||The integration of the keyword method, method of loci, and mind map on the effectiveness of vocabulary retention in EFL college students.
||Department of English
Method of Loci
||The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of the keyword method, the mind map, and the method of loci, as integrated mnemonic learning strategies, on EFL college learners’ vocabulary retention. Participants in the study were 103 EFL learners with similar language abilities at a private university located in the metropolitan area of northern Taiwan. The experimental group was made up of 52 freshmen. They were required to use a combination of the keyword method, the mind map, and the method of loci, also known as the integrated mnemonics, to remember a 35-item body-related vocabulary. The control group was comprised of 51 sophomores, who were also required to remember the same vocabulary items, but by using the rote rehearsal method. Three quantitative measures were used: (a) an immediate vocabulary translation test; (b) 4- and 16-week delayed vocabulary translation tests; and (c) 4- and 16-week delayed sentence completion tests. Multivariate repeated measures ANOVA were used to analyze the data and to answer the research questions. Descriptive statistics were performed to determine whether integrated mnemonics or rote rehearsal was more effective among all the participants in vocabulary learning. When individual test scores were compared between the integrated mnemonics and the rote rehearsal group, significantly higher scores were observed on both the vocabulary translation and the fill-in-the-blank tests in the experimental group. The results of this research demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the rote rehearsal method which is predominantly used, but proved that integrated mnemonic interventions facilitate English vocabulary retention.
||TABLE OF CONTENTS iv
List of Tables x
List of Figures xi
CHAPTER ONE 1
1.1 Background and Motivation 4
1.2 Statement of the Problem 8
1.3 Statement of the Purpose 10
1.4 Research Questions 13
1.5 Significance of the Study 14
1.6 Definition of Terms 16
CHAPTER TWO 21
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 21
2.1 Memory 21
2.1.1 Memory process 22
126.96.36.199 Sensory memory 23
188.8.131.52 Working memory / short-term memory 24
184.108.40.206 Long-term memory 26
220.127.116.11.1 Declarative memory 27
18.104.22.168.2 Procedural memory 29
2.1.2 Forgetting 29
2.2 Mnemonics 32
2.2.1 Overview 32
2.2.2 Artificial memory 35
2.2.3 Memory aids 37
2.2.4 Cognitive cueing structure 40
2.2.5 Learning vs. memory 41
2.2.6 Mnemonics incorporated as learning strategies 45
2.2.7 Associations of old memory with new memory 47
2.2.8 Picture superiority effect 51
22.214.171.124 Bizarreness 58
2.2.9 Dual coding 63
2.2.10 Mnemonics in educational settings 65
2.2.11 Mnemonics in different age groups 69
126.96.36.199Younger / inexperienced learners 69
188.8.131.52 Older / experienced learners 72
2.2.12 Drawbacks 75
2.3 Rote Rehearsal 78
2.4 Mind Map 82
2.4.1 Overview 82
2.4.2 Nonlinear note-taking 84
2.4.3 Colorful branches and pictures 87
2.4.4 Organizational process 89
2.4.5 Ideas on one piece of paper 92
2.4.6 Students with different learning styles 93
2.4.7 Applications 93
2.5 Keyword Method 99
2.5.1 Overview 99
2.5.2 Training of the keyword method 102
2.5.3 Sound-like L1 104
2.5.4 Positive responses 107
2.5.5 Two-stage process 108
2.5.6 Three Rs 110
2.5.7 Concrete keywords 114
2.5.8 Abstract keywords 119
2.5.9 Imagery keywords 121
2.5.10 Efficacy of teacher-generated keywords 123
2.5.11 Efficacy of student-generated keywords 126
2.5.12 Inefficacy of student-generated keywords 128
2.5.13 Inefficacy of the keyword method 130
2.5.14 Applications 135
2.6 Method of Loci 143
2.6.1 Overview 143
2.6.2 Applications 147
2.7 Pegword Method 152
2.7.1 Overview 152
2.7.2 Applications 157
2.7.3 Multi-use mnemonic devices 160
2.8 Mnemonics Compared with Rote Rehearsal 162
2.8.1 Pegword method vs. rote rehearsal 162
2.8.2 Method of loci vs. rote rehearsal 162
2.8.3 Keyword method vs. rote rehearsal 163
2.9 Integrated Instructional Mnemonic Methods 168
CHAPTER THREE 174
3.1 Participants 175
3.2 Procedures 176
3.2.1 Experimental group 179
3.2.2 Control group 183
3.3 Materials 185
3.4 Data Collection and Analysis 187
3.4.1 Pretest 189
3.4.2 Immediate test 190
3.4.3 Delayed test 191
3.4.4 Data analysis 192
CHAPTER FOUR 193
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 193
4.1 Results of the first research question 193
4.2 Results of the second research question 199
4.3 Results of the third research question 201
4.3.1 The time * type * method effect 205
4.3.2 The time * type effect 207
4.3.3 The type * method effect 208
4.3.4 The time * method effect 210
4.3.5 The effect of test type 211
4.3.6 The effect of test time 212
4.3.7 The effect of teaching method 212
4.4 Discussion 213
CHAPTER FIVE 218
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 218
5.1 Summary of the Study 218
5.2 Limitations of the Study 222
5.3 Implications of the Study 225
5.4 Suggestions for Future Research 228
Appendix A: An Example of a Mind map 253
Appendix B: Vocabulary Studied 254
Appendix C: Vocabulary Translation Test 255
Appendix D: Vocabulary Fill-in-the-blanks Test 256
Appendix E: Language and Educational Background Questionnaire 258
Appendix F: Pretest Answer Sheet 260
Appendix G: The Picture used with Keywords 261
Appendix H: Study List of the Control Group 262
Appendix I: Vocabulary Mnemonic and Mind-mapping Survey 263
Appendix I: Language and Educational Background Questionnaire: Details 266
Appendix J: Sample of the Immediate Test 268
List of Tables
Table 1: Total Mean Score (All) 194
Table 2: Integrated Mnemonic Group Mean Score 195
Table 3: Rote Rehearsal Group Mean Score 195
Table 4: Mauchly’s Test of Sphericity 197
Table 5: Tests of Within-Subjects Effects 198
Table 6: Pairwise Comparisons of Teaching Methods 199
Table 7: Method * Time Comparisons 201
Table 8: Correlations of Test Scores 203
Table 9: Mean Scores of Week 4 and Week 16 Tests 204
Table 10: Tests of Within-Subjects Effects 205
Table 11: Method * Time Effect 211
Table 12: Effect of Test Types 211
Table 13: Effects of Test Times 212
Table 14: Tests of Between-Subjects Effects 213
Table 15: Effects of Teaching Methods 213
List of Figures
Figure 1: Mean scores over time 196
Figure 2: Estimated marginal means of time 1 206
Figure 3: Estimated marginal means of time 2 207
Figure 4: Estimated marginal means of type 1 208
Figure 5: Estimated marginal means of type 2 209
Figure 6: Estimated marginal means of time 210
||Abi-EI-Mona, I., & Adb-EI-Khalick, F. (2008). The influence of mind mapping on eighth graders’ science achievement. School Science and Mathematics, 108(7), 298-312.
Agramonte, V., & Belfiore, P. J. (2002). Using mnemonics to increase early literacy skills in urban kindergarten students. Journal of Behavioral Education, 11(3), 181-190.
Ahn, H., Yeon, E., Ham, E., & Paik, W. Patient modeling using mind mapping representation as a part of nursing care plan. In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Computational Science Reading, Reading, UK, May 28-31, 2006, pp. 894-90. Reading, UK: Royaume University.
Akinoglu, O., & Yasar, Z. (2007). The effects of note taking in science education through the mind mapping technique on students’ attitudes, academic achievement and concept learning. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 6(3), 34-42.
Alegria de la Colina, A., Sel Pilar Garcia Mayo, M. (2009). Oral interaction in task-based EFL learning: The use of the L1 as a cognitive tool. IRAL, 47(3/4): 325-345.
Ang, S. Y., & Lee, K. (2010). Exploring developmental differences in visual short-term memory and working memory. Developmental Psychology, 46(1), 279-285.
Atay, D., & Ozbulgan, C. (2007). Memory strategy instruction, contextual learning and ESP vocabulary recall. English for Specific Purposes, 26, 39-51.
Atkinson, R. C. (1975). Mnemotechnics in second-language learning. American Psychologist, 30, 821-828.
Atkinson, R. C., & Raugh, M. R. (1975). An application of the mnemonic keyword method to the acquisition of a Russian vocabulary. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 1, 126-133.
Avila, E., & Sadoski, M. (1996). Exploring new applications of the keyword method to acquire English vocabulary. Language Learning, 46, 379-395.
Aydin, G., & Balim, A. G. (2009). Technologically-supported mind and concept maps prepared by students on the subjects of the unit “systems in our body”. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1, 2838-2842.
Baddeley, A. (1997). Human memory: Theory and practice (Rev. ed.). Hove and New York: Psychology Press.
Baddeley, A. D. (1986). Working memory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Baddeley, A. D. (1990). Human memory: Theory and practice. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Baggett, P. (1989). Understanding visual and verbal messages. In H. Mandl & J. R. Levin (Eds.), Knowledge acquisition from text and pictures (pp. 101-124). North-Holland: Amsterdam.
Barcroft, J. (2009). Strategies and performance in intentional L2 vocabulary learning. Language Awareness, 18(1), 74-89.
Beel, J., & Gipp, B. (2010). Enhancing search applications by utilizing mind maps. Mind, 303-304.
Bellezza, F. S. (1981). Mnemonic devices: Classification, characteristics, and criteria. Review of Educational Research, 51(2), 247-275.
Bellezza, F. S. (1983). The spatial-arrangement mnemonic. Journal of Educational Psychology, 75(6), 830-837.
Bellezza, F. S. (1986). A mnemonic based on arranging words on visual patterns. Journal of Educational Psychology, 78(3), 217-224.
Bellezza, F. S. (1996). Mnemonic methods to enhance storage and retrieval. In E. L. Bjork & R. A. Bjork (Eds.), Memory (pp. 345-380). London: Academic Press.
Benjamin, A. S., & Bjork, R. A. (2000). On the relationship between recognition speed and accuracy for words rehearsed via rote versus elaborative rehearsal. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 26(3), 638-648.
Bia, A., Muñoz, R., & Gómez, J. Using mind maps to model semistructured documents. In Proceedings 14th European Conference on Digital Libraries (ECDL 2010), September 2010, Glasgow, UK, Springer LNCS 6273, pp. 421–424.
Biggs, J. B. (1990). Asian students' approaches to learning: Implications for teaching overseas students, Keynote discussion paper, 8th Australasian Tertiary Learning Skills and Language Conference, 11-13 July, Queensland University of Technology.
Bleasdale, F. (1983). Paivio’s dual-coding model of meaning revisited. In J. C. Yuille (Ed.), Imagery, memory, and cognition: Essays in honor of Allan Paivio (pp. 183-209). Hillsdae: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Boers, F., & Lindstronmberg, S. (2008). How cognitive linguistics can foster effective vocabulary teaching. In F. Boers & S. Lindstronmberg (Eds.), Cognitive linguistic approaches to teaching vocabulary and phraseology (pp.1-61). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Boers, F., Eyckmans, J., & Stengers, H. (2007). Presenting figurative idioms with a touch of etymology: More than mere mnemonics? Language Teaching Research, 11(1), 43-62.
Brahler, C. J., & Walker, D. (2008). Learning scientific and medical terminology with a mnemonic strategy using an illogical association technique. Advances in Physiology Education, 32(3), 219-224.
Bristow, J., Cowley, P., & Daines, B. (1999). Memory and learning: A practical guide for teachers. London: David Fulton Publishers.
Brown, T., & Perry, F. L. (1991). A comparison of three learning strategies for ESL vocabulary acquisition. TESOL Quarterly, 25(4), 655-670.
Budd, J. W. (2004). Mind maps as classroom exercises. Journal of Economic Education, 35(1), 35-46.
Burgess-Allen, J., & Owen-Smith, V. (2010). Using mind mapping techniques for rapid qualitative data analysis in public participation processes. Health Expectations, 13, 406-415.
Buzan, T. (1976). Use both sides of your brain. New York: Dutton.
Buzan, T. (1984). Make the most of your mind. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Buzan, T. (2000). Use your head: Millennium edition. London: BBC Worldwide Limited.
Buzan, T. (2001). The power of creative intelligence: 10 ways to tap into your creative genius. London: HarperCollins Publishers.
Buzan, T. (2003). Master your memory. BBC Worldwide Lane.
Buzan, T. (2005). Mind map: The ultimate thinking tool. London: Thorsons.
Buzan, T. (2006). The speed reading book: The revolutionary approach to increasing reading speed, comprehension and general knowledge. Essex: BBC Active
Buzan, T., & Abbott, S. (2005). Mind maps for kids: Max your memory and concentration. London: Thorsons.
Buzan, T., & Buzan, B. (1996). The mind map book: How to use radiant thinking to maximize your brain’s untapped potential. New York: Plume.
Buzan, T., Israel, R., & Dottino, T. (1999). The Brainsmart Leader. Aldershot, Hampshire: Gower Publishing.
Campos, A., Amor, A., & González, M. A. (2004). The importance of the keyword-generation method in keyword mnemonics. Experimental Psychology, 51(2), 125-131.
Campos, A., Conzález, M. A., & Amor, A. (2003). Limitations of the mnemonic-keyword method. The Journal of General Psychology, 130(4), 399-413.
Carlson, L., Zimmer, J. W., & Glover, J. (1981). First-letter mnemonics: Dam (Don’t aid memory). The Journal of General Psychology, 104, 287-292.
Carney, R. N., & Levin, J. R. (1998). Do mnemonic memories fade as time goes by? Here’s looking anew! Contemporary Educational Psychology, 23, 276-297.
Carney, R. N., & Levin, J. R. (2000). Fading mnemonic memories: Here’s looking anew, again! Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 499-508.
Carney, R. N., & Levin, J. R. (2008). Conquering mnemonophobia, with help from three practical measures of memory and application. Teaching of Psychology, 35(3), 176-183.
Carney, R. N., Levin, J. R., & Stackhouse, T. L. (1997). The face-name mnemonic strategy from a different perspective. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 22, 399-412.
Chamot, A. U. (1987). The learning strategies of ESL students. In A. Wenden & J. Rubin (Eds.), Learner strategies in language learning (pp. 71-83). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Coady, J. (1997). L2 vocabulary acquisition: a synthesis of the research. In J. Coady & T. Huckin (Eds.), Second language vocabulary acquisition (pp. 273-290). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cook, N. M. (1989). The applicability of verbal mnemonics for different populations: A review. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 3, 3-22.
Cornoldi, C., & De Beni, R. (1991). Memory for discourse: Loci mnemonics and the oral presentation effect. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 5, 511-518.
D’Agostino, P. R., O’Neill, B. J., & Paivio, A. (1977). Memory for pictures and words as a function of level of processing: Depth or dual coding? Memory & Cognition, 5(2), 252-256.
D’Antoni, A. V., Zipp, G. P., & Olson, V. G. (2009). Interrater reliability of the mind map assessment rubric in a cohort of medical students. BMC Medical Education, 9(19), 1-8.
D’Antoni, A. V., Zipp, G. P., Olson, V. G., & Cahill, T. F. (2010). Does the mind map learning strategy facilitate information retrieval and critical thinking in medical students. BMC Medical Education, 10, 61.
D’Ydewalle, G., & Rensbergen, J. V. (1989). Developmental studies of text-picture interactions in the perception of animated cartoons with text. In H. Mandl & J. R. Levin (Eds.), Knowledge acquisition from text and pictures (pp. 233-248). North-Holland: Amsterdam.
Davies, M. (2010). Concept mapping, mind mapping and argument mapping: What are the differences and do they matter? Retrieved July 13, 2011, from the World Wide Web: http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/2975e558fb1083a361019a0685bc416a7/hansl
Day, J. D., Cordon, L. A., & Kerwin, M. L. (1989). Informal instruction and development of cognitive skills: A review and critique of research. In C. B. McCormick, G. E. Miller, & M. Pressley (Eds.), Cognitive strategy research: From basic research to educational applications (pp. 83-103). New York: Spring-Verlag.
De Beni, R., Moè, A., & Cornoldi, C. (1997). Learning from texts or lectures: Loci mnemonics can interfere with reading but not with listening. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 9(4), 401-415.
Delprato, D. J., & Baker, E. J. (1974). Concreteness of peg words in two mnemonic systems. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 102(3), 520-522.
Deno, S. L. (1968). Effects of words and pictures as stimuli in learning language equivalents. Journal of Educational Psychology, 59(3), 202-206.
Derwinger, A., Neely, A. S., & Bäckman, L. (2005). Design your own memory strategies! Self-generated strategy training versus mnemonic training in old age: An 8-month follow-up. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 15(1), 37-54.
Desrochers, A., & Begg, I. (1987). A theoretical account of encoding and retrieval processes in the use of imagery-based mnemonic techniques: The special case of the keyword method. In M. A. McDaniel & M. Pressley (Eds.), Imagery and Related mnemonic processes: Theories, individual differences, and applications (pp. 56-77). New York: Springer-Verlag.
Desrochers, A., Gelinas, C., & Wieland, L. D. (1989). An application of the mnemonic keyword method to the acquisition of German Nouns and their grammatical gender. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(1), 25-32.
Dhindsa, H. S., Kasim, M., & Anderson, O. R. (2010). Constructivist-visual mind map teaching approach and the quality of students’ cognitive structures. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 20(2), 186-200.
DiVesta, F. J., & Sunshine, P. M. (1974). The retrieval of abstract and concrete materials as functions of imagery, mediation, and mnemonic aids. Memory & Cognition, 2(2), 340-344.
Dobbins, I. G., Kroll, N. E. A., & Yonelinas, A. P. (2004). Dissociating familiarity from recollection using rote rehearsal. Memory and Cognition, 32(6), 932-944.
Douglas, N. (2009). Reading explorer 3. Boston: Heinle Cengage Learning.
Dretzke, B. J., & Levin, J. R. (1996). Assessing students’ application and transfer of a mnemonic strategy: The struggle for independence. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 21, 83-93.
Ehri, L. C., Deffner, N. D., & Wilce, L. S. (1984). Pictorial mnemonics for phonics. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(5), 880-893.
Einstein, G. O., & McDaniel, M. A. (1987). Distinctiveness and the mnemonic benefits of bizarre imagery. In M. A. McDaniel & M. Pressley (Eds.), Imagery and Related mnemonic processes: Theories, individual differences, and applications (pp. 78-102). New York: Springer-Verlag.
Erbes, S., Folkerts, M., Cergis, C., Pederson, S., & Stivers, H. (2010). Understanding how cognitive psychology can inform and improve Spanish vocabulary acquisition in high school classrooms. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 37(2), 120-132.
Evrekli, E., Balım, A. G., & İnel, D. (2009). Mind mapping applications in special teaching methods courses for science teacher candidates and teacher candidates’ opinions concerning the applications. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1, 2274-2279.
Evrekli, E., İnel, D., & Balım A. G. (2010). Development of a scoring system to assess mind maps. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2, 2330-2334.
Far, M. M. (2006). Techniques utilized for vocabulary acquisition. Language in India, 6(12), 1-24.
Farrand, P., Hussain, F., & Hennessy, E. (2002). The efficacy of the ‘mind map’ study technique. Medical Education, 36, 426-431.
Field, A. P. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS. London: Sage.
Fogler, J., & Stern, L. (2005). Improving your memory: How to remember what you’re starting to forget. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press.
Foil, C. R. (2001). Effects of two methods of vocabulary acquisition on students with mild learning disabilities. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Southern Mississippi.
Foil, C. R., & Alber, S. R. (2002). Fun and effective ways to build your students’ vocabulary. Intervention in School and Clinic, 37(3), 131-139.
Fontana, J. L., Scruggs, T., & Mastropieri, M. A. (2007). Mnemonic strategy instruction in inclusive secondary social studies classes. Remedial and Special Education, 28(6), 345-355.
Fritz, C. O., Morris, P. E., Acton, M, Voelkel, A. R., & Etkind, R. (2007). Comparing and combining retrieval practice and the keyword mnemonic for foreign vocabulary learning. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 21, 499-526.
Fulk, B. M., Lohman, D., & Belfiore, P. J. (1997). Effects of integrated picture mnemonics on the letter recognition and letter-sound acquisition of transitional first-grade students with special needs. Learning Disability Quarterly, 20, 33-42.
Fun, C. S., & Maskat, N. (2010). Teacher-centered mind mapping vs student-centered mind mapping in the teaching f accounting at pre-u level-an action research. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 7(c), 240-246.
Gathercole , S. E., & Baddeley, A. D. (1993). Working memory and language. Hove: Hillsdale.
Gibson, H. A. (2009). Using mnemonics to increase knowledge of an organizing curriculum framework. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 4, 56-62.
Glover, J. A., Timme, V., Deyloff, D., & Rogers, M. (1987). Memory for student-performed tasks. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79(4), 445-452.
Glynn, S. M., Koballa, T. R., Jr., & Coleman, D. (2003). Mnemonic methods: Studentsuse time-tested strategies to recall scientific information. The Science Teacher, 70(9), 52-55.
Graaff, S., Verhoeven, L., Bosman, A. M. T., & Hasselman, F. (2007). Integrated pictorial mnemonics and stimulus fading: Teaching kindergartners letter sounds. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 519-539.
Gregg, V. H. (1986). Introduction to Human Memory. London: Routledge & Henley.
Gruneberg, M. M. (1998). A commentary on criticism of the keyword method of learning foreign languages. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 12, 529-532.
Gruneberg, M. M., & Pascoe, K. (1996). The effectiveness of the keyword method for receptive and productive foreign vocabulary learning in the elderly. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 21, 102-109.
Hagwood, S. (2006). Memory power: You can develop a great memory-America’s grand master shows you how. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Hall, J. W. (1988). On the utility of the keyword mnemonic for vocabulary learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(4), 554-562.
Hall, J. W., & Fuson, K. C. (1986). Presentation rates in experiments on mnemonics: A methodological note. Journal of Educational Psychology, 78(3), 233-234.
Hall, J. W., Wilson, K. P., & Patterson, R. J. (1981). Mnemotechnics: Some limitations of the mnemonic keyword method for the study of foreign language vocabulary. Journal of Educational Psychology, 73(3), 345-357.
Hamada, M., & Koda, K. (2008). Influence of first language orthographic experience on second language decoding and word learning. Language Learning, 58(1), 1-31.
Hamada, M., & Koda, K. (2010). The role of the phonological loop in English word learning: A comparison of Chinese ESL learners and native speakers. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 40(2), 75-92.
Hay, D., Kinchin, I., & Lygo-Baker, S. (2008). Making learning visible: The role of concept mapping in higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 33(3), 295-311.
Higbee, K. L. (1976, April). A century of research on mnemonics: We’re back where we started. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Western Psychological Association, Los Angeles.
Higbee, K. L. (1979). Recent research on visual mnemonics: Historical roots and educational fruits. Review of Educational Research, 49(4), 611-629.
Higbee, K. L. (1994). More motivational aspects of an imagery mnemonic. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 8, 1-12.
Hill, W. F. (1990). Learning: A survey of psychological interpretations. New York: Harper & Row.
Ho, H. (1984). Two experiments on the effects of mnemonic strategies: Is it mode or cognitive function that influences learning? Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 32(2), 89-100.
Hodges, R. E. (1967). Another look at those spelling demons. The Elementary School Journal, 68, 31-34.
Hogben, D., & Lawson, M. J. (1997). Reexamining the relationship between verbal knowledge background and keyword training for vocabulary acquisition. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 22, 378-389.
Howe, M.J.A. (1998). Principles of abilities and human learning. Hove: Psychology Press.
Howitt, C. (2009). 3-D mind maps: Placing young children in the centre of their own learning. Teaching Science, 55(2), 42-46.
Hulstijn, J. H. (1997). Mnemonic methods in foreign language vocabulary learning. In J. Coady & T. Huckin (Eds.), Second language vocabulary acquisition (pp. 203-224). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hunt, R., & Buzan, T. (1999). Creating a thinking organization: Groundrules for success. Aldershot, Hampshire: Gower Publishing.
Hwang, Y., & Levin, J. R. (2002). Examination of middle-school students’ independent use of a complex mnemonic system. The Journal of Experimental Education, 71(1), 25-38.
Jerman, O., & Lee Swanson, H. (2005). Working memory and reading disabilities: A selective meta-analysis of the literature. In T. E. Scruggs & M. A. Mastropieri (Eds.), Cognition and learning in diverse settings: Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities (Vol. 18, pp. 1-32). Oxford, UK: Elsevier.
Johnson, C. W., Adams, M., & Bruning, R. (1985). Keywords and vocabulary acquisition: Some words of caution about words of assistance. Educational Technology Research and Development, 33(2), 125-138.
Jones, B. F., & Hall, J. W. (1982). School applications of the mnemonic keyword method as a study strategy by eighth graders. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74(2), 230-237.
Jones, M. S., Levin, M. E., Levin, J. R., & Beitzel, B. D. (2000). Can vocabulary-learning strategies and pair-learning formats be profitably combined? Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(2), 256-262.
Judd, E. L. (1978). Vocabulary teaching and TESOL: A need for reevaluation of existing assumptions. TESOL Quarterly, 12(1), 71-76.
Karpicke, J. D., Butler, A. C., & Roediger III, H. L. (2009). Metacognitive strategies in student learning: Do students practice retrieval when they study on their own? Memory, 17(4), 471-479.
Kay, D. (2001). Memory: What it is and how to improve it. Bristol: Thoemmes Press.
Kee, D. W., & Nakayama, S. Y. (1982). Children’s noun-pair retention: Assessment of pictorial elaboration and bizarreness effects. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74(3), 351-359.
Klatzky, R. L. (1975). Human memory: Structures and process. San Francisco: W. H. Freemand and Company.
Kliegl, R., Smith, J., & Baltes P. B. (1990). On the locus and process of magnification of age differences during mnemonic training. Developmental Psychology, 26(6), 894-904.
Knowles, M. S., Holton, E. F., III, & Swanson, R. A. (2005). The adult learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resource development, 6th ed. San Diego, CA: Elsevier.
Kokotovich, V. (2008). Problem analysis and thinking tools: An empirical study of non-hierarchical mind mapping. Design Studies, 29, 49-69.
Kondo, Y., Suzuki, M., Mugikura, S., Abe, N., Takahashi, S., Iijima, T., & Fujii, T. (2005). Changes in Brain activation associated with use of a memory strategy: A functional MRI study. Neuroimage, 24 (4), 1154-1163.
Krashen, S. D. (2002). Explorations in language acquisition and use: The Taipei lectures. Taipei: Crane Publishing Company.
Krashen, S. D. (2006). English fever. Taiwan: Crane.
Krinsky, R., & Krinsky, S. G. (1996). Pegword mnemonic instruction: Retrieval times and long-term memory performance among fifth-grade children. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 21, 193-207.
Kroll, N. E. A., Schepeler, E. M., & Angin, K. T. (1986). Bizarre imagery: The misremembered mnemonic. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 12(1), 42-53.
Kuo, M. A., & Hooper, S. (2004). The effects of visual and verbal coding mnemonics on learning Chinese characters in computer-based instruction. ETR&D, 52(3), 23-38.
Laing, G. K. (2010). An empirical test of mnemonic devices to improve learning in elementary accounting. Journal of Education for Business, 85, 349-358.
Larsen-Freeman, D. (1986). Techniques and principles in language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lawson, M. J., & Hogben, D. (1996). The vocabulary-learning strategies of foreign language students. Language Learning, 46, 101-135.
Lawson, M. J., & Hogben, D. (1998). Learning and recall of foreign-language vocabulary: Effects of a keyword strategy for immediate and delayed recall. Learning and Instruction, 8(2), 179-194.
Levin, J. R. (1989). A transfer-appropriate-processing perspective of pictures in prose. In H. Mandl & J. R. Levin (Eds.), Knowledge acquisition from text and pictures (pp. 83-100). North-Holland: Amsterdam.
Levin, J. R. (1993). Mnemonic strategies and classroom learning: A twenty-year report card. The Elementary School Journal, 94 (2), 235-244.
Levin, J. R., & Pressley, M. (1983). Understanding mnemonic imagery effect: A dozen "obvious" outcomes. In M. L. Fleming & D. H. Hutton (Eds.), Mental Imagery and Learning (pp. 33-51). Englewood Cliffs: Educational Technology Publications.
Levin, J. R., Dretzke, B. J., McCormick, C. B., Scruggs, T. E., McGivern, J. E., & Mastropieri, M. A. (1983). Learning via mnemonic pictures: Analysis of the presidential process. Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 31 (3), 161-173.
Levin, J. R., Levin, M. E., Glassman, L. D., & Nordwall, M. B. (1992). Mnemonic vocabulary instruction: additional effectiveness evidence. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 17, 156-174.
Levin, J. R., McCormick, C. B., & Dretzke, B. J. (1981). A combined pictorial mnemonic strategy for ordered information. Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 29(4), 219-225.
Levin, J. R., Pressley, M., McCormick, C. B., Miller, G. E., & Shriberg, L. K. (1979). Assessing the classroom potential of the keyword method. Journal of Educational Psychology, 71(5), 583-594.
Ley, R. J. (1984). Mnemonics from the golden age of memorization. Teaching German, 17, 340-345.
Lin, C., Li, T., & Li, H. (2004). The effect of mnemonic key-letters method on Chinese children at risk in English vocabulary learning. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 36(4), 482-490.
Lindstromberg, S. & Boers, F. (2008). The mnemonic effect of noticing alliteration in lexical chunks. Applied Linguistics, 29(2), 200-222.
Lombardi, T., & Butera G. (1998). Mnemonics: Strengthening thinking skills of students with special needs. The Clearing Hose: A Journal of Educational Strategies, 71(5), 284-286.
Lovett, S. B., & Pillow, B. H. (1996). Development of the ability to distinguish between comprehension and memory: Evidence from goal-state evaluation tasks. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88(3), 546-562.
Lu, M. Y., Webb, J. M., Krus, D. J., & Fox, L. S. (1999). Using order analytic instructional hierarchies of mnemonics to facilitate learning Chinese and Japanese kanji characters. The Journal of Experimental Education, 67(4), 293-311.
MacDonald, S. W. S., Stigsdotter-Neely, A., Derwinger, A., & Bäckman, L. (2006). Rate of acquisition, adult age, and basic cognitive abilities predict forgetting: New views on a classic problem. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 135(3), 368-390.
Massen, C., & Vaterrodt-Plünnecke, B. (2006). The role of proactive interference in mnemonic techniques. Memory, 14(2), 189-196.
Massen, C., Vaterrodt-Plünnecke, B., Krings, L., & Hilbig, B. E. (2009). Effects of instruction on learners’ ability to generate an effective pathway in the method of loci. Memory, 17(7), 724-731.
Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (1991). Teaching students ways to remember: strategies for learning mnemonically. Massachusetts: Brookline Books.
Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (1998). Enhancing school success with mnemonic strategies. Intervention in School and Clinic, 33(4), 201-208.
Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (2000). The inclusive classroom: strategies for effective instruction. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.
Mastropieri, M. A., Scruggs, T. E., & Fulk, B. J. M. (1990). Teaching abstract vocabulary with the keyword method: Effects on recall and comprehension. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23(2), 92-107.
Mastropieri, M. A., Scruggs, T. E., & Whedon, C. (1997). Using mnemonic strategies to teach information about U.S. presidents: A classroom-based investigation. Learning Disability Quarterly, 20, 13-21.
Matsunaga, S. (2004). Testing picture superiority effects on short-term and long-term retentions of hiragana: Why are they absent? Chinese Journal of Psychology, 46(3), 221-229.
McCarty, D. L. (1980). Investigation of a visual imagery mnemonic device for acquiring face-name associations. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 6(2), 145-155.
McCormick, C. B., & Levin, J. R. (1987). Mnemonic prose-learning strategies. In M. A. McDaniel & M. Pressley (Eds.), Imagery and Related mnemonic processes: Theories, individual differences, and applications (pp. 392-406). New York: Springer-Verlag.
McCormick, C. B., Levin, J. R., Cykowski, F., & Danilovics, P. (1984). Mnemonic-strategy reduction of prose-learning interference. Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 32(3), 145-152.
McDaniel, M. A., & Pressley, M. (1984). Putting the keyword method in context. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(4), 598-609.
McDaniel, M. A., & Pressley, M. (1989). Keyword and context instruction of new vocabulary meanings: Effects on text comprehension and memory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(2), 204-213.
McDaniel, M. A., Pressley, M., & Dunay, P. K. (1987). Long-term retention of vocabulary after keyword and context learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79(1), 87-89.
Mento, A. J., Martinelli, P., & Jones, R. M. (1999). Mind mapping in executive education: Applications and outcomes. Journal of Management Development, 18(4), 390-407.
Minninger, J. (1984). Total recall: How to boost your memory power. New York: Rodale.
Moè, A., & De Beni, R. (2005). Stressing the efficacy of the loci method: Oral presentation and the subject-generation of the loci pathway with expository passages. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 19, 95-106.
Molitor, S., Ballstaedt, S., & Mandl, H. (1989). Problems in knowledge acquisition from text and pictures. In H. Mandl & J. R. Levin (Eds.), Knowledge acquisition from text and pictures (pp. 3-35). North-Holland: Amsterdam.
Morrison, C. R., & Levin, J. R. (1987). Degree of mnemonic support and students’ acquisition of science facts. Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 35 (2), 67-74.
Nast, J. (2006). Idea mapping: How to access your hidden brain power, learn faster, remember more, and achieve success in business. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
Nelson, D. L., & Archer, C. S. (1972). The first letter mnemonic. Journal of Educational Psychology, 63(5), 482-486.
Nemati, A. (2009). A strategy-based scheme for promoting vocabulary retention among language learners. Language in India, 9(9), 5-5.
O’Malley, M. J. (1987). The effects of training in the use of learning strategies on learning English as a second language. In A. Wenden & J. Rubin (Eds.), Learner strategies in language learning (pp. 133-144). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Packard, N., & Chen, C. (2005). From medieval mnemonics to a social construction of memory: Thoughts on some early European conceptualizations of memory, morality, and consciousness. The American Behavioral Scientist, 48(10), 1297-1319.
Paivio, A. (1979). Imagery and verbal processes. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Paivio, A. (1983). The empirical case for dual coding. In J. C. Yuille (Ed.), Imagery, memory, and cognition: Essays in honor of Allan Paivio (pp. 307-332). Hillsdae: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Paivio, A. (1986). Mental representations: A dual-coding approach. New York: Oxford University Press.
Paivio, A. (2006). Dual coding theory and education. Draft chapter for the conference on “Pathways to Literacy Achievement for High Poverty Children”, The University of Michigan School of Education. September 29-October 1, 2006.
Paivio, A., & Desrochers, A. (1979). Effects of an imagery mnemonic on second language recall and comprehension. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 33(1), 17-28.
Paivio, A., & Desrochers, A. (1981). Mnemonic techniques in second-language learning. Journal of Educational psychology, 73(6), 780-795.
Pickens, T. L. (1999). The effectiveness of teaching mnemonics in the study of the solar system. Master Thesis, Salem-Teikyo University.
Pollitt, D. (2003). Mind mapping your way to a better career. Career Development International, 8(5), 253-256.
Pressley, M. (1976). Mental imagery helps eight-year-olds remember what they read. Journal of Educational Psychology, 68(3), 355-359.
Pressley, M. (1977). Children’s use of the keyword method to learn simple Spanish vocabulary words. Journal of Educational Psychology, 69(5), 465-472.
Pressley, M., & Dennis-Rounds, J. (1980). Transfer of a mnemonic keyword strategy at two age levels. Journal of Educational Psychology, 72(4), 575-582.
Pressley, M., Borkowski, J. G., & Johnson, C. J. (1987). The development of good strategy use: Imagery and related mnemonic strategies. In M. A. McDaniel & M. Pressley (Eds.), Imagery and Related mnemonic processes: Theories, individual differences, and applications (pp. 274-297). New York: Springer-Verlag.
Pressley, M., Levin, J. R., & Delaney, H. D. (1982). The mnemonic keyword method. Review of Educational Research, 52(1), 61-91.
Pressley, M., Levin, J. R., & McCormick, C. B. (1980). Young children’s learning of foreign language vocabulary: A sentence variation of the keyword method. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 5, 22-29.
Pressley, M., Levin, J. R., & Miller, G. E. (1981). The keyword method and children’s learning of foreign vocabulary with abstract meanings. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 35(3), 283-287.
Pressley, M., Levin, J. R., Digdon, N., Bryant, S. L., & Ray, K. (1983). Does method of item presentation affect keyword method effectiveness? Journal of Education Psychology, 75(5), 686-691.
Pressley, M., Levin, J. R., Kuiper, N. A., Bryant, S. L., & Michener, S. (1982). Mnemonic versus nonmnemonic vocabulary-learning strategies: Additional comparisons. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74(5), 693-707.
Pressley, M., Samuel, J., Hershey, M. M., Bishop, S. L., & Dickinson, D. (1981). Use of a mnemonic technique to teach young children foreign language vocabulary. Contemporary Education Psychology, 6, 110-116.
Quinn, J. G. (2008). Movement and visual coding: The structure of visuo-spatial working memory. Cognitive Process, 9, 35-43.
Raugh, M. R., & Atkinson, R. C. (1975). A mnemonic method for learning a second-language vocabulary. Journal of Educational Psychology, 67(1), 1-16.
Raugh, M. R., Schupbach, R. D., & Atkinson, R. C. (1977). Teaching a large Russian language vocabulary by the mnemonic keyword method. Instructional Science, 6, 199-221.
Reeder, G. D., McCormick, C. B., & Esselman, E. D. (1987). Self-referent processing and recall of prose. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79(3), 243-248.
Richards, J. C. (1976). The role of vocabulary teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 10(1), 77-89.
Richmond, A. S., Cummings, R., & Klapp, M. (2008). Transfer of the method of loci, pegword, and keyword mnemonics in the eighth grade classroom. The Researcher, 21(2), 1-13.
Riefer, D. M., & Rouder, J. N. (1992). A multinomial modeling analysis of the mnemonic benefits of bizarre imagery. Memory & Cognition, 20(6), 601-611.
Rodriguez, M. & Sadoski, M. (2000). Effects of rote, context, keyword, and context/keyword methods on retention of vocabulary in EFL classrooms. Language Learning, 50(2), 385-412.
Roediger III, H. L., & Weldon, M. S. (1987). Reversing the picture superiority effect. In M. A. McDaniel & M. Pressley (Eds.), Imagery and Related mnemonic processes: Theories, individual differences, and applications (pp. 151-174). New York: Springer-Verlag.
Roediger, H. (1980). The effectiveness of four mnemonics in ordering recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology Human Learning Memory, 6(5), 558-567.
Rohwer, W. D., Jr., & Litrownik, J. (1983). Age and individual differences in the learning of a memorization procedure. Journal of Educational Psychology, 75(6), 799-810.
Rohwer, W. D., Jr., & Thomas, J. W. (1987). The role of mnemonic strategies in study effectiveness. In M. A. McDaniel & M. Pressley (Eds.), Imagery and Related mnemonic processes: Theories, individual differences, and applications (pp. 428-450). New York: Springer-Verlag.
Rosenheck, M. B., Levin, M. E., & Levin, J. R. (1989). Learning botany concepts mnemonically: Seeing the forest and the trees. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(2), 196-203.
Rosenthal, J., & Ehri, L. C. (2008). The mnemonic value of orthography for vocabulary learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(1), 175-191.
Ross, J., & Lawrence, K. (1968). Some observations on memory artifice. Psychonomic Science, 13, 107-108.
Rossi, P. (2000). Logic and the art of memory: The quest for a universal language. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Rubin, J. (1987). Learner strategies: Theoretical assumptions, research history and typology. In A. Wenden & J. Rubin (Eds.), Learner strategies in language learning (pp. 15-30). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Rummel, N., Levin, J. R., & Woodward, M. M. (2003). Do pictorial mnemonic text-learning aids give students something worth writing about? Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(2), 327-334.
Sadoski, M. (2005). A dual coding view of vocabulary learning. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 21, 221-238.
Sadoski, M., & Paivio, A. (2001). Imagery and text: A dual coding theory of reading and writing. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Sagarra, N., & Alba, M. (2006). The key is in the keyword: L2 vocabulary learning methods with beginning learners of Spanish. The Modern Language Journal, 90(2), 228-243.
Savignon, S. J. (1997). Communicative competence: Theory and classroom practice. New York: McGraw-Hill Company.
Schmitt, N. (1997). Vocabulary learning strategies. In N. Schmitt & M. McCarthy (Eds.), Vocabulary: description, acquisition and pedagogy (pp. 199-227). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schmitt, N. (2000). Vocabulary in language teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Scruggs, T. E., & Mastropieri, M. A. (1991). Classroom applications of mnemonic instruction: Acquisition, maintenance, and generalization. Exceptional Children, 58(3), 219-229.
Scruggs, T. E., & Mastropieri, M. A. (2000). The effectiveness of mnemonic instruction for students with learning and behavior problems: An update and research synthesis. Journal of Behavioral Education, 10 (2/3), 163-173.
Scruggs, T. E., Mastropieri, M. A., McLoone, B. B., Levin, J. R., & Morrison, C. R. (1987). Mnemonic facilitation of learning disabled students’ memory for expository prose. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79(1), 27-34.
Scruggs, T. E., Mastropieri, M. A., Sullivan, G. S., & Hesser, L. S. (1993). Improving reasoning and recall: The differential effects of elaborative interrogation and mnemonic elaboration. Learning Disability Quarterly, 16(3), 233-240.
Seay, S. S., & McAlum, H. G. (2010). The use/application of mnemonics as a pedagogical tool in auditing. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 14, 33-47.
Seel, N. M., & Strittmatter, P. (1989). Presentation of information by media and its effect on mental models. In H. Mandl & J. R. Levin (Eds.), Knowledge acquisition from text and pictures (pp. 37-57). North-Holland: Amsterdam.
Sener, U. & Belfiore, P. J. (2005). Mnemonics strategy development improving alphabetic understanding in Turkish students at risk for failure in EFL settings. Journal of Behavioral Education,14(2), 105-115.
Shapiro, A. M., & Waters, D. L. (2005). An investigation of the cognitive processes underlying the keyword method of foreign vocabulary learning. Language Teaching Research, 9(2), 129-146.
Shmidman, A. & Ehri, L. (2010). Embedded picture mnemonics to learn letters. Scientific Studies of Reading, 14(2), 159-182.
Short, E. J., & Weissberg-Benchell, J. A. (1989). The triple alliance for learning: Cognition, metacognition, and motivation. In C. B. McCormick, G. E. Miller, & M. Pressley (Eds.), Cognitive strategy research: From basic research to educational applications (pp. 33-63). New York: Spring-Verlag.
Shriberg, L. K., Levin, J. R., McCormick, C. B., & Pressley, M. (1982). Learning about “famous” people via the keyword method. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74(2), 238-247.
Snowman, J. (1987). Explorations in mnemonic training. In M. A. McDaniel & M. Pressley (Eds.), Imagery and Related mnemonic processes: Theories, individual differences, and applications (pp. 377-391). New York: Springer-Verlag.
Sökmen, A. J. (1997). Vocabulary learning strategies. In N. Schmitt & M. McCarthy (Eds.), Vocabulary: description, acquisition and pedagogy (pp. 237-257). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Soler, M. J., & Ruiz, J. C. (1996). The spontaneous use of memory aids at different educational levels. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 10, 41-51.
Stephens, J. A. H., & Dwyer, F. M. (1997). Effect of varied mnemonics strategies in facilitating student achievement of different educational objectives. International Journal of Instructional Media, 24(1), 75-88.
Stevick, E. W. (1976). Memory, meaning, and method: Some psychological perspectives on language learning. Cambridge: Newbury House Publishers.
Stevick, E. W. (1996). Memory, meaning, and method: A view of language teaching. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
Tabatabaei, O., & Hejazi, N. H. (2011). Gender differences in vocabulary instruction using keyword method (linguistic mnemonics). Canadian Social Science, 7(5), 198-204.
Taguchi, K. (2006). Should the keyword method be introduced in tertiary foreign language classrooms? Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 3(1), 22-38.
Thomas, M. H., & Wang, A. Y. (1996). Learning by the keyword mnemonic: Looking for long-term benefits. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 2(4), 330-342.
Thompson, I. (1987). Memory in language learning. In A. Wenden & J. Rubin (Eds.), Learner strategies in language learning (pp. 43-56). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Trudeau, K. (1995). Kevin Trudeau’s mega memory: How to release your super memory in 30 minutes or less a day. New York: William Morrow & Co.
Tucker, J. M., Armstrong, G. R., & Massad, V. J. (2010). Profiling a mind map user: A descriptive appraisal. Journal of Instructional Pedagogies, 2, 1-13.
Tuttle, H. G. (1981). Mnemonics in Spanish Classes. Hispania, 64, 582-584.
Twaddell, F. (1973). Vocabulary expansion in the TESOL classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 7(1), 61-78.
Uberti, H. Z., Scruggs, T. E., & Mastropieri, M. A. (2003). Keywords make the difference! Mnemonic instruction in inclusive classrooms. Teaching Exceptional Children, 35(3), 56-61.
Van Haneghan, J. P., & Baker, L. (1989). Cognitive monitoring in mathematics. In C. B. McCormick, G. E. Miller, & M. Pressley (Eds.), Cognitive strategy research: From basic research to educational applications (pp. 215-238). New York: Spring-Verlag.
Van Hell, J. G., & Mahn, A. C. (1997). Keyword mnemonics versus rote rehearsal: Learning concrete and abstract foreign words by experienced and inexperienced Learners. Language Learning, 47, 507-546.
Veit, D. T., Scruggs, T. E., & Mastropieri, M. A. (1986). Extended mnemonic instruction with learning disabled students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 78(4), 300-308.
Verhaeghen, P., Palfai, T., & Johnson, M. P. (2006). Verbal labeling as an assimilation mnemonic for abstract visual stimuli: The sample case of recognition memory for Chinese characters. Memory & Cognition, 34(4), 795-803.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Wang, A. Y. & Thomas, M. H. (2000). Looking for long-term mnemonic effects on serial recall: The legacy of Simonides. The American Journal of Psychology, 113(3), 331-340.
Wang, A. Y., & Thomas, M. H. (1995). Effect of keywords on long-term retention: Help of hindrance? Journal of Educational Psychology, 87(3), 468-475.
Wang, A. Y., & Thomas, M. H. (1996). Mnemonic instruction and the gifted child. Roeper Review, 19, 104-105.
Wang, A. Y., Thomas, M. H., & Ouellette, J. A. (1992). Keyword mnemonic and retention of second-language vocabulary words. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(4), 520-528.
Wartik, N., & Carlson-Finnerty, L. (1993). Memory and learning. New York: Chelsea House Publishers.
Wenden, A. L., & Rubin, J. (Eds). (1987). Learner Strategies in Language Learning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall
Wilkins, D. A. (1972). Linguistics and language teaching. London: Edward Arnold.
Willingham, D., & Price, D. (2009). Theory to practice: Vocabulary instruction in community college developmental education reading classes: What the research tells us. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 40(1), 91-105.
Willis, C. L., & Miertschin, S. L. (2006). Mind maps as active learning tools. Journal of Computing Sciences in College Archive, 21(4), 266- 272.
Wilson, B. A. (2009). Memory rehabilitation: Integrating theory and practice. New York: Guilford.
Winn, W. (1989). The design and use of instructional graphics. In H. Mandl & J. R. Levin (Eds.), Knowledge acquisition from text and pictures (pp. 125-144). North-Holland: Amsterdam.
Wolgemuth, J. R., Cobb, B. R., & Alwell, M. (2008). The effects of mnemonic interventions on academic outcomes for youth with disabilities: A systematic review. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 23(1), 1-10.
Wollen, K. A., & Margres, M. G. (1987). Bizarreness and the imagery multiprocess model. In M. A. McDaniel & M. Pressley (Eds.), Imagery and Related mnemonic processes: Theories, individual differences, and applications (pp. 103-127). New York: Springer-Verlag.
Wortman, P. M., & Sparling, P. B. (1974). Acquisition and retention of mnemonic information in long-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 102(1), 22-26.
Wyra, M., Lawson, M. J., & Hungi, N. (2007).The mnemonic keyword method: The effects of bidirectional retrieval training and of ability to image on foreign language vocabulary recall. Learning and Instruction, 17(3), 360-371.
Yan, D. (2005). Carriers used in memorizing vocabulary of classical literature-Mnemonic methods enlightened by words from Greek mythology. Journal of Shanghai Dianji University, 8(1), 69-73.
Yates, F. A. (1966). The art of memory. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Yeung, S. S., & Heyworth, R. M. (1992). Teaching English vocabulary to Cantonese-speaking students with keyword method. Education Journal, 20(2), 113-129.
Young, D. R., & Bellezza, F. S. (1982). Encoding variability, memory organization, and the repetition effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 8(6), 545-559.
Zampetakis, L. A., Tsironis, L., & Moustakis, V. (2007). Creativity development in engineering education: The case of mind mapping. Journal of Management Development, 26(4), 370-380.
Zhang, Z., & Schumm, J. S. (2000). Exploring effects of the keyword method on limited English proficient students’ vocabulary recall and comprehension. Reading Research and Instruction, 39(3), 202-221.
Zisimopoulos, D. A. (2010). Enhancing multiplication performance in students with moderate intellectual disabilities using pegword mnemonics paired with a picture fading technique. Journal of Behavioral Education, 19(2), 117-133.