淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
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系統識別號 U0002-2107201417525000
中文論文名稱 公立醫院第一線工作人員情緒勞務、工作倦怠與工作滿意度相關性之研究
英文論文名稱 A Study of the Relationship between Emotional Labor, Burnout and Job Satisfaction among Frontline Staff in a Public Hospital
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 公共行政學系公共政策碩士在職專班
系所名稱(英) Department of Public Administration
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生中文姓名 陳嫣紅
研究生英文姓名 Ian-Horng Chen
學號 701640160
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2014-06-13
論文頁數 97頁
口試委員 指導教授-黃琛瑜
委員-張世杰
委員-黃一峯
中文關鍵字 第一線工作人員  情緒勞務  工作倦怠  工作滿意度 
英文關鍵字 Frontline personnel  Emotional labor  Burnout  Job satisfaction 
學科別分類
中文摘要 隨著社會變遷和醫療環境改變,就醫者對於醫療服務的要求愈來愈高,尤其是第一線服務人員必須提供高品質服務,包括面對各種要求需展現適當的情緒,服務過程中的勞務和倦怠感容易產生,進而影響工作的滿意度。因此,本研究目的係探討第一線人員的情緒勞務負荷與工作滿意度之相關性和重要影響因素。採橫斷性研究,以公立醫院第一線人員工作人員(掛號、批價、收費及病歷抽調輸送、病房書記等)為研究對象;採結構式問卷調查,內容包括個人基本資料、工作情緒勞務負荷、工作倦怠以及工作滿意度四大構面,自民國103年5月起為期1個月進行資料收集。
主要結果:發出300份問卷,有效問卷為285份,回收率佔95%;第一線工作人員情緒勞務負荷的程度,以採用深層的情緒偽裝狀況之「工作至今,我明白知道服務態度與笑容是第一線工作人員的重要資產。」的平均分數最高(4.37±0.673分),各不同年齡層、工作年資、任用性質、職位和子女數均具有統計上顯著差異(p<0.05);在工作中倦怠感覺方面,最高平均分數是個人成就感的「我對自己的做事效率有信心。」(3.65±1.007分)和「每次完成任務,我都感覺非常愉快。」(3.62±1.045分),各不同年齡層、學歷、工作年資、服務單位、任用性質、職位、婚姻、子女數和宗教信仰均具有統計上顯著差異(p<0.05);對於工作滿意程度平均分數最高的是工作本身感受中的「我的工作有為別人服務的機會。」(4.04±0.720分)和「我的工作讓我有處理不同事情的機會。」(3.80±0.758分),各不同服務單位、任用性質、職位和婚姻均具有統計上顯著差異(p<0.05);整體而言,第一線工作人員的工作滿意狀態平均76.30±14.92分,此滿意度與工作情緒感受(r=0.277, p<0.001)呈現正相關,對工作情緒感受有顯著相關變項包括性別(r= -0.136, p=0.030)和婚姻狀況(r= 0.186, p=0.005),與工作滿意程度顯著相關是性別(r= -0.223, p=0.001)。
建議:醫院中第一線工作人員的情緒勞務應加以關注,以促使工作滿意度的提升,進而提高服務品質,可應用情緒的支持與激勵、倦怠管理機制的建立、以及鼓勵和提供專業提升機會等多元化策略來紓解情緒勞務。
英文摘要 With the changes that have been taking place in society and in the healthcare environment, patients have become increasingly demanding in terms of what they expect from medical services. Frontline healthcare personnel in particular are required to provide a very high level of service quality, and have to maintain emotional stability when dealing with a wide range of patient demands. This constant process of providing service to patients often leads to burnout, affecting frontline personnel’s job satisfaction. The aim of the present study is to explore the relationship between the emotional labor burden on frontline personnel and their level of job satisfaction, as well as the important factors influencing this relationship. The research takes the form of a cross-sectional study, with the research subjects being frontline personnel in public hospitals (including personnel responsible for patient registration and appointments, pricing, receiving payments, obtaining and delivering patient records, maintaining ward records, etc.). A structured questionnaire was administered to the research subjects, the content of which included questions relating to four key areas: respondents’ personal data, their emotional labor load, work burnout, and job satisfaction. Data was collected over a period of one month starting from May 2014.
The main results obtained in the study were as follows. A total of 300 questionnaires were sent out, and 285 valid, completed questionnaires were returned, giving a return rate of 95%. With regard to the emotional labor load borne by frontline personnel, the most frequent response (with a score of 4.37±0.673 points) was “In the course of performing my work, I have come to realize that maintaining an appropriate service attitude, and keeping a smile on one’s face, are important assets for a frontline healthcare worker,” a response indicative of deep-seated emotional masking. There was statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between the scores for personnel in different age groups, with differing years of service, with different forms of employment, holding different positions, and with differing numbers of children. As regards feelings of work-related burnout, the responses with the highest scores were “I have confidence in my own efficiency” (3.65±1.007 points) and “Whenever I complete a task, I feel very happy” ((3.62±1.045 points), both of which reflect a sense of personal achievement. Here again, there was statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between the scores for personnel in different age groups, with different levels of education, with differing years of service, working in different units, with different forms of employment, holding different positions, with different marital status, with differing numbers of children, and with differing religious beliefs. With regard to the level of job satisfaction, the responses with the highest scores were “My job gives me the opportunity to help other people” (4.04±0.720 points) and “My job gives me the opportunity to deal with a range of different issues” (3.80±0.758points), both of which fall within the “personal response” category. Statistically significant difference (p<0.05) was seen between the scores for personnel working in different units, with different forms of employment, holding different positions, and with different marital status. Overall, the average level of job satisfaction reported by frontline personnel was 76.30±14.92 points, and the level of job satisfaction was positively correlated with the emotional response to the job (r=0.277, p<0.001). Variables that displayed a significant positive correlation with the emotional response to the job included gender (r= -0.136, p=0.030) and marital status (r= 0.186, p=0.005); there was also a significant positive correlation between the gender variable and the level of job satisfaction (r= -0.223, p=0.001).

Recommendations: More attention needs to be paid to the emotional labor performed by frontline personnel in hospitals, so as to bring about an enhancement of job satisfaction, which in turn can be expected to lead to improved quality of service. Efforts should be made to ease the burden of emotional labor through the use of a range of different strategies, including the provision of more emotional support, putting in place mechanisms for the prevention and management of burnout, and providing encouragement and opportunities to strengthen professional skills.
論文目次 目次
第一章緒論 1
第一節研究背景 2
第二節研究動機 3
第三節研究目的與問題 5
第四節研究範圍 6
第五節研究流程 7
第二章文獻探討 8
第一節情緒勞務之定義與情緒表現 8
第二節工作倦怠度相關文獻 13
第三節工作滿意相關文獻 18
第四節情緒勞務與工作滿意度之關係 21
第三章研究方法 23
第一節研究架構 23
第二節研究對象 25
第三節研究工具 26
第四節資料處理與分析法 29
第四章 研究結果 30
第一節 第一線工作人員個人屬性資料之分布 30
第二節 第一線工作人員之工作情緒勞務負荷 32
第三節 第一線工作人員之工作倦怠感覺之分布 46
第四節 第一線工作人員之工作滿意程度 55
第五節 第一線工作人員個人屬性與情緒勞務、倦怠感和滿意程度之相關分析 67
第五章 研究結果討論 70
第一節第一線工作人員之工作情緒勞務負荷 71
第二節 第一線工作人員之工作倦怠感 72
第三節 第一線工作人員之工作滿意程度 73
第四節 第一線工作人員之個人屬性與情緒勞務、倦怠感和滿意程度 74
第六章結論與建議 78
第一節 結論 78
第二節 研究建議 79
參考文獻 83
附錄一 問卷調查表 91

表目次
表2-1 國內外學者對情緒勞務的定義 9-10
表2-2 國內外學者對工作倦怠的定義 16
表2-3 國內外學者對工作滿意度的定義 19-20
表4-1 第一線工作人員基本資料之分布 30-31
表4-2 第一線工作人員工作情緒勞務之分布情形 33
表 4-2-1 個人屬性變項與工作情緒勞務負荷之單因子變異數分析與Scheffe 事後比較 35
表 4-2-2 個人屬性變項與工作情緒勞務負荷「基本情緒表達狀況」構面之單因子變異數分析與Scheffe 事後比較 37
表 4-2-3 個人屬性變項與工作情緒勞務負荷「表層情緒控制狀況」構面之單因子變異數分析與Scheffe 事後比較 39
表 4-2-4 個人屬性變項與工作情緒勞務負荷「深層情緒偽裝狀況」構面之單因子變異數分析與Scheffe 事後比較 41
表 4-2-5 個人屬性變項與工作情緒勞務負荷「情緒多樣性程度」構面之單因子變異數分析與Scheffe 事後比較 43
表 4-2-6 個人屬性變項與工作情緒勞務負荷「與顧客互動程度」構面之單因子變異數分析 45
表4-3 第一線工作人員在工作中倦怠感覺之分布 46
表 4-3-1 個人屬性變項與工作倦怠之單因子變異數分析與Scheffe 事後比較 48
表 4-3-2 個人屬性變項與工作倦怠「情緒耗竭」構面之單因子變異數分析與Scheffe 事後比較 50
表 4-3-3 個人屬性變項與工作倦怠「缺乏人性」構面之單因子變異數分析與Scheffe 事後比較 52
表 4-3-4 個人屬性變項與工作倦怠「個人成就感」構面之單因子變異數分析與Scheffe 事後比較 54
表4-4 第一線工作人員之工作滿意程度之分布 56
表 4-4-1 個人屬性變項與工作滿意程度之單因子變異數分析與Scheffe 事後比較 58
表 4-4-2 個人屬性變項與工作滿意程度「工作本身的感受」構面之單因子變異數分析與Scheffe 事後比較 60
表 4-4-3 個人屬性變項與工作滿意程度「工作報酬的認知」構面之單因子變異數分析與Scheffe 事後比較 62
表 4-4-4 個人屬性變項與工作滿意程度「工作環境的影響」構面之單因子變異數分析與Scheffe 事後比較 64
表 4-4-5 個人屬性變項與工作滿意程度「整體工作的滿意度」構面之單因子變異數分析與Scheffe 事後比較 66
表4-5 個人屬性與工作情緒勞務、倦怠感和工作滿意程度之相關分析 68
表4-6 第一線工作人員最近一個月的工作滿意狀況相關分析 69

圖目次
圖1-1 研究流程圖 7
圖2-1工作滿意系統圖 21
圖3-1 研究架構圖 23
圖3-2究資料收集流程圖 2
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三、博碩士論文
【中文】
宋柔盈 (2004),情緒勞務、工作滿足與組織承諾之相關性研究—以大台北地區電信從業人員為例(未出版之碩士論文)。義守大學,高雄。
吳淑蓉 (2003),護理人員情緒勞務負擔、工作滿意度與組織公民行為之相關性(未出版之碩士論文)。高雄醫學大學,高雄。
吳宗祐(2003),工作中的情緒勞動:概念發展、相關變項分析、心理歷程議題探討(未出版之碩士論文)。臺灣大學,台北。
徐正光(1977),工廠工人的工作滿足及其相關因素之探討,中央研究院民族學研究所集刊。
許彩娥(1992),領導型態、工作特性與我國女性公務人員工作滿足關係之研究(未出版之碩士論文)。政治大學,台北。
黃凌瑤、林麗嬌、侯國隆(2013),工作倦怠、工作滿足對遷調傾向影響之研究-以台中市軍訓教官為例(未出版之碩士論文) 。國立勤益科技大學,台中。
楊婉如(2007),第一線服務人員幽默感、自尊、情緒勞動、工作倦怠與工作滿足之關聯性研究(未出版之碩士論文)。龍華科技大學,桃園。
滿莉芳 (2002),情緒勞務工作者情緒勞務負荷與工作結果之研究-以情緒智力與工作特性為干擾(未出版之碩士論文)。靜宜大學,台中。
蔡玉清(1999),情緒勞務之負荷、因應策略、社會支持與情緒耗竭之相關研究-以休閒、旅館業為例(未出版之碩士論文)。雲林科技大學,雲林。
蔡馨慧 (2007),情緒勞務負荷、情緒智力與工作滿意度之相關研究—以台中市幼稚園教師為例(未出版之碩士論文)。靜宜大學,台中。
盧志榮(2008),離島地區警察人員的情緒勞務負荷、情緒耗竭對工作滿意度影響之研究(未出版之碩士論文)。銘傳大學,台北。
謝金青(1992),國民小學行政兼職教師角色衝突與工作滿意之研究(未出版之碩士論文)。政治大學,台北。
謝百亮 (1995),國民小學行政管理與教師工作滿意之關係(未出版之碩士論文)。台中師範學院,台中。
鐘仁貴 (2006),情緒勞務、工作滿足與組織承諾關係之研究—以司法矯正人員為例(未出版之碩士論文)。長榮大學,台南。
四、研討會論文
【中文】
郭彥谷、郭燦廷、褚仲如、陳靜怡 (2013),服務業員工之工作壓力、情緒勞務與休閒滿意度之關聯性研究,2013南台灣健康照護產業暨健康產業國際學術研討會
黃遵誠 (2002),公立醫療機構的組織定性與法規規範,中華民國公立醫院協會第一屆第二次會員大會。
五、台北市議會公報
臺北市議會(2011),臺北市議會公報第86卷第10期,3586
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