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系統識別號 U0002-2202201018320700
中文論文名稱 後冷戰時期的澳洲海軍
英文論文名稱 Royal Australian Navy in the Post-Cold War Period
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 國際事務與戰略研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
學年度 98
學期 1
出版年 99
研究生中文姓名 汪照棠
研究生英文姓名 Jhao-Tang Wang
學號 695330158
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2010-01-11
論文頁數 130頁
口試委員 指導教授-鄭大誠
委員-李大中
委員-朱慧深
中文關鍵字 後冷戰  澳洲海軍  國防政策  海洋戰略 
英文關鍵字 Post-Cold War  Royal Australian Navy  Defence Policy  Maritime Strategy 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學政治學
學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 自二次大戰結束後,澳洲海軍發展的獨特性越見明顯。澳洲這段由原本受到英美兩大海權強國影響,到逐漸獨立自主的發展過程,引發了作者對於澳洲海軍研究的興趣。特別是在後冷戰時期,澳洲海軍如何隨著國家戰略定位的不同而有所轉變,更是作者所關心的範圍。有鑒於此,作者將論文內容聚焦於後冷戰時期澳洲海軍發展之研究,包括整體戰略、兵力態勢、任務與目的,以及未來展望等。希望能藉由深入的討論與分析,而能在這個議題上得到一些具有創新性的研究成果。
在主要內容上,本論文首先將闡述在整體戰略環境與威脅認知影響下的澳洲海軍,作者並將解釋其發展相對應的政策與作為。第二部份講述後冷戰時期澳洲歷任政府如何影響到海軍的戰略發展與作為,以及對澳洲海軍本身而言,它們對海權的概念為何?並藉以分析澳洲海軍的獨特觀點在軍力發展上具有何種意義?第三部份分析澳洲海軍的實質建軍方向及兵力態勢。第四部份除了總結與分析外,還希望能提供預測澳洲海軍未來發展的一些基本看法與建議。
本論文的研究結果顯示,澳洲海軍到了2020年後的戰力必將有很大的提升,其將具有區域兵力投射,並掌握區域制海、制空權的能力。除此之外,澳洲海軍還將會發展出新的軍事思想,藉以達成澳洲成為區域性的軍事和海上強權的目標。在2001年公佈的「21世紀的澳洲海軍」發展規劃當中,要求澳洲海軍提升海上快速反應能力、支援登陸作戰能力和區域防空能力。澳洲海軍不但要在周邊地區,還要能配合盟國遂行遠征作戰。規劃是澳洲海軍的「現存艦隊」到2015年蛻變為「增強艦隊」,到2025年發展成「未來艦隊」。這是澳洲海軍走向「藍水海軍」的標誌,也代表著澳洲海軍成為一個非謹守領海,而是逐漸擴張的戰略角色。
英文摘要 Since the end of the Second World War, the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) has demonstrated itself as a unique naval power in many ways. Historically, Australia had been first influenced by the United Kingdom and then, the United States. As time went by, Canberra had gradually adopted a more independent approach in terms of its naval development. Such changes and development triggered my interest in studying the RAN from a historical prospective, especially in the post-Cold War era. To identify how the RAN transformed itself in accordance with varying national interests and strategy is also one of my major concerns in this thesis. Therefore, this research in particular focuses on RAN’s overall strategy, force posture, missions and objectives, as well as future prospects and planning. Hopefully the readers can be inspired by my in-depth discussion and analysis on this subject.

Structurally, this thesis firstly analyzes the overall strategic environment Canberra faces and different threat perceptions the RAN holds. The responding measures by this Down Under country are hereby discussed. The second part describes the policies and strategies of successive Australian governments affecting RAN’s growth. RAN’s strategic concepts and their application in actual development are also evaluated. Thirdly, this work assesses the military capabilities and force structures of the RAN, qualitatively and quantitatively, in order to depict the real picture of this naval power in the Southern Hemisphere.
Last but not the least, the fourth part of this thesis provides my remarks and conclusions. Some future predictions and recommendations for the RAN are also included in this final section.

This thesis finds that RAN’s capabilities shall be significantly enhanced by 2020. The Australian fleet will be able to project its military power at least regionally, and to enjoy certain area command of the sea and air. Besides, there will be a new development of military thinking within the RAN, so that its strategic planning could be properly guided. According to a 2001 governmental publication, Australia's Navy for the 21st century: 2001-2030, the RAN will upgrade its capabilities of maritime rapid response capability, amphibious operations and regional air defense in upcoming years. The RAN is expected to be competent enough to engage in not only regional operations, but also expeditionary missions with allies. For meeting these goals, the RAN as a “Fleet-in-Being” at present must be transformed to an “Enhanced Fleet” by 2015, and a “Future Fleet” by 2025. Such an evolution is apparently RAN’s roadmap for a “blue-water navy”, hoping that Australia will become an expanding naval power, rather than simply take up a pure defensive posture in the future.
論文目次 目錄

緒論 1
壹、 研究動機與目的 1
貳、 研究方法與文獻回顧 1
參、 論文內容大綱 5
第一章 戰略環境與威脅認知 10
第一節 亞太與美國 10
第二節 威脅認知 31
第二章 澳洲的海權思想與海洋戰略 43
第一節 對海權的認知 43
第二節 戰略的演變 47
第三章 澳洲海軍建軍方向與兵力態勢 57
第一節 海軍建軍方向 58
第二節 海軍兵力態勢 65
第四章 總結與未來展望 107
第一節 澳洲海軍未來發展的具體方向 107
第二節 澳洲海軍建軍發展的阻擾因素 114
第三節 對我國的啟示 116
參考文獻 122


圖目錄

圖一 威脅光譜(SPECTRUM OF THREATS) 32
圖二 海盜活動及海上恐怖主義複合性連續體 39
圖三 海洋戰略大寫「S」與小寫「S」的分類 46
圖四 澳洲區域安全利益與軍事利益的直接區域 50
圖五 衝突光譜(SPECTRUM OF CONFLICT) 57
圖六 任務光譜(SPECTRUM OF OPERATIONS) 59
圖七 海洋任務架構圖 63
圖八 實際國防支出 73
圖九 國防支出佔GDP之比例 74
圖十 東北亞國家國防支出之比較 1997-2007 76
圖十一 澳洲與東南亞國家國防支出之比較 1997-2007 77
圖十二 澳洲與東亞國家區域整體國防支出佔GDP之百分比 1998-2007 78
圖十三 澳洲海洋責任區域 87
圖十四 朝向未來艦隊發展 93


表目錄

表一、後冷戰時期澳洲歷屆總理 7
表二、後冷戰時期澳洲歷任國防部長 7
表三、後冷戰時期澳洲歷任海軍司令 8
表四 中共近年來針對澳洲礦業公司的收購行動 19
表五 澳洲海軍現役裝備 82
表六 「三艦隊海軍」(THREE FLEET NAVY)發展階段 89



參考文獻 參考文獻
一、 中文書目
(一) 專書
Charles C. Moskos等編,洪陸訓等譯,後現代軍隊:冷戰後的武裝力量(台北:政戰學校,2005)
Eral Babbie著,李美華等譯,社會科學研究方法(台北:時英出版社,1998)
William T. Tow著,高一中譯,亞太戰略關係:尋求整合安全(台北:國防部史政編譯室,2003)
朱浤源編,撰寫博碩士論文實戰手冊(台北:正中書局出版股份有限公司,1999)
呂亞力等編,論文寫作研究(台北:三民書局出版股份有限公司,1983)
易君博,政治學論文集(台北:台灣省教育會,1980)
鈕先鍾,西方戰略思想史(台北:麥田出版股份有限公司,1995)
鈕先鍾,國家戰略論叢(台北:幼獅文化事業公司,1984)
鈕先鍾,戰略思想與歷史教訓(台北:軍事譯粹社,1979)
鈕先鍾,戰略研究入門(台北:麥田出版股份有限公司,1998)
翟文中,台灣生存與海權發展(台北:麥田出版股份有限公司,1999)
劉赤忠,海洋與國防(台北:中央文物供應社,1983)
薄富爾著,鈕先鍾譯,戰略緒論(台北:麥田出版股份有限公司,1996)

(二) 期刊論文
Desmond Ball,「廿一世紀澳洲戰略與國防政策」,澳洲研究第二集(1999年):1-38。
汪照棠,「澳洲新頒國防白皮書評析」,軍事連線13期(2009年7月):74-84。
鄭大誠,「中共反介入能力之評估與展望」,空軍學術雙月刊 605期(2008年8月):3-27。







二、 英文書目
(一) Books
Australian Strategic Policy Institute, Australia’s Defense after September 11:a quick guide to the issues(Canberra:Australian Strategic Policy Institute, 2002)
────, Keeping Australia Secure (Canberra:Australian Strategic Policy Institute, 2005)
────, Shared Interests:Australia–India relations into the twenty-first century(Canberra:Australian Strategic Policy Institute, 2005)
Babbie, Earl R., The practice of social research(Belmont, CA:Thomson/Wadsworth, 2007)
Babbage, Ross, Australia’s Future Underwater Operations and System Requirements(Canberra:Kokoda Foundation, 2007)
Bell, Coral, Living with giants:Finding Australia’s place in a more complex world(Canberra:Australian Strategic Policy Institute, 2005)
Bergin, Anthony, Future unknown:The terrorist threat to Australian maritime security(Canberra:Australian Strategic Policy Institute, 2005)
Borgu, Aldo, Capability of First Resort? Australia’s Future Amphibious Requirement(Canberra:Australian Strategic Policy Institute, 2004)
Borgu, Aldo and Mark Thomson, Reviewing the Defense Capability Plan 2004–2014(Canberra:Australian Strategic Policy Institute, 2004)
Department of Defence, Australian Maritime Doctrine(Canberra:Department of Defense, 2000)
────, Australia's National Security Report 2003(Canberra:Department of Defense, 2003)
────, Australia's National Security Report 2005(Canberra:Department of Defense, 2005)
────, Australia's National Security Report 2007(Canberra:Department of Defense, 2007)
────, Australia’s Navy Today 2006(Canberra:Department of Defense, 2006)
────, Australia's Strategic Policy(Canberra:Department of Defense, 1997)
────, BUDGET 2006-07(Canberra:Department of Defense, 2006)
────, BUDGET 2007-08(Canberra:Department of Defense, 2007)
────, Capability Fact Book 2003(Canberra:Department of Defense, 2003)
────, Defence Annual Report 2005–2006(Canberra:Department of Defense, 2006)
────, Defence Annual Report 2006–2007(Canberra:Department of Defense, 2007)
────, Defence 2000:Our Future Defence Force(Canberra:Department of Defense, 2000)
────, Defence White Paper 2009(Canberra:Department of Defence, 2009)
────, Force 2020(Canberra:Department of Defense, 2002)
────, Plan Blue 2006(Canberra:Department of Defense, 2006)
────, Portfolio Budget Statements 2007‑08(Canberra:Department of Defense, 2007)
────, Portfolio Budget Statements 2008-09(Canberra:Department of Defence, 2008)
────, The Australian Approach to Warfare(Canberra:Department of Defense, 2002)
────, The Navy Contribution to Australian Maritime Operations(Canberra:Department of Defense, 2005)
────, TS07 Public Environment Report (Canberra:Department of Defense, 2002)
────, 2006-16 Defence Capability Plan(Canberra:Department of Defense, 2005)
────, 2007NCW_Roadmap(Canberra:Department of Defense, 2007)
────, Warfare Officers Career Handbook(Canberra:Department of Defense, 2006)
Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, Protecting Australia Against Terrorism (Canberra:Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, 2004)
Dibb, Paul, Australia’s Security Relationship with Japan: How much further can it go?(Canberra:Australian National University Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, 2008)
Dupont, Alan, Unsheathing the Samurai sword: Japan's changing security policy(New South Wales:Lowy Institute for International Policy, 2004)
Evans, Michael, The Tyranny of Dissonance:Australia’s Strategic Culture and Way of War 1901-2005(Canberra:Land Warfare Studies Centre, 2005)
Frame, Tom , No Pleasure Cruise: The Story of the Royal Australian Navy(Australia:Allen and Unwin, 2001)
Gordon, Sandy, Implications of the Sale of Australian Uranium to India(Canberra:Australian National University Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, 2008)
International Institute for strategic Studies, The Military balance 2006(London: International Institute for strategic Studies, 2006)
Jane's Information Group, Jane's Fighting Ships 2004-2005(Coulsdon, Surrey:Jane's Information Group, 2004)
Jennings, Peter, Time for a new defense white paper(Canberra:Australian Strategic Policy Institute, 2005)
Lyon, Rod and William T. Tow, The Future of the Australian-U.S. Security Relationship(Pennsylvania:Army War College Strategic Studies Institute, 2003)
Lyon, Rod, The eagle in a turbulent world:US and its global role(Canberra:Australian Strategic Policy Institute, 2008)
Lyon, Rod, Alliance Unleashed:Australia and the US in a new strategic age(Canberra:Australian Strategic Policy Institute, 2005)
McCausland, Jeffrey D. et al., eds., The other special relationship: The United States and Australia at the Start of the 21st Century(Pennsylvania:Army War College Strategic Studies Institute, 2007)
Stevens, David, ed., Southern Trident:Strategy, History, and the Rise of Australian Naval Power(Australia:Allen and Unwin, 2001)
Stevens, David and John Reeve, Navy and the Nation:The Influence of the Navy on Modern Australia(Australia:Allen and Unwin, 2006)
Tellis, J. Ashley and Michael Wills, ed., Strategic Asia 2005–06: Military Modernization in an Era of Uncertainty(Washington:The National Bureau of Asian Research, 2005)
Tewes, Alex, Laura Rayner, and Kelly Kavanaugh, eds., Australia's Maritime Strategy in the 21st century(Canberra:Department of Parliamentary Services, 2004)
The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, Australia’s Maritime Strategy, (Canberra:Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade, 2004)
Thomson, Mark, Your Defence Dollar:The 2006–07 Defence Budget(Canberra:Australian Strategic Policy Institute, 2005)
Thomson, Mark, Punching above our weight? Australia as a middle power (Canberra:Australian Strategic Policy Institute, 2005)
Vaughn, Bruce, Australia:Background and U.S. Relations(Washington: Congressional Research Service, 2007)

(二) Periodicals
Barrie, Chris, “The Defence White Paper 2009 and Australia’s Maritime Capabilities,” Kokoda Foundation Security Challenges 5, no. 2(Winter 2009):51-59.
Bateman, Sam, “Assessing the Threat of Maritime Terrorism: Issues for the Asia-Pacific Region,” Kokoda Foundation Security Challenges 2, no. 3(October 2006):77-91.
Bateman, Sam, “Securing Australia’s Maritime Approaches,” Kokoda Foundation Security Challenges 3, no. 3(August 2007):109-129.
Behm, Allan, “Australian Strategic Policy and the Age of Uncertainty,” Kokoda Foundation Security Challenges 5, no. 2(Winter 2009):11-20.
Brown, Nick, “RAN gets tough on poachers,” Jane’s defence weekly, 13 December 2006, 9.
Cottrill, Ross, “The United States Alliance,” Kokoda Foundation Security Challenges 3, no. 3(August 2007):39-53.
Forrest, Andrew, “How to Be a Good Friend: China and the Australia-Japan Security Relationship,” Kokoda Foundation Security Challenges 4, no. 1(Autumn 2008):43-53.
Frühling, Stephan, “Balancing Australia’s Strategic Commitments,” Kokoda Foundation Security Challenges 3, no. 3(August 2007):145-159.
Frühling, Stephan, “Golden Window of Opportunity:A New Maritime Strategy and Force Structure for the Australian Navy,” Kokoda Foundation Security Challenges 4, no. 2(Winter 2008):81-104.
Gilbert, Gregory, “The Navy as a Force for Good: A Future Force Structure for the Australian Navy,” Kokoda Foundation Security Challenges 4, no. 3(Spring 2008):63-82.
Grevatt, Jon, “Three team up for Australian MUAS contest,” Jane’s defence weekly, 28 March 2007, 22.
Hall, Peter A., “Aligning Ontology and Methodology in Comparative Research,” in Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences. Edited by James Mahoney and Dietrich Rueschemeyer.(Cambridge:Cambridge University, 2003)
Harrington, Caitlin, “Chinese ASAT test rekindles weapons debate,” Jane’s defence weekly, 24 January 2007, 4.
Karniol, Robert, “Japan broadens horizons,” Jane’s defence weekly, 21 March 2007, 17.
Kemp, Damian, “Mariner proves worth in Australian coastal trials,” Jane’s defence weekly, 28 March 2007, 14.
Kerr, Julian, “Australia set to weigh up ship purchases by July,” Jane’s defence weekly, 28 February 2007, 18.
Kerr, Julian, “Report questions Australian planning,” Jane’s defence weekly, 21 February 2007, 15.
Kerr, Julian, “Report urges RAN action on future undersea assets,” Jane’s defence weekly, 25 April 2007, 13.
Kissane, Dylan, “2015 and the Rise of China: Power Cycle Analysis and the Implications for Australia,” Kokoda Foundation Security Challenges 1, no. 1(2005):105-121.
Lankowski, Michael, “Optimising the Australian-US Strategic Partnership for 2015,” Kokoda Foundation Security Challenges 3, no. 2(June 2007):113-131.
Osinowo, Adeniyi Adejimi, “The Royal Australian Navy in the Twenty First Century—Strategic Thoughts,” in Peter Mitchell Essays 2003. Edited by Glenn Kerr.(Canberra:Department of Defence Sea Power Centre, 2005), 17-25.
Robert Karniol, “Canberra, Jakarta revive security co-operation deal,” Jane’s defence weekly, 22 November 2006, 12.
Russ Shalders, “RAN: Building a Navy for the New Millennium,” Raytheon Defender 4, no. 4(2008):7-13.
Sato, Yoichiro, “Japan-Australia Security Cooperation: Jointly Cultivating the Trust of the Community,” Asian Affairs(Fall 2008):152-172.
Scott, Richard, “ANZAC radar upgrade advances,” Jane’s defence weekly, 31 January 2007, 15.
Scott, Richard, “Australia, US, team on active radar development,” Jane’s defence weekly, 31 August 2005, 6.
Siracusa, Joseph M., “The ANZUS Treaty Revisited,” Kokoda Foundation Security Challenges 1, no.1(2005):89-104.
Taylor, Nicholas, “China as a Status Quo or Revisionist Power? Implications for Australia,” Kokoda Foundation Security Challenges 3, no. 1(February 2007):29-45.
Thayer, Carlyle A., “The Five Power Defence Arrangements: The Quiet Achiever,” Kokoda Foundation Security Challenges 3, no. 1(February 2007):79-96.
Thomson, Mark, “The final straw:Are our defence forces overstretched?,” Australian Strategic Policy Institute Special Report Issue. 5(May 2007)
Walters, Patrick, “The Making of the 2009 Defence White Paper,” Kokoda Foundation Security Challenges 5, no. 2(Winter 2009):1-10.

(三) News
Ferguson, Gregor, “Australia Looks North,” Defense News, http://www.defensenews.com/story.php?i=3377475(accessed November 4, 2008).
Cook, Malcolm and Andrew Shearer, “Going global: A new Australia-Japan agenda for multilateral cooperation,“ Lowy Institute Perspectives(April 2009):1-16.


三、 網路資源
(一) 英文
Department of Defense,“ADF Exercises,” http://www.defence.gov.au/budget/06-07/dar/2006-2007_Defence_dar_online05.pdf(accessed November 1, 2007).
────,“ADF Units and Establishments,” http://www.defence.gov.au/budget/06-07/dar/2006-2007_Defence_dar_online02.pdf(accessed November 1, 2007).
────,“Australia Issues Official Tender for A$ 2.0B Large Amphibious Ships Program” http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/2006/05/australia-issues-official-tender-for-a-20b-large-amphibious-ships-program/index.php(accessed June 18, 2007).
────, “Force Element Groups,” http://www.navy.gov.au/fegs/(accessed June 15, 2007).
────,“JP 2048 Phase 4 - Amphibious Deployment and Sustainment Capability,” http://www.defence.gov.au/dmo/msd/jp2048/jp2048ph4.cfm(accessed June 18, 2007).
────, “Navy and the Environment,” http://www.navy.gov.au/general/environment.html(accessed June 15, 2007).
────,“North American Pacific Deployment 2007,”http://www.navy.gov.au/operations/napd/(accessed October 16, 2007).
────,“Royal Australian Navy Current Operations,” http://www.navy.gov.au/operations/(accessed June 15, 2007).
────,“Royal Australian Navy Takes Lead Role In Middle East” http://www.defence.gov.au/media/DepartmentalTpl.cfm?CurrentId=7119(accessed October 16, 2007).
────,“SEA 4000 Air Warfare Destroyer,” http://www.defence.gov.au/dmo/awd/sea4000/sea4000.cfm(accessed June 18, 2007).
Patrick Walters, "Defence backs Spanish warship for $7bn deal", http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,20867,21617193-31477,00.html(accessed June 15, 2007).
1. 演習
Department of Defense,“Exercise Bersama Padu,”http://www.defence.gov.au/bersamapadu/default.htm(accessed October 16, 2007).
────,“Exercise Crocodile 2003”http://www.defence.gov.au/croc03/(accessed October 16, 2007).
────,“Exercise Kakadu 7 (2005),”http://www.defence.gov.au/kakadu/default.htm(accessed October 16, 2007).
────,“Exercise Sea Eagle,” http://www.defence.gov.au/media/DepartmentalTpl.cfm?CurrentId=5216(accessed October 16, 2007).
────,“Exercise Sea Lion 2004,”http://www.defence.gov.au/sealion/(accessed October 16, 2007).
────,“Exercise Talisman Saber,” http://www.defence.gov.au/exercises/ts07/default.htm(accessed October 16, 2007).
────,“RIMPAC 04,”http://www.defence.gov.au/rimpac04/(accessed October 16, 2007).
────,“SINGAROO 2004,”http://www.defence.gov.au/singaroo/(accessed October 16, 2007).
────,“Swift Eagle,”http://www.defence.gov.au/swifteagle/(accessed October 16, 2007).
────,“Talisman Saber 2007,” http://www.maunsell.com/MarketsAndServices/39/96/index.jsp(accessed October 16, 2007).
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