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系統識別號 U0002-2107201021433800
中文論文名稱 無線隨建即連網路下有效電源使用與頻道狀態感知為考量之省電與傳輸速率調適媒體存取控制協定
英文論文名稱 Energy-efficient and Channel-aware Power Saving and Rate Adaptation MAC Protocols in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊工程學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生中文姓名 周建閔
研究生英文姓名 Chien-Min Chou
學號 893190123
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2010-06-18
論文頁數 68頁
口試委員 指導教授-石貴平
委員-王三元
委員-王勝石
委員-廖文華
委員-趙志民
委員-張志勇
委員-石貴平
中文關鍵字 無線隨建即連網路  多速率傳輸  電源節約  傳輸速率調適  有效率電源使用 
英文關鍵字 Wireless ad hoc networks  Multi-rate  Power saving  Rate adaptation  Energy efficiency 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學資訊工程
中文摘要 因無線網路本身的特性影響,在無線網路的環境中,傳輸資料的可靠性,遠遠不如有線網路,因此傳輸資料的成功率,也因此較有線網路來的低。背景雜訊、來自其他節點的干擾、訊號衰減、都卜勒效應等,皆會影響無線網路中,資料傳輸的成功與否。因此一個適當設計且能感知到無線網路環境中干擾的媒體存取控制協定,是有其必要性的。除此之外,在無線網路的環境中,有限的資源嚴重的限制了網路的使用(例如頻寬、裝置的電池電力等),高網路流量與高密度的網路節點,皆易導致傳輸資料的碰撞,並消耗多餘的頻寬與電源。本論文首先於無線隨建即連網路中,提出一個有效電源使用與頻道狀態感知為考量之省電媒體存取控制協定,名為PEM。在PEM中,節點可使用傳輸電量控制,除了避免傳輸碰撞並節省電源消耗,並可增進空間再利用率。基於MIS概念,一個啟發式的演算法亦在PEM中所提出,此演算法可讓盡可能多的節點,於空間中同時傳輸資料,因此PEM除了讓節點節省更多的電源,也將有較好的效能與電源使用效率。本論文之後提出一個在無線隨建即連網路下有效電源使用與頻道狀態感知為考量之傳輸速率調適媒體存取控制協定,名為FaRM,FaRM依據即時的頻道品質,動態且即時的決定傳輸速率與對傳輸封包進行切割。模擬的結果顯示,本論文所提出的兩個協定,與先有的協定相比較,除了可大幅增進網路效能、亦可大量減少電源消耗與傳輸延遲。
英文摘要 Wireless medium is much unreliable compared with the wired medium due to its open nature. The successful transmission rate in wireless environment is much lower than that in wired environments. Background noise, interference from other stations, signal attenuation, signal fading, and Doppler effect will have great impact on the success of a wireless transmission. Consequently, a well designed MAC protocol in wireless environments needs to be aware of the interference in wireless environments. Besides, scarce resources of wireless medium (e.g., bandwidth, battery power, and so on) significantly restrict the progress of wireless networks. Heavy traffic load and high station density are most likely to incur collisions, and further consume bandwidth and energy. The dissertation initially presents an energy-efficient and channel-aware power saving MAC protocol in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks, namely PEM. In PEM, stations are capable of avoiding collisions and saving energy. Besides, PEM takes advantage of power control technique to reduce the interferences among transmission pairs and increase the spatial reuse of wireless networks. Based on the concept of Maximum Independent Set (MIS), a novel heuristic scheme with the aid of interference relationship is also presented in PEM to provide as many simultaneous transmission pairs as possible. Afterward, the dissertation proposes an energy-efficient and channel-aware rate adaptation MAC protocol in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks, namely FaRM. It is well-knows that the channel quality varies with time in wireless environments. Transmission errors may occur due to the variation of channel quality. Accordingly, stations in FaRM can dynamically detect the current SNR to estimate the channel quality through the control frame exchanges. Furthermore, a Finite State Markov Chain (FSMC) is adopted to predict the variation of the channel condition. According to the results generated from FSMC, FaRM enables a station to select an appropriate transmission rate as well as an acceptable fragment length dynamically to transmit in order to both increase the reliability and shorten the channel access time of the transmission. Simulation results shows that the proposed two MAC protocols can utilize the energy well. Besides, the proposed two MAC protocols outperform the existed related works.
論文目次 Contents
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Challenge 2
1.3 Organization 3
2 Preliminaries 4
2.1 IEEE 802.11 Power Saving Mode Overview 4
2.2 IEEE 802.11 DCF Overview 5
2.3 Fragmentation in IEEE 802.11 5
2.4 Channel Propagation Model 7
3 The Energy-efficient and Channel-aware Power Saving MAC Protocol in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks 8
3.1 Problem Statement 8
3.2 Related Work 10
3.2.1 DPSM 10
3.2.2 Distributed Cycle Stealing 11
3.3 Current Achievement 11
3.3.1 Channel Access Model and the Operation of Power-Efficient MAC 11
3.3.2 Scheduling in the Data Transmission Period 16
3.3.2.1 The Heuristic Algorithm 17
3.4 Performance Evaluation 21
3.5 Summary 21
4 The Energy-efficient and Channel-aware Rate Adaptation MAC Protocol in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks 24
4.1 Problem Statement 24
4.2 Related Work 26
4.3 Current Achievements 28
4.3.1 Basic Concepts of FaRM 28
4.3.2 Design Flow 31
4.4 Channel Quality Prediction and Frame Length Determination 33
4.4.1 Channel Quality Prediction 34
4.4.2 Fragment Length and Rate Derivations 36
4.4.3 Fragment Length Approximation–A Table Lookup Approach 39
4.5 Link Adaptive Fragment and Rate Matching 40
4.6 The FaRM MAC Protocol 43
4.6.1 Frames Exchanges 43
4.6.2 CTS/ACK Frames Modifications 44
4.6.3 The Duration Setting 44
4.7 Performance Evaluation 45
4.7.1 Simulation Environments and Settings 46
4.7.2 Scenario 1: Fixed Distance of the Transmission Pair 46
4.7.3 Scenario 2: The Receiver Moves toward the Sender 52
4.7.4 Scenario 3: A General Scenario 55
4.8 Summary 58
5 Conclusions 59
5.1 Contributions 59
5.2 Future Work 60
Bibliography 61

List of Figures
2.1 Fragmentation in IEEE 802.11 [1]. An MSDU is fragmented into 3 fragments
numbered from 0 to 2 6
2.2 RTS/CTS with fragmented MSDU and the NAV setting 6
3.1 The channel model and operation of PEM 12
3.2 The distance information what PEM need 13
3.3 After power control, the transmission of S1-D1 still collides with S2-D2 15
3.4 Interference Vectors record by stations in Fig. 3.3. (a). No forgoing transmission happened before S1-D1, IV1 is empty. (b). Transmission of S2-D2 collides with S1-D1, IV2 is set ”1”. (c). S3-D3 can transmit simultaneously with S1-D1 and S2-D2, thus IV3 has two ”0” 16
3.5 Another complex example of IVs 17
3.6 An undirected graph transforms from Fig. 3.5 18
3.7 The processes of scheduling order by MIS. (a). The procedures of selecting the First Transmission Set. (b). The procedures of selecting the Second Transmission Set. (c). V2 becomes the only member of the Third Transmission Set 20
3.8 The comparisons of network load and throughput in the random topology
scenario 22
3.9 The comparisons of network load and mean delay in the random topology
scenario 22
3.10 The comparisons of network load and power throughput in the random topology scenario 22
3.11 The comparisons of network load and control overhead in the random topology scenario 23
4.1 Basic concepts of FaRM. (a) The relationship between SNR and BER in terms of different modulation schemes in an AWGN channel model. (b) The impact of data rate on FER in terms of frame length when SNR = 10 dB. (c) The impact of SNR on FER in terms of frame length when the data transfer rate is 1 Mbps 30
4.2 Design flow of the FaRM protocol 32
4.3 An illustration of the variation of a signal strength and the finite state Markov chain 34
4.4 An illustration of the Binary Symmetric Channel (BSC) for state k 36
4.5 The CCDF of the successful transmission probability in terms of the frame
length 37
4.6 The frame lengths versus the best fragment lengths in terms of different SNR
values at the transfer rate 11 Mbps 39
4.7 Frame exchange and the duration setting in the FaRM protocol 44
4.8 The two added fields in the CTS/ACK frames 45
4.9 The received signal strength at the receiver side when the distance is 120
meters 47
4.10 The comparisons of transfer rates of (a) RBAR, (b) D-Frag, (c) OAR, and (d) FaRM during the simulation time from 2.4 to 2.5 second when the distance between the sender and the receiver is 120m 48
4.11 The comparisons of the protocols in terms of (a) throughput, (b) transmission
delay, and (c) frame counts in Scenario 1 49
4.12 The comparisons of the protocols in terms of (a) throughput, (b) transmission
delay, and (c) frame counts in Scenario 2 53
4.13 The comparisons of the protocols in terms of (a) throughput, (b) transmission
delay, and (c) frame counts in Scenario 3 56

List of Tables
4.1 Best fragment length and the given length of an MDSU 39
4.2 Parameters for simulations 46
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