平均O3濃度、Ox濃度、NOx濃度 30
圖 3.8 橋頭、楠梓、仁武、左營、前鎮、前金測站一周內每日每小時平均NO2濃度 32
圖 3.9 小港、林園、大寮、潮州、屏東、美濃測站一周內每日每小時平均NO2濃度 33
圖 3.10 橋頭、楠梓、仁武、左營、前鎮、前金測站一周內每日每小時平均臭氧濃度 35
圖 3.11 小港、林園、大寮、潮州、屏東、美濃測站一周內每日每小時平均NO2濃度 36
圖 3.12 臭氧與PM10濃度逐年比較圖 43
圖 3.13 各測站PM10平均濃度周變化圖 44
圖 3.14 橋頭、楠梓、仁武、左營、前金、小港測站臭氧最大8小時平均濃度模擬結果與實測值之比較圖 47
圖 3.15 林園、大寮、潮州、屏東、美濃測站臭氧最大8小時平均濃度模擬結果與實測值之比較圖 48

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California Air Resources Board (CARB), 2001. The ozone weekend effect in California, Executive Summary.
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Forster, P.M., Solomon, S., 2003. Observations of a "weekend effect" in diurnal temperature range. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA ., 100, 11225-11230

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Murphy, J.G.., Day, D.A., Cleary, P.A., Wooldridge, P.J., Millet, D.B., Goldstein, A.H., and Cohen, R.C., 2007. The weekend effect within and downwind of Sacramento – Part 1: Observations of ozone, nitrogen oxides, and VOC reactivity. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 5327–5339

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行政院環保署網站,(http://www.epa.gov.tw/)
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