淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-2202201715005800
中文論文名稱 從女性主義看女性戰地記者的報導-以越戰3位女記者為例
英文論文名稱 Reports of Female War Correspondents: Three Case Studies in Vietnam War from Feminism View
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 國際事務與戰略研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
學年度 105
學期 1
出版年 106
研究生中文姓名 林佳彣
研究生英文姓名 Chia-Wen Lin
學號 603330100
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2017-01-16
論文頁數 143頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳文政
委員-沈明室
委員-李大中
中文關鍵字 女性主義  女性戰地記者  戰地報導  越戰  瑪莎•蓋爾霍恩  格洛麗亞•愛默生  奧里亞娜•法拉奇 
英文關鍵字 Feminism  Female War Correspondent  War Report  Vietnam War  Martha Gellhorn  Gloria Emerson  Oriana Fallaci 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學政治學
學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要  19世紀末起,戰地記者開始嶄露頭角,女性戰地記者更是活躍於20世紀的戰爭年代,身影穿梭在兩次世界大戰、韓戰、越戰等重大戰爭之中。在科技日新月異、人人都能成為公民記者的全球化時代下,「記者」的存在是不可取代;尤其是象徵歷史見證人的戰地記者,迄今仍是一個持續發展的職業,而它在新聞業的獨特性,使得其戰地報導備受世人關注和討論。

 有別於過往以男性觀點研究戰地記者的學術文獻,本文嘗試從女性主義角度,探討越戰女性戰地記者的意識型態及其報導是否受女性主義的影響。時代背景設定為歷時20年的越戰,加上適逢婦女運動興起,大量女性進入新聞業工作,甚至取得至越戰的採訪許可。隨著女性意識的抬頭,女性戰地記者以行動證明「女性、戰爭、記者」的相容,透過親臨當地採訪、撰寫戰地報導,以傳遞戰爭下的人民故事。

 本研究以瑪莎•蓋爾霍恩、格洛麗亞•愛默生及奧里亞娜•法拉奇為案例分析。經整理她們的自傳、訃聞、越戰著作等文獻後,發現3位女性戰地記者雖未明確表態自己是女性主義者,但是其談吐、人生經歷皆呈現出「男女並無不同、男女具有平等權利、女性做任何事情都與性別無關」的意識型態;她們的言行間接地影響其戰地採訪及報導。由此可見,即使案例本身不宣稱自己是女性主義者,並不代表其作品就不受女性主義的影響。
英文摘要 At the end of the 19 th - century, war correspondents began to emerge, especially for female war correspondents, who were active in the war era- 20th - century, they have reported many important wars, such as World Wars II, Korean War, Vietnam War, etc. As the progressive development of technology and the globalization, the existence of journalists became irreplaceable. In particular, the war correspondent is the witness of history. It is still a job existing nowadays, on account of its uniqueness in the news industry, people always discuss and pay close attention to their war reports.

Different from the past studies relating male correspondents, this thesis is based on feminism, we try to figure out the ideologies of female war correspondents and are willing to know whether war reports are influenced by feminism or not. Due to the rise of women's right in the 1960s, many women were recruited in the news industry and even got the permission to cover Vietnam War. With the boost of female consciousness, the stories relating war in Vietnam led to conclude that the concepts among “women, war, and correspondent” are compatible.

There are three cases of the Vietnam War female correspondents, Martha Gellhorn, Gloria Emerson, and Oriana Fallaci. After reading and analyzing their autobiographies, obituaries, thesis, etc, we found that three of them did not declare their pro-feminism position. However, they all acted upon and speaked in the common tone: men and women have equal rights, what women do has nothing to do with the physical gender difference. Their actions and words affected their reports indirectly. Thus, even if female war correspondents themselves do not claim to be feminists, the connection between their reports and feminism is obvious.
論文目次 目錄
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 文獻檢閱與評析 5
第三節 研究方法與途徑 13
第四節 研究範圍與限制 16
第五節 研究架構 17
第二章 戰地記者的定義、角色定位與專業 18
第一節 戰地記者的定義 18
第二節 戰地記者的報導動機 24
第三節 戰地記者的角色定位與專業 28
第四節 小結 36
第三章 女性戰地記者的歷史脈絡及意識型態 38
第一節 女性主義的觀點 38
第二節 女性戰地記者的發展 43
第三節 女性戰地記者的意識型態 51
第四節 小結 59
第四章 案例分析(一):瑪莎•蓋爾霍恩 61
第一節 生命經歷與女性主義 61
第二節 越戰之戰地報導 70
第三節 小結 78
第五章 案例分析(二):格洛麗亞•愛默生 80
第一節 生命經歷與女性主義 80
第二節 越戰之戰地報導 88
第三節 小結 98
第六章 案例分析(三):奧里亞娜•法拉奇 99
第一節 生命經歷與女性主義 99
第二節 越戰之戰地報導 107
第三節 小結 117
第七章 越戰時代的女性戰地記者 118
第一節 越戰時代的新聞業 118
第二節 女性戰地記者的女性主義 122
第三節 小結 127
第八章 結論 129
第一節 研究總結 129
第二節 未來研究方向建議 131
參考書目 132

參考文獻 參考書目
一、專書
(一)中文
石之瑜著。《社會科學方法新論》。新北市:五南,2003年。
許禎元著。《政治研究方法與統計》。臺北:五南,1997年。
胡馮瑛等著。《反恐年代的國際新聞與危機傳播》。臺北:秀威資訊,2006年。
劉繼南等著。《國際戰爭中的大眾傳播》。北京:北京廣播學院出版社,2004年。
黃富峰著。《大眾傳媒倫理研究》。北京:中國社會科學出版社,2009年。
李子遲著。《煙硝、血淚、戰地記者:那些用生命奪回的真相》。新北市:大喜文化,2014年)。
胡傳榮著。《女性主義與國際關係-權力、戰爭與發展問題的社會性別分析》。北京:世界知識出版社,2010年。
思想編委會編著。《女性主義與自由主義》。臺北:聯經,2013年。
游素玲主編。《跨國女性研究導讀》。臺北:五南圖書,2011年。
林麗珊著。《女性主義與性別關係》。臺北:五南,2013年。。
李銀河著。《女性主義》。臺北:五南圖書,2003年。
李英桃主編。《女性主義國際關係學》。杭州:浙江人民出版社,2006年。
林芳玫等著。《女性主義理論與流派》。臺北:女書文化,2000年。
林芳玫著。《女性與媒體再現:女性主義與社會建構論的觀點》。臺北:巨流,1996年。
顧燕翎、鄭至慧主編。《女性主義經典:十八世紀歐洲啟蒙,二十世紀本土反思》。臺北:女書文化,1999年。
羅海岩著。《法拉奇-向世界投不信任票》。北京:新華出版社,2007年。
LiveABC編輯群。《Discovery Channel Magazine探索頻道雜誌2013年NO.7》。臺北:希伯崙,2013年。

(二)外文
Alagna, Magdalena. War Correspondents: Life under Fire. New York: Rosen Central, 2003.
Appignanesi, Lisa edited. Fifty Shades of Feminism. London: Virago, 2013.
Applegate, Edd. Literary Journalism: A Biographical Dictionary of Writers and Editors. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1996.
Aricò, Santo L. Oriana Fallaci: The Woman and the Myth. Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press, 1998.
Aricò, Santo L. The Unmasking of Oriana Fallaci: Part II and Conclusion to Her Life Story. Pittsburgh: Rosedog, 2013.
Bartius, Tad et al. War Torn: Stories of War from the Women Reporters Who Covered Vietnam. New York: Random House, 2002.
Bullard, Frederic Lauriston. Famous War Correspondents. London: Forgotten Books, 2016.
Carter, Cynthia et al. News, Gender and Power. London: Routledge, 1998.
Chambers, Deborah et al. Women and Journalism. London: Routledge, 2004.
Colvin, Marie. On the Front Line: The Collected Journalism of Marie Colvin. London: HarperPress, 2012.
Cook, Bernard A. Women and War: A Historical Encyclopedia from Antiquity to the Present. Calif: ABC-CLIO, 2006.
Donovan, Josephine. Feminist Theory: The Intellectual Traditions. New York: Continuum, 2012.
Elwood-Akers, Virginia. Women War Correspondents in the Vietnam War, 1961-1975. Metuchen: Scarecrow Press, 1988.
Emerson, Gloria. Winners& Losers: Battles, Retreats, Gains, Losses, and Ruins from the Vietnam War. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1992.
Fallaci, Oriana. Interview with History. New York: Liveright, 1976.
Fallaci, Oriana. Nothing, and So Be It. New York: Doubleday, 1972.
Ferrari, Michelle and James Tobin, Reporting America at War: An Oral History. New York: Hyperion, 2003.
Franklin, B.P. The Truth About Feminism: The Movement that Ripped Apart Men and Woman. Melbourne: Green Place Books, 2010.
Fisken, Fiona A. War, Journalism and History: War Correspondents in the Two World Wars. New York: Peter Lang, 2012.
Gellhorn, Martha. The Face of War. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1988.
Gioseffi, Daniella. Women on War: An International Anthology of Writings from Antiquity to the Present. New York: The Feminist Press at CUNY, 2003.
Hannerz, Ulf. Foreign News. New York: The University of Chicago, 2004.
Harrison, Cynthia Ellen. On Account of Sex: The Politics of Women’s Issues, 1945- 1968. Berkley: University Of California Press, 1988.
Hayes, Marcella and Amanda Mitchell Molly Goodkind. The Spanish Civil War and Its Memory. Barcelona: University of Barcelona, 2015.
Hoffmann, Joyce. On Their Own: Women Journalists and the American Experience in Vietnam. Cambridge: Da Capo Press, 2008.
Hollihan, Kerrie Logan. Reporting Under Fire: 16 Daring Women War Correspondents and Photojournalists. Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 2014.
Hood, Jean, War Correspondent: Reporting Under Fire Since 1850. North Carolina: Lyons Press, 2011.
MacKinnon, Catharine A. Feminism Unmodified: Discourses on Life and Law. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1988.
McLaughlin, Greg. War Correspondent. London: Pluto, 2016.
Mclntyre, Peter. Live News- A Survival Guide for Journalists. Belgium: International Federation of Journalists, 2003.
Moore, Marianne. A Woman at War. New York: Scribner, 2002.
Moorehead, Caroline. Gellhorn: A Twentieth-Century Life. New York: Picador, 2003.
Mueller, John. War and Ideas: Selected Essays. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2011.
Rabinowitz, Paula. They Must Be Represented: The Politics of Documentary. New York: Verso, 1994.
Rollyson, Carl, Beautiful Exile: The Life of Martha Gellhorn. London: Aurum, 2002.
Roth, Mitchel P. Historical Dictionary of War Journalism. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1997.
Sharoni, Simona et al. Handbook on Gender and War. UK: Edward Elgar Pub, 2016.
Sleeman, Elizabeth. The International Who’s Who of Women 2002. London: Routledge, 2002.
Solheim, Bruce O. The Vietnam War Era: A Personal Journey. Westport: Praeger Publishers, 2006.
Sullivan, George. Journalists at Risk: Reporting America’s Wars. Minneapolis: Twenty-First Century Books, 2006.
Sylvester, Christine. War as Experience: Contributions from International Relations and Feminist Analysis. New York: Routledge, 2013.
Tal, Kalí. Worlds of Hurt: Reading the Literatures of Trauma. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Thussu, Daya Kishan et al. War and the Media: Reporting Conflict 24/7. London: Sage, 2003.
Wagner, Lilya. Women War Correspondents of World War II. New York: Greenwood Press, 1989.
Zeinert, Karen. The Valiant Women of the Vietnam War. Wisconsin: Millbrook Press, 2000.

二、專書譯作
Earl Babbie著,林秀雲譯。《社會科學研究方法》(The Practice of Social Research)。臺北:新加坡商聖智學習,2013年。
Lynsey Addario著,婁美蓮譯。《鏡頭背後的勇者:用生命與勇氣走過的戰地紀實之路》(It’s What I Do: A Photographer’s Life of Love and War)。臺北:馬可孛羅,2015年。
Oriana Fallaci著,朱浩一譯。《寫給未出生的孩子》(Lettera a Bambino Mai Nato)。臺北:愛米粒出版,2016年。
Peter Mclntyre著,謝德謙譯。《衝進新聞第一線:帶著報導,活著出來》(Live News- A Survival Guide for Journalists)。臺北:商周出版,2005年。
Philip Seib著,歐冠宇譯。《火線報導:媒體所呈現的戰爭世界》(Beyond the Front Lines: How the News Media Cover a World Shaped by War)。臺北:國防部史政編譯室,2008年。
斯特凡諾著,陳晗奕、魏然然譯。《從不妥協-法拉奇傳》。北京:新星出版社,2014年。
歐莉安納•法拉蒂著,柯淑芬主編。《愛•孤獨與生死》。臺北:濃濃出版,1988年。
山本美香著,林仁惠譯。《戰火摧毀不了的童真:一個女記者戰地找尋失去的純真和希望》(世の中への扉 戦争を取材する:子どもたちは何を体験したのか)。新北:木馬文化出版,2015年。

三、期刊論文
(一)中文
王黎燕。〈西方戰地女記者的生存困境〉。《軍事記者》,第3期(2006年):頁20-21。
王黎燕。〈開放在戰地的第一批「玫瑰」——二戰時期的美國戰地女記者〉。《青年記者》,第12期(2005年):頁33
洪鎌德。〈女性主義在國際關係學說中的挑戰與定位〉。《台灣國際研究季刊》,第7卷,第2期(2011年):頁99。
魏守倫。〈戰地記者的角色定位〉。《新聞知識》,Z1期(2001年):頁31。
崔瑩。〈馬丁•貝爾:「現在的新聞已經死去」〉。《世界博覽》,第14期(2011年):頁61。
馮瓊瑩。〈真相的代價—戰地女記者喪生於敘利亞戰火〉。《國際性別通訊》,第8期(2012年):頁3。
張珺婕。《火線上的影像人生-戰地攝影記者專業主義精神探究》。碩士論文,西南法政大學,2014年。
李京瑾。《越戰期間美國戰地女記者研究》。碩士論文,山東大學,2011年。

(二)英文
Ackerman, Bruce. “Interpreting the Women’s Movement.” California Law Review, Vol. 94, No. 5 (2006): 1421-1437.
Allison, Maggie. “Roles in Conflict: The Woman War Reporter.” Miranda, (2010).
Bonn, Maria. “The Lust of the Eye: Michael Herr, Gloria Emerson and the Art of Observation.” Academic Journal, Vol. 29, Issue 1 (1993): 28-48.
Buchholz, Garth. “Freelancing can Be Hell.” Media, Vol. 1, No. 3 (1994): 26-28.
Corbin, Kathryne Adair. “Behind the Frontlines: Women’s Wartime Experiences as Front-page News(France 1870-1918).” Romance Notes, Vol. 55, Issue 3 (2015): 357-370.
Curthoys, Ann. “Adventures of Feminism: Simone de Beauvoir’s Autobiographies, Women’s Liberation, and Self-Fashioning.” Feminist Review, No. 64 (2000): 3-18.
Dell’Otro, Giovanna. “Memory and Imagination Are the Great Deterrents: Martha Gellhorn at War as Correspondent and Literary Author.” The Journal of American Culture, Vol. 7, Issue 3 (2004): 303-314.
Dietrich, Heidi. “Women in War Zones.” Quill, Vol. 90, Issue 8 (2002): 12.
Fox, Lorna Scott. “Astride the Sexes.” Columbia Journalism Review, Vol. 2, No. 45 (2006): 56-58.
Freeman, Barbara M. “You Will Have a Good Career Here, but Not a Great Career: Male Mentoring and the Women Journalists of the Canadian Press News Cooperative, 1965-2000.” Labour/Le Travail, Issue 78 (2016): 237-264.
Haller, Natalia J. “Female War Correspondents in Vietnam: A Turning Point for Women in American Journalism.” Master’s Thesis, Humboldt State University, 2006.
Hoffmann, Joyce. “On Their Own: Female Correspondents in Vietnam.” Quest, Vol. 2, Issue 1 (1998): 2-5.
Homer, Michael W. “Oriana Fallaci, the Mormons and Me: A Personal Recollection.” International Journal of Mormon Studies, Vol. 3 (2010): 107-112.
Korte, Barbara. “Touched by the Pain of Others: War Correspondents in Contemporary Fiction.” English Studies, Vol. 88, No. 2 (2007): 183-194.
Matloff, Judith. “Mothers at War.” Columbia Journalism Review, Vol. 43, No. 2 (2014): 10-12.
Meyers, Jeffrey. “Lee Miller and Martha Gellhorn: Parallel Lives.” The Antioch Review, Vol. 73, No. 1 (2015): 56-64.
Motta, Vanna. “The Courage of Rhetoric: Niente e così sia by Oriana Fallaci.” Italianist, Vol. 31, Issue 1 (2011): 123-133.
Patrick S, Washburn. “The War Correspondent.” Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, Vol. 80, No.1 (2003): 231-232.
Rowe, John Carlos. “Eye-Witness: Documentary Styles in the American Representations of Vietnam.” Cultural Critique, No. 3 (1986): 126-150.
Scott, Sandra Davidson. “Beyond Reason: A Feminist Theory of Ethics for Journalists.” Feminist Issues, Vol. 13, Issue 1 (1993): 23-40.
Shute, Nancy. “View from the Front.” World War II, Vol. 22, Issue 9 (2008): 60-65.
Speed, Jno. Gilmer. “War Correspondents.” The North American Review, Vol. 168, No. 508 (1899): 381-384.
Zaretsky, Natasha. “Women Journalists and the Vietnam War.” Reviews in American History, Vol. 38, No. 4 (2010): 748-752.

四、研討會論文
(一)中文
翁秀琪。〈極端化新聞報導趨勢下之媒體中道價值〉,與談於「台灣電視媒體大未來」國際研討會。臺北:財團法人公共電視文化事業基金會。檢索於2004年9月20-21日。http://web.pts.org.tw/~web01/media/top_3.htm。

五、官方資料
(一)中文
國家教育研究院「雙語詞彙、學術名詞暨辭書資訊網」。獨立記者/自由投稿記者freelance journalist。http://terms.naer.edu.tw/detail/2101596/?index=1。

(二)英文
“At least 2,297 Journalists and Media Staff Have Been Killed since 1990: IFJ Report.” International Federation of Journalists. Last modified Feburary 3, 2016. Accessed July 10, 2016. http://www.ifj.org/nc/news-single-view/backpid/59/article/at-least-2297-journalists-and-media-staff-have-been-killed-since-1990-ifj-report/.
“Foreign Correspondent.” Journalism & Communications Education. Accessed May 13, 2016. http://www.journalismdegree.com/foreign-correspondent/.
“Emma Watson: Gender Equality Is Your Issue Too.” UN Women. Last modified September 20, 2014. Accessed October 2, 2016. http://www.unwomen.org/en/news/stories/2014/9/emma-watson-gender-equality-is-your-issue-too.
“Women Come to the Front- War, Women, and Opportunity.” The Library of Congress. Accessed May 13, 2016. http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/wcf/wcf0002.html.
Marie Colvin. “Courage Knows No Gender.” Marie Colvin Center for International Reporting. October 10, 1999. Last modified October 10, 1999. Accessed September 13, 2016. http://www.mariecolvincenter.org/?page_id=937.
Data & Research. “1208 Journalists Killed since 1992.” Committee to Protect Journalists. Accessed September 13, 2016. https://cpj.org/killed/ .
“Bilan 2016: 74 Journalistes Tués dans le Monde.” Reporters sans Frontières. Last modified December 16, 2016. Accessed December 20, 2016. https://rsf.org/fr/actualites/bilan-2016-74-journalistes-tues-dans-le-monde.

六、網路新聞資料
(一)中文
何鉅華。〈做特約,錢較少,但比專任開心〉。《財團法人卓越新聞獎基金會》。最後更新於2016年2月19日。檢索於2016年4月6日。http://www.feja.org.tw/modules/news007/article.php?storyid=1883。
展江。〈戰地記者——媒介時代的英雄〉。《人民網》。最後更新於2004年12月2日。檢索於2016年3月5日。http://www.people.com.cn/BIG5/14677/22100/41466/41467/3027921.html。
趙雪波。〈戰地記者--訪新華社記者聶雲、袁炳忠〉。《新華網》。最後更新於2006年10月28日。檢索於2016年3月5日。http://news.xinhuanet.com/newmedia/2006-10/28/content_5259633.htm。
黃哲斌。〈政府、記者,與首次新聞募資〉。《天下雜誌》。最後更新於2015年8月4日。檢索於2016年4月8日。http://www.cw.com.tw/article/article.action?id=5069858。
張鎮宏。〈戰地女性記者表現出色受敬重〉。《台灣醒報》。最後更新於2012年11月26日。檢索於2016年4月10日。https://tw.news.yahoo.com/%E6%88%B0%E5%9C%B0%E5%A5%B3%E6%80%A7%E8%A8%98%E8%80%85-%E8%A1%A8%E7%8F%BE%E5%87%BA%E8%89%B2%E5%8F%97%E6%95%AC%E9%87%8D-071100027.html。
張蘭華。〈走訪前線女記者:誰說戰爭讓女人走開〉。《人民網》。最後更新於2003年3月14日。檢索於2016年4月9日。http://www.people.com.cn/BIG5/14677/22114/25998/26000/1748000.html。
〈敘利亞•獨眼記者曾收死亡警告•政府軍格殺傳媒人封消息〉。《世華媒體》。最後更新於2012年2月24日。檢索於2016年5月10日。http://www.mediachinese.com/node/49518。

(二)外文
Barnett, Emma. “The Unique Advantage of Female War Reporters in Muslim Countries.” The Telegraph. Last modified November 21, 2012. Accessed December 5, 2016. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/women/womens-life/9692810/The-unique-advantage-of-female-war-reporters-in-Muslim-countries.html .
Ben-David, Calev. “Eric Silver, Journalist, Author, Dies at 73.” The Jerusalem Post. Last modified July 16, 2008. Accessed September 13, 2016. http://www.jpost.com/Israel/Eric-Silver-journalist-author-dies-at-73.
Bennett, Dashiell. “The Life of a War Correspondent Is Even Worse Than You Think.” The Guardian. Last modified July 10, 2013. Accessed May 20, 2016. http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2013/07/life-war-correspondent/313463/.
Bernstein, Adam. “Reporter-Provocateur Oriana Fallaci, 77.” Washington Post. Last modified September 16, 2006. Accessed December 5, 2016. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/09/15/AR2006091501145.html.
Cornwell, Rupert, “Martha Gellhorn, Legend of War Reporting, Dies,” The Independent. Last modified February 17, 1998. Accessed October 15, 2016. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/martha-gellhorn-legend-of-war-reporting-dies-1145260.html.
Hannaford , Alex. “Love and Rockets: True Confessions of a Female War Reporter.” The Telegraph. Last modified April 16, 2016. Accessed December 5, 2016. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/films/2016/04/18/love-and-rockets-true-confessions-of-a-female-war-reporter/ .
Jackson, Harold. “Gloria Emerson.” The Gurdian. Last modified August 7, 2004. Accessed October 31, 2016. https://www.theguardian.com/news/2004/aug/07/guardianobituaries.haroldjackson.
Knickelbine, Scott. “What Is the Difference Between a Journalist & a Reporter?” Houston Chronicle. Accessed May 13, 2015. http://work.chron.com/difference-between-journalist-reporter-2868.html.
Lee, Hermione. “One of the Chaps.” The Guardian. Last modified November 1, 2003. Accessed October 15, 2016. https://www.theguardian.com/books/2003/nov/01/featuresreviews.guardianreview8.
McVeigh, Tracy. “Women on the Frontline: Female Photojournalists’ Visions of Conflict.” The Guardian. Last modified May 25, 2014. Accessed September 13, 2016. https://www.theguardian.com/media/2014/may/25/female-photojournalists-visions-of-conflict-war-reporting.
Nordland, Rod and Alan Cowell. “Two Western Journalists Killed in Syria Shelling.” The New York Times. Last modified Feburary 22, 2012. Accessed September 30, 2016. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/23/world/middleeast/marie-colvin-and-remi-ochlik-journalists-killed-in-syria.html?_r=0 .
Richardson, Whitney. “Women on the Front Lines and Behind the Lens.” The New York Times. Last modified October 11, 2013. Accessed October 2, 2016. http://cn.nytimes.com/lens/20131011/c11lens-women/dual/.
Shakespeare, Nicholas, “A Life Less Ordinary,” The Independent. Last modified June 28, 1998. Accessed October 15, 2016. http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/a-life-less-ordinary-1168141.html.
Sullivan, Patricia. “Journalist Gloria Emerson Dies.” Washington Post. Last modified August 6, 2004. Accessed October 31, 2016. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A44228-2004Aug5.html .
Whitney, Craig R. “Gloria Emerson, Chronicler of War’s Damage, Dies at 75.” The New York Times. Last modified August 5, 2004. Accessed November 5, 2016. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/08/05/arts/gloria-emerson-chronicler-of-war-s-damage-dies-at-75.html.
“Marie Colvin Obituary.” The Guardian. Last modified Feburary 22, 2012. Accessed October 2, 2016. http://www.theguardian.com/media/2012/feb/22/marie-colvin.
“Marie Colvin: ‘Our Mission Is to Report These Horrors of War with Accuracy and without Prejudice’.” The Guardian. Last modified Feburary 22, 2012. Accessed September 13, 2016. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2012/feb/22/marie-colvin-our-mission-is-to-speak-truth.
“The 22 Outstanding (Women) Journalists in the Last 100 Years.” The Atlantic. Last modified April 2, 2012. Accessed September 30, 2016. http://www.thewire.com/global/2012/04/22-outstanding-women-journalists-last-100-years/50645/.
“Women on the Front Line.” The Guardian. Last modified April 16, 2011. Accessed September 30, 2016. http://www.theguardian.com/books/2011/apr/16/women-war-reporting-annalena-mcafee.
“Women War Correspondents on the Front Lines.” IIP Digital. Last modified March 2, 2012. Accessed September 30, 2016. http://iipdigital.ait.org.tw/st/english/article/2012/03/201203021568.html#axzz4M09laWJU.
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2017-02-23公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2017-02-23起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2486 或 來信