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系統識別號 U0002-2206200611445800
中文論文名稱 懷舊/非懷舊廣告在不同產品涉入下廣告效果之研究-以懷舊傾向做為干擾變數
英文論文名稱 A Study of the Nostalgic/Non-nostalgic AD Effectiveness with Different Involvement of Products: Moderating Effect of Nostalgia Proneness.
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 國際貿易學系國際企業學碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of International Trade
學年度 94
學期 2
出版年 95
研究生中文姓名 曾威智
研究生英文姓名 Wei-Chih Tseng
學號 693480021
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2006-05-19
論文頁數 124頁
口試委員 指導教授-張俊惠
委員-黃志文
委員-魏上凌
中文關鍵字 懷舊  懷舊廣告  懷舊傾向  產品涉入  廣告效果  廣告態度中介 
英文關鍵字 Nostalgia  Nostalgic AD  Nostalgia Proneness  Involvement of Products  Ad Effectiveness  Advertising Attitude Mediate Model 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學商學
中文摘要 人總是在失去一些東西後,才會知道曾經擁有的可貴,所以人在面對不確定的未來,也只有過去是可以咀嚼玩味的,我們的日常生活似乎也已經離不開那種能讓我們覺得苦中帶甜、若有似無的懷舊情緒。因此很多廠商和廣告公司開始喚起消費者回到過去,懷舊風潮因而隨著這一波懷念過去的浪潮,襲捲整個消費市場。
本研究將以Lutz, Mackinzie, Belch(1982)整理出的四種廣告態度中介模式來探討懷舊/非懷舊廣告在不同產品涉入下之廣告效果,並且找出最適之廣告態度中介模式與路徑,而本研究也以Holbrook(1993; 1994)所提的懷舊傾向當做干擾變數,去探討不同涉入程度的產品使用懷舊與非懷舊廣告之廣告效果是否會因為消費者之懷舊傾向而有所影響,除此之外,本研究也試圖找出不同懷舊傾向群的人,他們所在意的與懷舊有關之消費經驗。而本研究將採用結構方程模式(structural equation modeling, SEM)來進行分析,而主要的研究發現描述如下:
一、懷舊廣告是有影響力的
由本研究的結論可以得知,懷舊廣告可以引發消費者對於廣告中的產品,產生較大的購買意圖,所以懷舊廣告的確有較好的廣告效果而又以消費者在購買時不會花太多心力的低涉入產品有較好的效果。
二、懷舊傾向可視為一種有效的市場區隔變數
懷舊傾向是一種個人潛在的特質,經由本研究之結果也可以發現,懷舊廣告對於不同懷舊傾向的人會帶來不同的廣告效果,因此在廠商應針對自己的客群進行分析,先瞭解他們的懷舊傾向,再針對不同懷舊傾向的客群播出不同的懷舊廣告。
英文摘要 People always treasure something after they lose it. Nowadays, people are becoming increasingly uncertain and anxious about the future, many marketers and advertising company are encouraging consumers to "return to the pasts." With the rise of nostalgia in the popular culture, we could see more and more nostalgic Ads being broadcasted.
The study used four kinds of Advertising Attitude Mediate Models (Lutz, Mackinzie, Belch 1982) to measure Nostalgic Ads with different involvement of products, while trying to find out which model fits nostalgic Ads the most. Nostalgia proneness is a potential fact of individual character, so it may vary among consumers (Holbrook 1993; 1994). The study took Nostalgia Proneness as a moderating variable to measure whether the nostalgic Ads’ effectiveness between people who are in high and low nostalgia proneness is different or not.
We applied SEM to analyze the valid response data. The major findings of this study were as follows:
1. The nostalgic Ads did affect people’s purchasing intention much easier than non-nostalgic Ads, especially significant in products with low involvement.
2. We can truly take Nostalgia proneness as an effective segmentation variable.
論文目次 目錄…………………………………………………………………Ι
圖目錄………………………………………………………………III
表目錄………………………………………………………………IV
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究背景……………………………………………………1
第二節 研究動機……………………………………………………3
第三節 研究目的……………………………………………………4
第四節 研究範圍……………………………………………………5
第五節 研究流程……………………………………………………6
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 懷舊 …………………………………………………………7
第二節 涉入…………………………………………………………14
第三節 廣告效果……………………………………………………20
第三章 研究設計
第一節 觀念架構……………………………………………………27
第二節 研究假說……………………………………………………28
第三節 前測分析……………………………………………………31
第四節 正式問卷研究變數之操作性定義與衡量…………………39
第五節 正式問卷之架構與資料搜集………………………………45
第六節 資料分析方法………………………………………………50
第四章 資料分析與結果
第一節 樣本資料之描述性統計分析………………………………55
第二節 樣本信度之檢視……………………………………………57
第三節 四種廣告態度中介假說之結構方程模式架構……………58
第四節 結構方程模式之評估與驗證………………………………66
第五節 高低懷舊傾向群之特徵描述………………………………73
第六節 高低懷舊傾向群在懷舊消費經驗之探討…………………78
第七節 高低懷舊傾向群結構方程模式之評估與驗證……………82
第五章 結論與建議
第一節 研究結論……………………………………………………96
第二節 實務上的建議………………………………………………98
第三節 研究限制與未來研究建議…………………………………100
參考文獻 ………………………………………………………………101
附錄一 …………………………………………………………………110
附錄二 …………………………………………………………………113
附錄三 …………………………………………………………………117

圖目錄
圖1-1 本研究之研究流程圖.................................6
圖2-1 推敲可能性模式(ELM 模式)..........................19
圖2-2 廣告態度中介模式的基本架構.........................22
圖2-3 情感移轉假説.......................................23
圖2-4 雙重中介假說.......................................23
圖2-5 交互中介假說.......................................24
圖2-6 獨立影響假說.......................................25
圖3-1 本研究之觀念架.....................................27
圖3-2 構前測中所測試的八個廣告...........................31
圖4-1 ATH結構方程模式之整體模式圖........................59
圖4-2 DMH結構方程模式之整體模式圖........................61
圖4-3 RMH結構方程模式之整體模式圖........................63
圖4-4 IIH結構方程模式之整體模式圖........................65
圖4-5 四種廣告在DMH之結構模式標準化解路徑圖..............71
圖4-6 高懷舊傾向群-四種廣告在DMH之結構模式標準化解路徑...90
圖4-7 低懷舊傾向群-四種廣告在DMH之結構模式標準化解路徑...93

表目錄
表2-1 懷舊的定義.........................................7
表2-2 所示:懷舊的分類...................................10
表2-3 懷舊在行銷研究的應用..............................11
表2-4 懷舊廣告相關之整理 ...............................12
表2-5 懷舊有關的消費經驗................................14
表2-6 涉入之定義........................................15
表2-7 以個人在處理涉入對象來分類........................16
表2-8 以涉入的本質與來源為切入點........................17
表2-9 廣告態度中介模式..................................25
表3-1 低涉入產品(便當),涉入之衡量......................34
表3-2 高涉入產品(汽車),涉入之衡........................34
表3-3 前測廣告懷舊訴求之衡量............................35
表3-4 便當之產品屬性表..................................36
表3-5 汽車之產品屬性....................................36
表3-6 高低涉入產品的涉入程度之t檢定分析摘要.............37
表3-7 低涉入產品(便當)在四個廣告中懷舊訴求之平均數......37
表3-8 A和B廣告帶給受訪者的懷舊訴求之t檢定分析摘要表.....37
表3-9 高涉入產品(汽車)在四個廣告中懷舊訴求之平均數.......38
表3-10 E和F廣告帶給受訪者的懷舊訴求之t檢定分析摘要表.....38
表3-11 廣告態度之變數定義與衡量..........................39
表3-12 品牌認知之變數定義與衡量..........................40
表3-13 品牌態度之變數定義與衡量..........................41
表3-14 品牌態度之變數定義與衡量..........................41
表3-15 懷舊傾向之變數定義與衡量..........................42
表3-16 懷舊有關的消費經驗之變數定義與衡量................43
表3-17 各學院/年級的實際人數、比例、應抽與實抽樣本人數...47
表3-18 問卷回收情形分析表................................48
表3-19 各分層之觀測次數與理論次數表......................48
表3-20 Cronbach’α與信度................................50
表3-21 LISREL之參數矩....................................52
表3-22 結構方程式配適度判斷指標彙整表....................54
表4-1 有效樣本之人口統計變項分佈情形....................56
表4-2 研究變項之信度彙整表..............................57
表4-3 ATH結構方程模式之參數說明表.......................59
表4-4 DMH結構方程模式之參數說明表.......................60
表4-5 RMH結構方程模式之參數說明表.......................62
表4-6 IIH結構方程模式之參數說明表.......................64
表4-7 四個廣告與四個假說模式的各項指標之數值............66
表4-8 觀察變數之參數估計結構............................69
表4-9 整體之研究假說驗證結果............................70
表4-10 四種廣告在DMH結構模式路徑直接與間接效果分析表.....72
表4-11 高低懷舊群之人群分怖..............................73
表4-12 高低懷舊群懷舊傾向之t檢定分析摘要表...............73
表4-13 高低懷舊群年齡之t檢定分析摘要表...................74
表4-14 高低懷舊群與性別之交差表..........................74
表4-15 高低懷舊群與性別之卡方檢定表......................74
表4-16 高低懷舊群與職業之交差表..........................75
表4-17 高低懷舊群與職業之卡方檢定表......................76
表4-18 高低懷舊群與薪資所得之交差表......................76
表4-19 高低懷舊群與職業之卡方檢定表......................77
表4-20 高低懷舊群特徵描述與懷舊傾向之整理................77
表4-21 高懷舊傾向群在懷舊消費經驗因素分析之KMO與Bartlett檢定........................................................78
表4-22 高懷舊傾向群與懷舊有關之消費經驗之因素分析........79
表4-23 低懷舊傾向群在懷舊消費經驗因素分析之KMO與Bartlett檢定........................................................80
表4-24 低懷舊傾向群與懷舊有關之消費經驗之因素分析........80
表4-25 高懷舊傾向群各項指標之數值........................82
表4-26 低懷舊傾向群各項指標之數值........................84
表4-27 高懷舊傾向群觀察變數之參數估計結構 .............86
表4-28 低懷舊傾向群觀察變數之參數估計結構................88
表4-29 高懷舊傾向群之假說驗證............................89
表4-30 高懷舊傾向群-四種廣告在DMH結構模式中廣告態度的直接、間接效果分析表............................................91
表4-31 低懷舊傾向群之假說驗證............................92
表4-32 低懷舊傾向群-四種廣告在DMH結構模式中廣告態度的直接、間接效果分析表............................................94
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