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系統識別號 U0002-2107201414565100
中文論文名稱 歐盟與印尼的夥伴合作協定(PCA)-歐盟強化其與印尼雙邊關係的政策工具
英文論文名稱 "Partnership Cooperation Agreement (PCA) between the European Union (EU) and the Republic of Indonesia: An EU Instrument to Intensify its Bilateral Engagement with Indonesia"
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 歐洲研究所博士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of European Studies
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生中文姓名 美妲
研究生英文姓名 Paramitaningrum
學號 897290077
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2014-05-26
論文頁數 294頁
口試委員 指導教授-鄒忠科
委員-羅致政
委員-郭武平
委員-郭建中
委員-張福昌
中文關鍵字 合作夥伴協定( PCA )  歐盟-東協關係  反恐議題  印尼毀林  自願夥伴協議( VPA ) 
英文關鍵字 Partnership Cooperation Agreement (PCA)  EU – ASEAN relations  Counter-terrorism issue  Indonesia’s deforestation issue  Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) 
學科別分類
中文摘要 歐盟和印尼在2009年11月簽署「夥伴合作協定」( PCA )。該一協議強化歐盟和印尼自1980年「歐盟- 東協夥伴關係協定」( EAPA )以來,超過三十年的雙邊關係。此外,歐盟-印尼PCA的目標是成為雙方擴大合作的法律框架和指導方針。經濟利益則為歐盟-東協建立區域間合作關係的主要力量。然而,歐盟的外交政策和其在亞洲的區域內發展趨勢,也成為歐盟與東南亞積極發展合作關係的另一主要原因。1980年歐盟與東協正式簽署的合作協議,涵蓋貿易、經濟和發展等政策。然而,有鑒於歐盟和東協之間不同的發展層次和政治原則,維持區域間的關係有一定困難。歐盟還認為強化與東協的個別國家,包括印尼,特別是雙邊合作夥伴關係,以保持歐盟的經濟和政治利益,以及處理全球和區域性問題。
在東南亞國家中,印尼是第一個與歐盟簽署PCA的國家。儘管印尼在20世紀90年代末,從威權政體過渡到民主國家,印尼仍面臨著一些內部的挑戰。同時,印尼的穩定是確保歐盟在印尼以及東南亞區域的經濟和政治利益的必要條件。
總結來說,PCA使歐盟與印尼雙方更容易建立彼此關係。歐盟需要PCA展現促進印尼發展的能力,也可以協助歐盟在印尼推展公眾外交。對印尼而言,透過PCA與歐盟的直接互動,能夠獲得歐盟的更多支持,以鞏固其目前的國內成就,及提高國際地位的努力。
其次,PCA使歐盟能尋求戰略合作夥伴,以支持區域間的關係。歐盟透過PCA的機會,強化與印尼在非經濟議題上的合作關係。此外,此一合作關係將協助歐盟介入東南亞事務,以及強化區域間的關係
第三,PCA能提高印尼作為區域和全球行動者的內部能力。因此,對印尼而言,國家和非國家行為者之間的良好協調、承諾和能力,得以確保順利推動PCA的各個項目。
第四,PCA下的合作夥伴關係強化印尼在東南亞的角色,印尼並且成為歐盟在東南亞的重要夥伴。這種夥伴關係意味,印尼在此一區域的成就,已經受到歐盟的肯定。印尼與歐盟的雙邊關係將促進印尼在東南亞地區的領導地位。

英文摘要 In November 2009, the European Union (EU) and Indonesia signed a Partnership Cooperation Agreement (PCA). This agreement strengthened the bilateral relations between the EU and Indonesia that has been existed for more than thirty years, under the 1980 EC – ASEAN Partnership Agreement
(EAPA). In addition to that, the PCA aims to be a legal framework and guideline for expanding cooperation between the two parties. Economic interests were the primary force behind the establishment of EC- ASEAN interregional relations. However, the development of the EC’s foreign
policy profile and its intraregional tendencies in Asia became the other main reason for the EC’s engagement with Southeast Asia. This aspiration is formalised by the signature of the 1980 EC - ASEAN Cooperation Agreement, which encompasses aspects of trade, economic and development
policy. However, the different level of development and political principles between the EU and ASEAN made this interregional relation have some difficulties. The EU further considers to strengthening bilateral partnership with the individual ASEAN countries, including Indonesia, which is significant particularly, in order to maintain EU economic and political interests, and to manage global
and regional issues.
Among Southeast Asian countries, Indonesia is the first country to sign a PCA with the EU. In spite of its remarkable transition from an authoritarian to a democratic country at the end of the 1990s, Indonesia is still facing substantial internal challenges. Meanwhile, the stability of Indonesia is a necessary condition to secure EU economic and political interests in this country and in the region.
In conclusion, the PCA allows both sides to build connections easily. The EU needs the PCA in order to show its capacity in the development of Indonesia. It can facilitate the public diplomacy of EU in Indonesia. For Indonesia, the direct interaction through PCA provides an opportunity to gain a bigger support from the EU, which is significant to back up the current achievement of Indonesia and the effort to raise its international posture.
Secondly, the PCA enables the EU to look for its strategic partner to support interregional relations. The PCA gives an opportunity for the EU to strengthen its partnership with Indonesia on non-economic issues. Additionally, the partnership will support EU involvement in Southeast Asia and will back up its interregional relations.
Thirdly, the PCA can contribute to the improvement of Indonesia’s internal capacity as a regional and global actor. Therefore, the commitment, capabilities and good coordination between state and non-state actors from Indonesian side, are significant in ensuring all programmes under PCA work well.
Fourthly, the partnership under PCA gives an opportunity to strengthen Indonesia’s position to be considered as one of the EU’s significant partners in Southeast Asia. This partnership means that Indonesia is significantly recognised in the region for its dynamic achievements. Bilateral relations with the EU will boost the position of Indonesia as a leader in Southeast Asia.
論文目次 The Table of Content
I. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………..1
I. 1. Background……………………………………………………………………………...2
I. 2. Research Question……………………………………………………………………. .12
I. 3. Research Purposes……………………………………………………………………...12
I. 4. Literature Review………………………………………………………………………12
I. 5. Analytical Framework………………………………………………………………….22
I. 6. Methodology…………………………………………………………………………...28
I.7. Research Plan…………………………………………………………………………..33
I.8. Research Outcomes…………………………………………………………………….35
II. Transformation from the Inter-regional Relations to bilateralism: from EC- ASEAN
Agreement 1980 to EU - Indonesia Relations…………………………………………………40
II.1. Why EU promotes Inter-regionalism……………………………………………………..41
II.1.1. Enlargement…………………………………………………………………………….44
II.1.2. Stabilisation…………………………………………………………………………….45
II.1.3. Bilateralism……………………………………………………………………………..46
II.1.4.Inter-regionalism………………………………………………………………………...46
II.2. The Development of EU – ASEAN relations……………………………………………55
II.2.1 EU –Asia Strategy and the establishment of ASEM…………………………………...63
II.3. The Suspension of EU – ASEAN FTA Plan and its alternative strategy…………………..67
II.4. The Latest Development of the EU – ASEAN relations………………………………….72
II.5. Areas of Cooperation……………………………………………………………………..75
II.5.1. Development Cooperation……………………………………………………………….75
II.5.2.Trade………………………………………………………………………………………79
II.5.3. Scientific and Technical Cooperation……………………………………………………84
II.6. Key Critical Issues………………………………………………………………………...88
II.6.1.East Timor issues………………………………………………………………………….89
II.6.2. Burma/Myanmar Issues..………………………………………………………………….92
II.7. Prospect of the EU – ASEAN relations…………………………………………………….99
III. EU – Indonesia Relations…………………………………………………………………103
III. 1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………….104
III. 2. Physical and historical background of Indonesia………………………………………106
III. 2.1. Indonesia as a multi-ethnic country……………………………………………………108
III. 3. Indonesia’s Regional and Global achievement………………………………………...112
III.3.1. Indonesia commitment to human rights………………………………………………..116
III.3.2. Indonesia participation in the G20…………………………………………………….119
III. 4. Indonesia relations with the Global Power…………………………………………….122
III. 5. The weakness of Indonesia…………………………………………………………... 126
III. 6. The overview of the EC/EU – Indonesia relations…………………………………... 134
III.6.1. EC/EU - Indonesia Trade and Investment relations…………………………………...138
III.6.2. EC/EU – Indonesia ‘indirect’ political relations………………………………………140
III.6.2.1. EU contribution on resolving Aceh Issue and establishment of Aceh
Monitoring Mission (AMM)……………………………………………………….142
III.6.2.2. EU Concern on managing Counter-terrorism issue in Indonesia…………………....143
III.6.2.3. EU Concern on Environmental Issues in Indonesia: deforestation and
environmental degradation………………………………………………………… 145
III.7. Concluding Remarks…………………………………………………………………..149
IV. Analysis of PCA between the EU and Indonesia Relations and Several Changes on the
Bilateral Relations between Both Sides………………………………………………………151
IV. 1. PCA and several technical changes in EU – Indonesia bilateral relations……………...152
IV.2. EU has PCA with Indonesia because of the potency of Indonesia as a strategic
partner…………………………………………………………………………………………..156
IV.3. EU strengthening partnership with Indonesia will boost its reputation
as a global actor………………………………………………………………………………..163
IV.4. Why Indonesia has agreed to have a PCA with the EU? ...................................................166
IV.5. The political implications of PCA for EU – Indonesia bilateral relations…………….. .167
IV.5.1. PCA gives an opportunity for Indonesia to be a suitable global and regional partner for
the EU in Southeast Asia…………………………………………………...………………………173
IV.5.1.1. Cooperation on counter-terrorism……………………………………………………176
IV.5.1.2. Cooperation on managing Environmental issues in Indonesia…………………….. 184
V. Concluding Remarks
V.1. Summary and conclusion………………………………………………………………….194
V.2. Recommended further study………………………………………………………………196
VI. Framework Agreement on Comprehensive Partnership and cooperation between the European
Community and its Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Indonesia, of the other part
………………………………………………………………………………………………215
VII. Interview with Mr. Charles Whiteley, ………………………………………………………270
VIII. Interview with Ms. Julia Nolan, ……………………………………………………………273
IX.Interview with Mr. Onno Koopmans, ………………………………………………………276
X. Onno further explanation, ……………………………………………………………………279
XI. Interview with Ms. Dewi Mayangsari Kusumastuti , …………………………………………281
XII. Interview with Prof. Djisman Simanjuntak, …………………………………………………286
XIII. Interview with Mr. Ngurah Swajaya, ……………………………………………………288
XIV. Interview with Pol. Ins. Gen M. Tito Karnavian, ……………………………………291
Table and Figures
Figure 1.1………………………………………………………………………………………...28
Figure 1.2………………………………………………………………………………………...29
Figure 1.3………………………………………………………………………………………...30
Table 2.5. EC-ASEAN Projects 1999-2010…………………………………………………......77
Table 2.6. European Union Trade with ASEAN………………………………………………...79
Table 2.7. European Union Trade with ASEAN (millions of ,%)………………………….......80
Table 2.8. ASEAN, Trade with European Union (millions of ,%)……………………………..80
Table 2.9. European Union Imports from ASEAN………………………………………………81
Table 2.10. European Union Export to ASEAN…………………………………………………82
Table 2.11. European Union FDI in ASEAN……………………………………………………83
Table 2.12. European FDI in ASEAN in percentage…………………………………………….84
Table 1. Military Budget of Southeast Asian Countries 1999-2009……………………………126
Table 2. Southeast Asian Country Military Budget as percentage of GDP…………………….127
Table 3. Comparison between Indonesia and other ASEAN countries………………………...129
Table 4. Investment Realization by country 2005-2010………………………………………..133
Table 1. Gross Domestic Product by sector…………………………………………………….185
Table 2. Gross Domestic Product by forestry…………………………………………………..186
Table 3. Indonesian Government Revenues from Forestry Sector, 1999-2009 ………………..186
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“FTA talks with Singapore scheduled for March”, Europolitics, 14 January 2010, at http://www.europolitics.info/fta-talks-with-singapore-scheduled-for-march-art259984-40.html

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“EU-Thai ties back on track, say diplomats”, Bangkok Post, 28 September 2010, at
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“EU-ASEAN Minus FTA expected in three years’ time”, accessed at http://www.bilaterals.org/article.php3?id_article=12879 (accessed 18 December 2010)

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Michael Matthiessen, EU – Singapore FTA shows free trade is the way to go, The Business Times, 2 January 2013, accessed at: http://www.eucentre.sg/articles/422/downloads/020113%20BT%20EU-S'pore%20FTA%20shows%20free%20trade%20is%20the%20way%20to%20go.pdf

“Indonesia, EU sign partnership agreement,” The Jakarta Post, November 11, 2009

Andrew Higgins, ‘Some in Indonesia praise, seek to replicate China’s fight against United States’, The Washington Post (29 March 2010)

Thomsen, Stephen, “EU – ASEAN: The Beginning of a Beautiful Friendship? “ Briefing paper, International Economics Programme, October 2007, accessed at: http://www.chathamhouse.org.uk/publicationspapers/view/-/id/545/,April 2011.

Wihardja, Maria Monica, “The EU’s conservative and cautious approach,” The Jakarta Post, 16 March 2011, accessed at http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2011/03/16/the-eu%E2%80%99s-conservative-and-cautious-approach.html





Official Documents:
EC Main Trade Partner, at http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2006/September/tradoc_113471.pdf, has been updated in 12 March 2012
Global Europe: Competing in the World – A Contribution to the EU’s Growth and Jobs Strategy 2006, at http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2006/october/tradoc_130370.pdf

Brussels Declaration on More Effective Global Economic Governance: Towards More Effective Global Economic Governance’, 5 October 2010, at
http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/er/116888.pdf

Braude, Pierre-Antoine and Giovanni Grevi, “The EU Mission in Aceh: implementing peace.” Occasional Paper no.61, (2005), EU Institute for Security Studies, accessed at http://www.iss.europa.eu/nc/actualites/analysisbooks/select_category/17/article/the-eu-mission-in-aceh-implementing-peace

Solana, Javier (2003), “Europe Security Strategies: A Secure Europe in a Better World,” accessed at http://ue.eu.int/uedocs/cmsUpload/78367.pdf

“Common Policy and Foreign Policy of Indonesia – European Union (EU)”, accessed at http://www.deplu.go.id

Commission of the European Communities, Towards a New Asia Strategy, COM (94) 314 final, Brussels 13.07.1994.

Commission of the European Communities, Creating a New Dynamic in ASEAN – EU relations, COM (96) 314, Brussels, 3.07.1996

Country Environmental Profile of Indonesia 2005, Final Report, accessed at http://www.delidn.ec.europa.eu/

“Developing Closer Relations between Indonesia and the European Union (2000),” accessed at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:52000DC0050:EN:NOT

European Commission, ‘Creating A New Dynamic in EU – ASEAN Relations, Annex 7 – Breakdown of EC financial assistance in ASEAN 1976-1995, COM (96) 314, Brussels 1996

The EC Communication, “A New Partnership with Southeast Asia (2003)”, accessed at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexplus!prod!DocNumber&lg=en&type_doc=COMfinal&an_doc=2003&nu_doc=399

EU-ASEAN Joint Declaration
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EU – China: Closer Partners: Growing Responsibilities (2006), accessed at http://www.delchn.ec.europa.eu/download/communication-paper-ENG_070622.pdf

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Indonesia- Council Conclusion, a press release of 2249th, General Affairs Council Meeting, Brussels 20 March 2000, accessed at http//www.consilium.europa.eu.ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/pressdata/en/gena/ACFCt93.htm

Indonesia-European Community Strategy Paper 2002-2006, accessed at http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/indonesia/csp/02_06_en.pdf

Indonesia-European Community Strategy Paper 2007-2013, accessed at http://ec.europa.eu/external_relations/indonesia/csp/07_13_en.pdf

Invigorating the Indonesia – EU Partnership: Towards a Comprehensive Economic Partnership http://www.eibd-conference.com/assets/files/1-26.pdf

“The Archipelago economy: Unleashing Indonesia’s potential,” September 2012, being accessed at :http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/asia-pacific/the_archipelago_economy

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Meijer, Roel (eds.), Counter-Terrorism Strategies in Indonesia, Algeria, and Saudi Arabia, Netherland Institute of International Relations ‘Clingendael’, at www.nctv.nl/.../wodc-report-counter-terrorism-strategies-in-indonesia-algeria-and-saudi arabia...

Thomsen, Stephen, “EU-ASEAN: The Beginning of a Beautiful Friendship?” Briefing paper, International Economics Programme, October 2007, accessed at: http://www.chathamhouse.org.uk/publications/papers/view/-id/545/,April 2011



Newspapers
Landingin, Rolf, EU-ASEAN trade pact stalls over inclusion of Burma,’ Financial Times, August 7, 2007, accessed at http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/6a463794-415a-11dc-8f37 0000779fd2ac.html#axzz1Mb47QHVg

Wihardja, Maria Monica, “The EU’s conservative and cautious approach, The Jakarta Post, 16 March 2011, accessed at http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2011/03/16/the-eu%E2%80%99s-conservative-and-cautious-approach.html

Speeches/Interview
Peter Mandelson (2009), “Tilting the global balance: Asia’s new trade growth”, Keynote Address, WEF Asia Forum, Singapore, 29 April,
http://www.europaworld.org/week222/mandelsonspeech6505.htm,

Interview with Ms. Dewi M. Kusumastuti, Director, Directorate of Interregional Cooperation Europe and America, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia

Interview with Mr. Ngurah Swajaya, Ambassador/Permanent Representative of the Republic of Indonesia to ASEAN, Indonesia

Interview with Mr. Charles Whiteley, First Secretary, Head of Political, Press and Information Section, Delegation of the European Union to Indonesia and Brunei Darusalam, Jakarta, Indonesia

Interview with Ms. Julia Nolan, Political Consellor, British Embassy Jakarta, Indonesia, 25 July 2012

Interview with Mr. Onno Koopman, Deputy Head Political Affairs, Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Jakarta, Indonesia, 26 July 2012

Interview with Mr. Thibaut Portevin, Programme Manager (Environment – Natural Resources) Development Cooperation Section, Delegation of the European Union to Indonesia, Brunei Darusalam and ASEAN, Jakarta

Interview with Prof Dr. Djisman S. Simanjuntak, Co-Chairs of the Vision Group, Executive Director of Prasetya Mulya Business School

Interview with Mr. Zul Azmi, Deputy Country Director Deustche Gesselschaft fur Internationale Zussammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Indonesia and Timor Leste



Websites:
http://www.asef.org.
http://www.asienhaus.de/public/archiv/brdasia.htm
http://www.embassyofindonesia.eu/ambassador/?q=content/international-conference-interfaith-dialogues
http://eeas.europa.eu/delegations/indonesia/press_corner/all_news/news/2011/20111024_02_en.htm
http://www.eurunion.org/partner/agenda.htm
http://www.mfp.or.id/eng/?page_id=762
http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/







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