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中文論文名稱 概念隱喻和換喻對提升以英語為外語學習者英語慣用語理解效用之實驗探討
英文論文名稱 An Experimental Investigation to Determine the Utility of Conceptual Metaphors and Metonymies in Enhancing Idiom Comprehension for EFL Undergraduate Learners of English
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 94
學期 2
出版年 95
研究生中文姓名 馮玉印
研究生英文姓名 Yu-Yin Feng
學號 692010175
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2006-06-16
論文頁數 137頁
口試委員 指導教授-胡映雪
委員-連金發
委員-謝菁玉
中文關鍵字 慣用語理解  概念隱喻和換喻  以英語為外語教學法  文化獨特性和宇宙知識 
英文關鍵字 Idiom comprehension  Conceptual metaphors and metonymies  EFL pedagogy  Cultural specific and universal knowledge 
學科別分類 學科別人文學語言文學
中文摘要 對以英語為第二語言或外語的學習者而言,學習慣用語的策略已被侷限在將慣言語視為不可分割的單位以及透過上文下、其組成單字之字面意思、學習者的背景知識來瞭解其意思,甚至是以反覆背誦的方式來學習。然而,近年來,許多研究 (Boer & Demecheleer, 2001; Cacciari & Glucksberg, 1991; Gibbs, 1992; Gibbs and O’Brien, 1990; Gibbs, Bogdanovich, Sykes, and Barr, 1997; Glucksberg, 1993; Li, 2002; Nayak & Gibbs, 1990; Ruwet, 1983) 建議可藉由概念隱喻和換喻的功用和運用協助第二語言學習者瞭解並習得慣言語的意義。
本研究即是對概念隱喻和換喻於提升以英語為外語學習者英語慣用語理解效用之實驗探討。此研究之目的在於第一,受試者用以瞭解慣用語之策略為何,以及他們是否意識到用以瞭解慣用語之隱喻和換喻與其意思間的關聯;第二,提升此關聯是否能促進更好的學習。若是,其學習效果為何;第三,換喻和複合性隱喻,因其文化獨特性,是否能教給學生;以及第四,理解概念隱喻之能力與時間是否和學生的語言程度有關。若無關,其它如宇宙共通或文化知識等因素是否會影響該結果。總計有四十位學生參與本研究,其中二十位為英語程度中高者;其餘二十位為英語程度中下者。上述研究參與者均在實驗中以口說方式解釋所測試慣用語的意思,並經過放聲思考方式來搜集資料。
研究結果發現,在第一次測驗時,研究參與者皆未意識到用以瞭解慣用語的隱喻和換喻與其意思間的關聯。然而在教學後,隱喻中的直接、複合隱喻和換喻均可教給學生。而學生亦能加以運用並幫助、提升其對陌生慣用語的理解。此外,理解概念隱喻之能力不僅和宇宙共通性及文化知識有關,並與學生的語言程度相關。
英文摘要 The strategies of learning idioms for second language or foreign language learners have been restricted to treating them as inseparable units and to deciphering their figurative interpretations by using contextual cues, the literal meanings of the individual components, the learners’ background knowledge, or even by rote. However, in recent years, some research has suggested the functional role of conceptual metaphors and metonymies and their implication in assisting L2 learners to comprehend and acquire the meanings of idioms (Li, 2002, Boer & Demecheleer, 2001; Cacciari & Glucksberg, 1991Gibbs, 1992; Gibbs and O’Brien, 1990; Gibbs, Bogdanovich, Sykes, and Barr, 1997; Glucksberg, 1993; Nayak & Gibbs, 1990; Ruwet, 1983).
The present study is an investigation of the utility of conceptual metaphors and metonymies in enhancing the idiom comprehension of EFL learners. The goals of the study are (1) what are the strategies these test subjects used and were they aware of the underlying metaphors and metonymies and meanings of the selected idioms, (2) will raising the awareness of these inherent cognitive devices facilitate better learning. If so, to what extent does the teaching of the underlying metaphors and metonymies increase the EFL learners’ idiom comprehension, (3) can metonymies and complex metaphors, due to their cultural specificity, be taught to learners, and (4) whether the ability and time to comprehend conceptual metaphors correlate with language proficiency level measures by the Entrance College Joint Exam or not? If not, what other factors, such as universal or cultural knowledge could affect this outcome? Participants were 40 Chinese learners of English with half of them being high-intermediate and the other half low-intermediate learners of English who were required to give the meanings of tested idioms without the benefit of context. Data were collected by means of the think-aloud procedure: participants were required to verbalize their thoughts as they arrived at the meanings of the idioms.
Results show that, in the pre-test, participants were not aware of the connection of the
underlying metaphorical and/or metonymical knowledge and the figurative meanings of idioms.
However, the underlying knowledge, including two kinds of metaphors and metonymies, of idioms
could be to some extent taught to learners, which in turn facilitated and increased their comprehension
of unfamiliar idioms. Also, the ability to comprehend conceptual metaphors and metonymies is connected not only to universal and cultural knowledge but also correlated with the participants’ language proficiency.
論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHINESE ABSTRACT..…………………….…………………………………..…………..i
ENGLISH ABSTRACT..…………………….…………………………………..………….ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS..…………………….…………………………………..……..iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS..…………………….…………………………………..………...v
LIST OF TABLES..…………………….…………………………………..………………vii
LIST OF FIGURES..…………………….…………………………………..…………….viii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study..…………………….…………………………………..……1
1.2 Statement of the problem……………………………………………….…………...…6
1.3 Purpose of the study…………………………………………………………………...9
1.4 Research Questions……………………………………………………………..…….10
1.5 Corpus and methodology of the study…………………………………………..…….11
1.6 Organization of the thesis…………………………………………………………..…12


CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
2.1 The definition and comprehension of idioms…………………………………...…....14
2.2 L1 idiom processing models …………....………………………………….……...…17
2.3 Idioms as noncompositional units and dead metaphors……………….…….….….…23
2.4 The role of literal meaning in idiom use and comprehension………………....…...…25
2.5 Figurative idiom comprehension………………………………….……………....….30
2.5.1 Metaphorical structure of idioms…………………………..………………….31
2.5.2 Metonymical structure of idioms……………………………………………...37
2.5.3 Metaphors and Metonymies…………………………………………………..39
2.6 Metaphors from cognitive perspective: Image Schema and embodied experience.….42
2.7 The role of conceptual metaphor in L1 idiom comprehension………….……………46
2.7.1 Why idioms are viewed as dead metaphors……………………….…………..47
2.7.2 Beyond dead metaphors…………………………………….…………………49
2.8 Cultural variation in metaphor comprehension…………………….…………………52
2.8.1 The primary and compound metaphors…………………....….…....………….53
2.9 L2 idiom processing research……………………………….…….……………..……58

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Participants……………………………………………….…………....…….….…....66
3.2 Materials……………………………………………….………………….….………67
3.3. Procedure ……………………………………………….……………...…….……...70
3.3.1 Pilot study……………………………………….…….………………………70
3.3.2 Main study………………………………………………………….…………71
3.4 Think-Aloud Protocols………………………………………………………….……73
3.5 Data Analysis …………………………………………………………….………..…74

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Results and Discussion of Research Question 1 and 2…….……………………….76
4.2 Results and Discussion of Research Question 3..…………………………………..84
4.3 Results and Discussion of Research Question 4……....………………………….. .96
4.4 Results and Discussion of Research Question 5…………………………………..100

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS
5.1 Summary of the Study…………………………………………….………..…..…105
5.2 Pedagogical Implications………………………………………….………….…..108
5.3 Limitations of the Study and Suggestions for Further Research………..…….….110

REFERENCES…………………………………………………………....…..……..…...112
APPENDICES……………………………………………………………………………122
LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1 Background of the participants……………………………...……………..66
Table 3.2 Examples of the underlying metaphorical and metonymical knowledge
of idioms…………………………………………………………………...71
Table 4.1 Means and Standard Deviations for Individual Idioms (Group A in pre-test)………………………………………………………………....…78
Table 4.2 Means and Standard Deviations for Individual Idioms (Group B in pre-test)………………………………………………..…………………..79
Table 4.3 The participants’ interpretation with or not with the underlying metaphors and metonymies of idioms……………………………………..………….81
Table 4.4 Means and Standard Deviations for Individual Idioms (Group A in
interim test)………………………………………………………………..85
Table 4.5 Means and Standard Deviations for Individual Idioms (Group B in
interim test)………………………………………………………………..85
Table 4.6 Means and Standard Deviations for Individual Idioms (Group B in
post-test)……………………………………………………………...……86
Table 4.7 Paired Samples Test of the mean scores of Group A and Group B idioms before and after the teaching of underlying metaphors and metonymies of the idioms…………...…..…………………………………………………88
Table 4.8 Independent t test of idioms in Group A which show significant
difference after the teaching of the underlying knowledge of idioms in Group A…………………………………………………………..……..…89
Table 4.9 Independent t test of idioms in Group B which show significant
difference after the teaching of the underlying knowledge of idioms in
Group A……………………………………………….………….……..…92
Table 4.10 Independent t test of idioms in Group B which show significant
difference after the teaching of the underlying knowledge of idioms in Group B…………………………………………………………….……94
Table 4.11 The 10 idioms interpreted most correctly after having taught the underlying knowledge of the 40 idioms……………………………….100
Table 4.12 Independent t test of the mean scores of high-intermediate group and
low-intermediate group in each test………………………….......……101
Table 4.13 Independent t test of the mean scores of Group B idioms in different groups……………………..……………………………..…………….102
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. Examples of combination of primitive metaphors……………….......……57
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