||The Use of Discourse Markers by Taiwanese Students in ELF and EFL Contexts
||Department of English
本研究也針對六個常用話語標記- I think, so, like, you know, yeah 和 yes –
之使用頻率及功能進行質與量的分析。從使用頻率來看,調查發現:1) 三組學生在 so 和
I think 之使用頻率上無顯著差異; 2) 然而兩組台灣學生相比,英文為共通語學生使用 like, yeah 和 you know 的頻率遠高於英文為外語學生使用頻率,並且 like 和 yeah 的平均使用差異顯著; 3) 與英文母语者相比,英文為外語學生明顯過度使用 yes 並且平均差異顯著。從使用功能來看,1)與英文為共通語者相比,英文外語學生不曾使用 like 的 “間接用語標示”與 “概括標示”功能; 2) 英文外語學生不曾使用you know 之 “求同標示”與 “話輪轉換標示”之功能; 3) 與英文母語者相比,英文共通語學生及英文為外語學生所使用之I think 之“强调標示语”功能和 you know 之“遲疑標示语”功能,為英文母語者所無。最後合併訪談發現, 英文共通語及英文外語之臺灣學生對各話語標記的語用功能認識不全,導致該兩組臺灣學生在面對面溝通時,有避免使用話語標記的情形,並對使用話語標者有所誤解。
This dissertation compared discourse markers used among 19 Taiwanese students in English as a lingua franca (ELF) context, 18 Taiwanese in English as a foreign language (EFL) context, and 7 native English (NS) speakers in a Taiwanese university. Fifty-four different discourse markers were identified from the data of 175 minutes recorded pair conversations. The results showed that discourse markers were an indispensible part of English conversations. The participants in three groups used discourse markers for a variety of pragmatic functions on interpersonal and textual levels. In particular, ELF speakers had the highest frequency of overall markers used across groups, and the mean difference between ELF and EFL speakers was significant.
In addition, the results revealed that group differences affected the distributions of like, yeah, yes and you know, but did not affect the distributions of I think and so. In particular, ELF speakers had the highest frequencies of like, yeah and you know, and the mean differences of like and yeah between ELF and EFL were statistically significant. Conversely, EFL speakers used yes far more often than NS and ELF speakers did, and the mean difference between EFL and NS was statistical significant. These results might be an indication that L2 speakers acquired I think, so and yes first, but you know, yeah, and like at a later stage in the ELF context where ELF speakers were exposed to authentic language from their native speaking peers.
Finally, due to the multifunctionality of discourse markers, students in both ELF and EFL context used you know, I think and so as delaying strategies which were not found in the NS data. This tendency might be an indication that students in both ELF and EFL context needed more time to process information in L2 interactions. Given the important role discourse markers play in interaction, the pedagogical implications were discussed.
||Table of Content
Chinese Abstract ii
English Abstract iii
List of Tables ix
List of Figures xi
Chapter 1: Introduction 1
1.1 Context of problem 1
1.2 Rationale of the study 3
1.3 Purpose of the study 5
1.4 Research questions 6
1.5 Significance of the study 7
1.6 Definitions of terms 8
1.7 Outline of the study 9
Chapter 2: Literature Review 10
2.1 What are Discourse Markers? 10
2.1.1 Terminology of Discourse Markers 11
2.1.2 Features of Discourse Markers 12
18.104.22.168 Connectivity 12
22.214.171.124 Grammatical optionality 12
126.96.36.199 Semantic empty 13
188.8.131.52 Other qualities 13
2.1.3 Classification of Discourse Markers 14
2.1.4 Functions of Discourse Markers 15
184.108.40.206 Schiffrin’s five-plane model 16
220.127.116.11 Stenstrom’s interactional signals and discourse markers 18
18.104.22.168 Aijmer’s textual and interpersonal levels 18
22.214.171.124 Functional inventory of discourse markers 19
2.1.5 Corpus-studies: Naturally-occurring Data 20
2.1.6 Conversations Analysis 21
2.2 Discourse Markers in L1 and L2 English 22
2.2.1 Discourse Markers in L1 English. 22
2.2.2 The Development of Discourse Markers in L2 in ESL Context 25
2.2.3 Discourse Markers of L2 Speakers in EFL Context 27
2.2.4 You know, well and I think Used by EFL Learners in China 29
2.3 Pragmatic Acquisition: A sociocultural Perspective 31
2.3.1 Community of Practice: A Joint Enterprise of Social Practice 31
2.3.2 Academic ELF Community in Taiwanese Context 33
2.3.3 Discourse Markers Use by ELF speakers in Academic Context 34
2.3.4 The Need to Explore Discourse Marker Use by Taiwanese Students in
ELF and EFL contexts 35
2.4 Summary 35
Chapter 3: Methodology 37
3.1 The Pilot Study 37
3.2 The Main Study 40
3.2.1 A Multi-categorical Framework 40
126.96.36.199 Interpersonal Level 43
188.8.131.52 Textual Level 44
3.2.2 The Research Design 45
3.2.3. Participants 46
184.108.40.206 Native speakers in ELF community: NS group 46
220.127.116.11 Taiwanese students in ELF community: IA-1 and IA-2 groups 47
18.104.22.168 Taiwanese students in EFL community: AE group 48
3.2.4 Data Collection Techniques 49
22.214.171.124 Questionnaire 49
126.96.36.199 Task-based pair conversations 51
188.8.131.52 Post-task interviews 52
3.2.5 Data Collection Procedures 53
3.2.6 The Spoken Corpus 54
3.2.7 Data Transcription 55
3.3 Data Analysis 57
3.3.1 Identifying Discourse Markers 57
3.3.2 Data Coding 58
3.3.3 The Quantitative Analysis 61
184.108.40.206 Frequency 62
220.127.116.11 Statistical Analysis 62
3.3.4 The Most Common Markers: Six Selected Markers 64
3.4 Summary 65
Chapter 4: Results and Discussion 66
4.1 Comparative Results among NS, IA-2 and AE 66
4.1.1 Overall distribution of discourse markers used 66
4.1.2 Types of discourse markers used by NS, IA-2 and AE 68
4.2 Comparative Results among NS, IA-1 and IA-2 69
4.2.1 Overall distribution of discourse markers used 69
4.2.2 Types of discourse markers used by NS, IA-1 and IA-2 71
4.3 Examples of Types of Discourse Markers Used 73
4.3.1 Interpersonal Level 73
18.104.22.168 Relational markers 73
22.214.171.124 Attitude markers 75
126.96.36.199 Emphatics & Hedges 78
188.8.131.52 Backchannel markers 80
184.108.40.206 Turn-taking markers 82
4.3.2 Textual Level 84
220.127.116.11 Logical connectives 84
18.104.22.168 Frame markers 86
22.214.171.124 Code glosses 87
126.96.36.199 Hesitation and monitoring markers 89
188.8.131.52 Quotative markers 92
4.4 Top 10 markers Used by NS, IA-2 and AE 93
4.5 Summary of Quantitative Results 95
Chapter 5: Functions of Selected Markers 98
5.1 So 98
5.1.1 Positions of So 100
5.1.2 Functions of So 101
184.108.40.206 Interpersonal: initiating a question 103
220.127.116.11 Interpersonal: responsive and taking turn 104
18.104.22.168 Interpersonal: marking implied result 105
22.214.171.124 Interpersonal: expressing opinion 106
126.96.36.199 Textual: marking result of consequence 107
188.8.131.52 Textual: marking the main idea 107
184.108.40.206 Textual: summarizing 108
220.127.116.11 Textual: marking the sequence 109
18.104.22.168 Textual: marking boundary 110
22.214.171.124 Textual: delaying strategy 111
5.1.3 Functional Distribution of So 112
5.2 I Think 114
5.2.1. Positions of I Think 116
5.2.2 Functions of I Think 117
126.96.36.199 Interpersonal: providing an answer 118
188.8.131.52 Interpersonal: taking a turn 119
184.108.40.206 Interpersonal: downtoning 119
220.127.116.11 Interpersonal: expressing opinion 121
18.104.22.168 Interpersonal: drawing a conclusion 121
22.214.171.124 Interpersonal: emphasizing “I am expressing my opinion” 122
126.96.36.199 Interpersonal: expressing contrasting views 123
188.8.131.52 Textual: signaling self-repair 124
184.108.40.206 Textual: delaying strategy 125
5.2.3 Functional Distribution of I Think 126
5.3 Like 128
5.3.1 Position of Like 131
5.3.2 Functions of Like 132
220.127.116.11 Textual: indicating approximation 133
18.104.22.168 Textual: providing examples 134
22.214.171.124 Textual: giving explanations 135
126.96.36.199 Textual: marking lexical focus 137
188.8.131.52 Textual: quotative like 138
184.108.40.206 Textual: delaying strategy 139
5.3.3 Functional Distributional of Like 140
5.4 You know 141
5.4.1 Position of you know in a turn 143
5.4.2 Functions of you know 144
220.127.116.11 Interpersonal: marking shared knowledge 145
18.104.22.168 Interpersonal: appealing for agreement 145
22.214.171.124 Interpersonal: appealing for understanding 146
126.96.36.199 Interpersonal: comprehension securing 147
188.8.131.52 Interpersonal: turn-taking 148
184.108.40.206 Textual: marking self-repair 149
220.127.116.11 Textual: providing explanations 150
18.104.22.168 Textual: delaying strategy 150
5.4.3 Functional Distributional of you know 151
5.5 Yeah and Yes 153
5.5.1 Quantitative Results 155
22.214.171.124 Yeah 155
126.96.36.199 Yes 156
5.5.2 Position of Yeah and Yes 157
5.5.3 Functions of Yeah and Yes 158
188.8.131.52 Interpersonal: showing response and agreement 159
184.108.40.206 Interpersonal: checking understanding 160
220.127.116.11 Interpersonal: turn-taking 161
18.104.22.168 Interpersonal: reassuming the floor 162
22.214.171.124 Textual: self-assurance 163
126.96.36.199 Textual: self-confirmation 164
5.5.4 Functional Distribution of Yeah and Yes 165
188.8.131.52 Yeah 165
184.108.40.206 Yes 167
5.6 Summary 168
5.6.1 So 168
5.6.2 I Think 169
5.6.3 Like 169
5.6.4 You know 170
5.6.5 Yeah and Yes 170
5.6.6 Conclusion 171
Chapter 6: Interview Findings 172
6.1 The role of English in ELF and EFL communities 172
6.2 Discourse marker use in L1 and L2 English 173
6.2.1 Types of discourse markers in L1 and L2 English 175
6.2.2 Acquiring discourse markers 176
6.2.3 Functions of discourse markers in L1 and L2 English 177
6.2.4 Attitudes toward discourse markers used in L1 and L2 English 177
220.127.116.11 Criticism of discourse marker use in L1 English 177
18.104.22.168 Criticism of discourse marker use in L2 English 178
6.3 Summary 179
Chapter 7: Conclusion 181
7.1 Review of Main Findings 181
7.2 Implications 187
7.3 Limitations of the Study 189
7.4 Suggestions for Further Research 190
Appendix A: Invitation Letter 200
Appendix B: Questionnaire 201
Appendix C: Interview Questions 203
Appendix D: Symbols of Transcription 204
Appendix E: Examples of linguistics items disqualified as discourse markers 205
Appendix F: Sample transcript with coding scheme 206
Appendix G: Normalized frequencies of discourse markers per group in the pilot
Appendix H: Exact tokens of discourse markers per group in the main study 208
Appendix I: Normalized frequencies of 18 common markers per group 210
List of Tables
Table 3.1 The overall frequency of discourse markers per group in pilot study 38
Table 3.2 Hyland’s discourse markers classification for academic texts 41
Table 3.3 Classification of discourse markers in the present study 43
Table 3.4 Demographical data of the native speakers in main study 47
Table 3.5 Number of participants in main study 49
Table 3.6 Average word uttered and time spent on conversation per group 55
Table 3.7 Average words per speaker across groups 55
Table 3.8 Overall distribution of discourse markers per group 61
Table 3.9 Summary of the use of different statistical analyses 63
Table 4.1 Means in overall distribution of discourse markers across groups 67
Table 4.2 ANOVA results of the overall DM used among NS, IA-2 and AE 67
Table 4.3 Summary of multiple comparisons: overall distribution of discourse
Table 4.4 Types of markers used by NS, IA-2 and AE per 1,000 words 69
Table 4.5 Means in overall distribution of discourse markers by NS, IA-1 and
Table 4.6 ANOVA results of the overall DM used among NS, IA-1 and IA-2 71
Table 4.7 Types of discourse markers used by NS, IA-1 and IA-2 72
Table 4.8 The top 10 markers used by NS, IA-2 and AE 94
Table 5.1 Mean and standard deviation of so per group 99
Table 5.2 ANOVA results of the overall so used among NS, IA-2 and AE 100
Table 5.3 ANOVA results of the overall so used among NS, IA-1 and IA-2 100
Table 5.4 Normalized frequency and percentage of each position of so 101
Table 5.5 Functional distribution of so 112
Table 5.6 Mean and standard deviation of I think per group 114
Table 5.7 ANOVA results of the means of I think among NS, IA-2 and AE 115
Table 5.8 ANOVA results of the means of I think among NS, IA-1 and IA-2 115
Tabl3 5.9 Normalized frequency of each position of I think 117
Table 5.10 Functional distribution of I think 127
Table 5.11 Mean and standard deviation of like per group 130
Table 5.12 ANOVA results of means of like among NS, IA-2 and AE 130
Table 5.13 Multiple comparisons of mean among NS, IA-2 and AE 131
Table 5.14 ANOVA results of means of like among NS, IA-1 and IA-2 131
Table 5.15 Normalized frequency of each position of like 131
Table 5.16 Functional distribution of like 140
Table 5.17 Mean and standard deviation of you know per group 142
Table 5.18 ANOVA results of means of you know among NS, IA-2 and AE 143
Table 5.19 ANOVA results of means of you know among NS, IA-1 and IA-2 143
Table 5.20 Normalized frequency of each position of you know 144
Table 5.21 Functional distribution of you know 151
Table 5.22 Means and standard deviations of yeah and yes per group 154
Table 5.23 ANOVA results of means of yeah among NS, IA-2 and AE 155
Table 5.24 Multiple comparison of mean of yeah among NS, IA-2 and AE 155
Table 5.25 ANOVA results of means of yeah among NS, IA-1 and IA-2 156
Table 5.26 ANOVA results of means of yes among NS, IA-2and AE 156
Table 5.27 Multiple comparison of means of yes among NS, IA-2 and AE 157
Table 5.28 ANOVA results of means of yes among NS, IA-1 and IA-2 157
Table 5.29 Normalized frequencies of each position of yeah and yes 158
Table 5.30 Functional distribution of Yeah 166
Table 5.31 Functional distribution of yes 167
Table 6.1 Taiwanese students attitude toward discourse marker use in L1 and
Table 7.1 The uses of so, I think, like, you know, yeah and yes in the present
List of Figures
Figure 3.1 Distribution of individual markers in pilot study 40
Figure 4.1 Means of overall discourse markers used by NS, IA-2 and AE 67
Figure 4.2 Means of overall discourse markers used by NS, IA-1 and IA-2 71
Figure 4.3 Distributions of individual markers in main study 93
Figure 5.1 Average mean of so per speaker per group 99
Figure 5.2 Average mean of I think per speaker per group 114
Figure 5.3 Average mean of like per speaker per group 130
Figure 5.4 Average mean of you know per speaker per group 142
Figure 5.5 Average mean of yeah and yes per speaker per group 154
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