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系統識別號 U0002-2206200609323300
中文論文名稱 在隨意型無線網路中以Quorum為基礎並搭配模糊控制的媒體存取控制層能量保存協定
英文論文名稱 An adaptive quorum-based energy conserving protocol with fuzzy control for IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊管理學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Information Management
學年度 94
學期 2
出版年 95
研究生中文姓名 林信宏
研究生英文姓名 Xin-Hong Lin
學號 692521361
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2006-05-20
論文頁數 30頁
口試委員 指導教授-侯永昌
委員-呂芳懌
委員-周清江
委員-趙志民
中文關鍵字 隨意型網路  法團系統  模糊控制 
英文關鍵字 Ad hoc wireless network  Quorum System  Fuzzy control 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學管理學
學科別社會科學資訊科學
中文摘要 本論文提出FQEC(Fuzzy quorum-based energy conserving protocol),它是一個省電的通訊協定,適用於隨意型網路(Ad hoc wireless network)。在IEEE 802.11標準協定之省電模式中,無論是否有資料要傳送/接收,行動節點都必須週期性地在每一個Beacon interval都醒來,這樣的機制無法達到最佳的省電效果。Quorum理論應用於IEEE 802.11的省電模式上可以使行動節點在僅有少量資料需傳輸時,可連續多個Beacon interval都進入省電模式,同時保證在一段時間內各行動節點之間的通訊聯繫不會中斷。利用Quorum理論來達到省電目的時候,Quorum表格的大小是整個效能表現的重要關鍵。本論文的研究重點,即是考量行動節點的傳輸狀況,包含行動節點收到的封包之傳送延遲時間和緩衝區未傳送的封包之等待時間,透過模糊控制系統的運作,動態調整行動節點所使用的Quorum表格大小,讓行動節點可以保存更多的電量,模擬結果顯示FQEC可在僅增加少量的傳送延遲時間下,大幅改善省電效能。
英文摘要 We propose a power-saving protocol, fuzzy quorum-based energy conserving protocol (FQEC), for IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks. In the IEEE 802.11 power saving mode, hosts have to wake up every beacon interval to check if they have to remain awake in the remaining of that beacon interval. It is not an optimal power-saving solution since a host with no little traffic also has to wake up every beacon interval. With the quorum-based energy conserving protocol (QEC), it is possible for low-traffic hosts to sleep for several successive beacon intervals to reduce power consumption. In QEC, the quorum size plays an important role in performance. In this paper, we investigate the possibility to use a fuzzy control system to dynamically adjust the quorum size in order to conserve more energy. In the fuzzy control system, we define the control rules according to the experienced latency of both incoming and outgoing packets. Simulation results show that our FQEC achieves significant energy conservation at the expense of slightly increased latency.
論文目次 目錄
第1章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究目的 4
1.3 章節摘要 4
第2章 文獻探討 6
2.1 省電機制的相關研究討論 6
2.2 Quorum理論的介紹 8
第3章 FQEC(Fuzzy quorum-based energy conserving protocol) 13
3.1 模糊理論與模糊控制介紹 13
3.2 FQEC(Fuzzy quorum-based energy conserving protocol)之模糊控制設計 15
3.2.1輸入變數和輸出變數的模糊化 16
3.2.2控制規則 18
3.2.3推論引擎與解模糊化 19
3.2.4 FQEC的使用說明 21
第4章 實驗結果 23
4.1 環境說明 23
4.2 實驗結果解析 23
4.2.1 CBR的傳輸機制之分析 24
4.2.2 Bursty Traffic的傳輸機制之分析 25
第5章 結論與未來展望 27
5.1 研究結論 27
5.2 未來展望 27
參考文獻 29

圖目錄
圖1、IEEE 802.11 PSM的傳輸機制 2
圖2、Quorum表格範例(大小=3 × 3) 9
圖3、模糊邏輯控制系統設計流程圖 14
圖4、歷史資料與未來資料的隸屬函數 17
圖5、輸出變數的隸屬函數 18
圖6、尚有電量的行動節點個數之比較(CBR) 24
圖7、封包傳送的平均延遲時間之比較(CBR) 25
圖8、尚有電量的行動節點個數之比較(Bursty Traffic) 26
圖9、封包傳送的平均延遲時間之比較(Bursty Traffic) 26

表目錄
表1、行動節點在Quorum 表格中的電量消耗分析 10
表2、歷史資料與未來資料的隸屬函數值 17
表3、輸出變數的隸屬函數值 18
表4、控制規則 19
表5、控制表格 21
參考文獻 [1] “IEEE 802.11, Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications”, Aug. 1999.
[2] The Network Simulator - ns-2.http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/.
[3] B. Chen, K. Jamieson, H. Balakrishnan, and R. Morris. “Span: An Energy-Efficient Coordination Algorithm for Topology Maintenance in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks”, In Proceedings of MOBICOM, Rome, Italy, Jul. 2001,pp.85-96
[4] C.-M. Chao, J.-P. Sheu, and I.-C. Chou “An Adaptive Quorum-Based Energy Conserving Protocol for IEEE 802.11 Ad Hoc Network”, IEEE Trans. On Mobile Computing, 2006, pp. 560-570.
[5] S. Y. Cheung, M. H. Ammar, and M. Ahamad. “The Grid Protocol: A High Performance Scheme for Maintaining Replicated Data”, IEEE Transaction on Knowledge and Data Engineering, Dec. 1992, pp. 582-592.
[6] P. J. Havinga and G. J. Smit, “Energy-Efficient TDMA Medium Access Control Protocol Scheduling”, in Proc. Asian International Mobile Computing Conference (AMOC 2000), Nov. 2000.
[7] L. Huang and T. H. Lai. “On the Scalability of IEEE 802.11 Ad Hoc Networks.” In Proceedings of the third ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing, Jun. 2002, pp. 173-182.
[8] E.-S. Jung and N. H. Vaidya, “An Energy Efficient MAC Protocol for Wireless LANs,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM’02, vol. 3, New York City, NY, Jun. 2002, pp. 1756–1764.
[9] Timothy J. Ross “Fuzzy Logic with Engineering Applications, 2nd Edition” April 2005, 2nd Edition, John wiley & Sons, Ltd., pp.481-484.
[10] R. Krashinsky and H. Balakrishnan, “Minimizing Energy for Wireless Web Access with Bounded Slowdown”, in Proc. ACM MobiCom’02,Atlanta, GA, Sep. 2002, pp. 119-130.
[11] D. Peleg and A.Wool, “Crumbling Walls: A Class of Practical and Efficient Quorum Systems”, Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, 1995, pp.120-129.
[12] D. Qiao and K. G. Shin, “Smart Power-Saving Mode for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs”, INFOCOM 2005.
[13] C. Rohl, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “A short look on power saving mechanisms in the wireless LAN standard draft IEEE 802.11”, Proc. of 6th WINLAB Workshop on Third Generation Wireless Systems, 1997.
[14] G. Ricart and A. K. Agrawala. “An Optimal Algorithm for Mutual Exclusion in Computer Networks”, Communications of the ACM, Jan. 1981, pp.9-17.
[15] R. H. Thomas. “A Majority Consensus Approach to Concurrency Control”, ACM Transaction on Database Systems, Jun. 1979, pp. 180-290.
[16] Y.-C. Tseng, C.-S. Hsu, and T.-Y. Hsieh. “Power-Saving Protocols for IEEE 802.11-Based Multi-Hop Ad Hoc Networks”, In Proceedings of INFOCOM 2002, New York, NY, USA, Jun. 2002,pp. 200-209.
[17] H. Woesner, J. Ebert, M. Schläger, A. Wolisz, “Power saving mechanisms in emerging standards for wireless LANs: The MAC level perspective”, IEEE Personal Communications, Vol. 5, No. 3, June 1998.
[18] L. A. Zadeh. “Fuzzy Sets”, 1965, Vol8, Information & Control, pp. 338-353.
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