||The integration of the keyword method, method of loci, and mind map on the effectiveness of vocabulary retention in EFL college students.
||Department of English
Method of Loci
||The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of the keyword method, the mind map, and the method of loci, as integrated mnemonic learning strategies, on EFL college learners’ vocabulary retention. Participants in the study were 103 EFL learners with similar language abilities at a private university located in the metropolitan area of northern Taiwan. The experimental group was made up of 52 freshmen. They were required to use a combination of the keyword method, the mind map, and the method of loci, also known as the integrated mnemonics, to remember a 35-item body-related vocabulary. The control group was comprised of 51 sophomores, who were also required to remember the same vocabulary items, but by using the rote rehearsal method. Three quantitative measures were used: (a) an immediate vocabulary translation test; (b) 4- and 16-week delayed vocabulary translation tests; and (c) 4- and 16-week delayed sentence completion tests. Multivariate repeated measures ANOVA were used to analyze the data and to answer the research questions. Descriptive statistics were performed to determine whether integrated mnemonics or rote rehearsal was more effective among all the participants in vocabulary learning. When individual test scores were compared between the integrated mnemonics and the rote rehearsal group, significantly higher scores were observed on both the vocabulary translation and the fill-in-the-blank tests in the experimental group. The results of this research demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the rote rehearsal method which is predominantly used, but proved that integrated mnemonic interventions facilitate English vocabulary retention.
||TABLE OF CONTENTS iv
List of Tables x
List of Figures xi
CHAPTER ONE 1
1.1 Background and Motivation 4
1.2 Statement of the Problem 8
1.3 Statement of the Purpose 10
1.4 Research Questions 13
1.5 Significance of the Study 14
1.6 Definition of Terms 16
CHAPTER TWO 21
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 21
2.1 Memory 21
2.1.1 Memory process 22
18.104.22.168 Sensory memory 23
22.214.171.124 Working memory / short-term memory 24
126.96.36.199 Long-term memory 26
188.8.131.52.1 Declarative memory 27
184.108.40.206.2 Procedural memory 29
2.1.2 Forgetting 29
2.2 Mnemonics 32
2.2.1 Overview 32
2.2.2 Artificial memory 35
2.2.3 Memory aids 37
2.2.4 Cognitive cueing structure 40
2.2.5 Learning vs. memory 41
2.2.6 Mnemonics incorporated as learning strategies 45
2.2.7 Associations of old memory with new memory 47
2.2.8 Picture superiority effect 51
220.127.116.11 Bizarreness 58
2.2.9 Dual coding 63
2.2.10 Mnemonics in educational settings 65
2.2.11 Mnemonics in different age groups 69
18.104.22.168Younger / inexperienced learners 69
22.214.171.124 Older / experienced learners 72
2.2.12 Drawbacks 75
2.3 Rote Rehearsal 78
2.4 Mind Map 82
2.4.1 Overview 82
2.4.2 Nonlinear note-taking 84
2.4.3 Colorful branches and pictures 87
2.4.4 Organizational process 89
2.4.5 Ideas on one piece of paper 92
2.4.6 Students with different learning styles 93
2.4.7 Applications 93
2.5 Keyword Method 99
2.5.1 Overview 99
2.5.2 Training of the keyword method 102
2.5.3 Sound-like L1 104
2.5.4 Positive responses 107
2.5.5 Two-stage process 108
2.5.6 Three Rs 110
2.5.7 Concrete keywords 114
2.5.8 Abstract keywords 119
2.5.9 Imagery keywords 121
2.5.10 Efficacy of teacher-generated keywords 123
2.5.11 Efficacy of student-generated keywords 126
2.5.12 Inefficacy of student-generated keywords 128
2.5.13 Inefficacy of the keyword method 130
2.5.14 Applications 135
2.6 Method of Loci 143
2.6.1 Overview 143
2.6.2 Applications 147
2.7 Pegword Method 152
2.7.1 Overview 152
2.7.2 Applications 157
2.7.3 Multi-use mnemonic devices 160
2.8 Mnemonics Compared with Rote Rehearsal 162
2.8.1 Pegword method vs. rote rehearsal 162
2.8.2 Method of loci vs. rote rehearsal 162
2.8.3 Keyword method vs. rote rehearsal 163
2.9 Integrated Instructional Mnemonic Methods 168
CHAPTER THREE 174
3.1 Participants 175
3.2 Procedures 176
3.2.1 Experimental group 179
3.2.2 Control group 183
3.3 Materials 185
3.4 Data Collection and Analysis 187
3.4.1 Pretest 189
3.4.2 Immediate test 190
3.4.3 Delayed test 191
3.4.4 Data analysis 192
CHAPTER FOUR 193
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 193
4.1 Results of the first research question 193
4.2 Results of the second research question 199
4.3 Results of the third research question 201
4.3.1 The time * type * method effect 205
4.3.2 The time * type effect 207
4.3.3 The type * method effect 208
4.3.4 The time * method effect 210
4.3.5 The effect of test type 211
4.3.6 The effect of test time 212
4.3.7 The effect of teaching method 212
4.4 Discussion 213
CHAPTER FIVE 218
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 218
5.1 Summary of the Study 218
5.2 Limitations of the Study 222
5.3 Implications of the Study 225
5.4 Suggestions for Future Research 228
Appendix A: An Example of a Mind map 253
Appendix B: Vocabulary Studied 254
Appendix C: Vocabulary Translation Test 255
Appendix D: Vocabulary Fill-in-the-blanks Test 256
Appendix E: Language and Educational Background Questionnaire 258
Appendix F: Pretest Answer Sheet 260
Appendix G: The Picture used with Keywords 261
Appendix H: Study List of the Control Group 262
Appendix I: Vocabulary Mnemonic and Mind-mapping Survey 263
Appendix I: Language and Educational Background Questionnaire: Details 266
Appendix J: Sample of the Immediate Test 268
List of Tables
Table 1: Total Mean Score (All) 194
Table 2: Integrated Mnemonic Group Mean Score 195
Table 3: Rote Rehearsal Group Mean Score 195
Table 4: Mauchly’s Test of Sphericity 197
Table 5: Tests of Within-Subjects Effects 198
Table 6: Pairwise Comparisons of Teaching Methods 199
Table 7: Method * Time Comparisons 201
Table 8: Correlations of Test Scores 203
Table 9: Mean Scores of Week 4 and Week 16 Tests 204
Table 10: Tests of Within-Subjects Effects 205
Table 11: Method * Time Effect 211
Table 12: Effect of Test Types 211
Table 13: Effects of Test Times 212
Table 14: Tests of Between-Subjects Effects 213
Table 15: Effects of Teaching Methods 213
List of Figures
Figure 1: Mean scores over time 196
Figure 2: Estimated marginal means of time 1 206
Figure 3: Estimated marginal means of time 2 207
Figure 4: Estimated marginal means of type 1 208
Figure 5: Estimated marginal means of type 2 209
Figure 6: Estimated marginal means of time 210
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