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系統識別號 U0002-2107200914521000
中文論文名稱 裏海地區的能源競合關係與俄國的角色(1999-2006)
英文論文名稱 Russian Energy’s Policy for the Caspian Sea Region (1999-2006)
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 俄羅斯研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Slavic Studies
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生中文姓名 黃惠華
研究生英文姓名 Huei-hua Huang
學號 694090134
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2009-06-12
論文頁數 168頁
口試委員 指導教授-郭建中
委員-彼薩列夫
委員-汪哲仁
中文關鍵字 俄羅斯  裏海  能源  地緣政治  新制度經濟學 
英文關鍵字 Russia  Caspian Sea  Energy  Geopolitics  New Institutional Economics 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 本文旨在透過地緣政治與新制度經濟學的途徑研究,探討1999至2006年普欽總統任內,俄國如何看待及處理裏海沿岸四國伊朗、哈薩克、土庫曼、亞塞拜然及區域外大國的問題,在與各國爭奪裏海能源的大戰中,如何延續後霸權的角色。各國搶奪裏海資源是地緣政治的表現,為了避免位置被其他國家所取代,讓國家失去競爭力的危機,普欽上任後積極展開與各國一起開發裏海能源的動作。
各國聯合開發裏海資源的行為以競爭與合作的型態呈現。新制度經濟學主張國際間有許多的經濟規範與組織,就是新秩序的維持與新制度的出現,在制度裡,各國以結盟的方式,建立起溝通平台,可減少資訊的不對稱性;各國元首定期開會交換意見,避免欺騙行為;在組織架構下,透過談判、協商的機制解決所有的爭端;簽訂協議來約束各國的開發行為,有助於降低交易成本,並在框架內實現國家的利益。
俄國所擁有的裏海資源少,俄屬裏海地區所生產的石油及天然氣為全俄的1%,貢獻不多,但是卻擁有裏海區域大部分的出口管道,所以俄國裏海的政策重點在於靈活運用管道策略及利用能源公司來替國家賺錢。
經濟上,與西方國家合作除了可以與加強與世界經濟整合,還可以學到西方國家的技術。管道的過境費可以為俄國帶來穩定的稅收,不斷的開發新管道可以促進沿線地區的發展,達到擴大內需的效果。政治上,參與國際組織,與其他國家的能源合作,在國際舞台上爭取發言權,擴大影響力,對內加強特殊產業的控制,來保證國家的安全與穩定。
英文摘要 The subject of this thesis is to analyze the interrelation and interaction of geopolitics through new institutional economics from 1999-2006 with regards to Russia's exposure to the four states neighboring the Caspian Sea, namely Iran, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan as well as to other great powers acting in this region.
The striving for natural resources in the Caspian Sea is evident if observing each of the neighboring countries’ behavior. Each of them tries to get the biggest piece of the Caspian energy cake, and concurrently, in terms of influence, avoid to be replaced by the other neighboring countries. It is a struggle that has also caused loose of competitive power. When Putin assumed office, Moscow positively engaged with his Caspian neighbors for a cooperative management of the Caspian Sea energy.
The joint exploitation of the Caspian natural resources reveals the condition that competition and cooperation happens when states peruse each own interests. New institutional economics emphasizes that trade will create new rules and institutions to maintain the new order. Institutions could reduce the informational asymmetry by setting up communication platforms for each participant; avoids fraud or disadvantageous treatment by organizing regular meetings to exchange views and ideas. Conflicts are treated under organizational framework via negotiations, problem-solving consultations, and the resource-exploitation behavior will under the surveillance of joint agreements which signed by all participated states. This cooperative way helps them to reduce costs of trade transactions and to realize each country’s interest fairly within this framework.
Russia's development of its Caspian Sea natural resources is humble, as oil and natural gas production in that region merely stake 1% of the country’s total energy production. The contribution of the Caspian Sea energy production is very low. However, Moscow possesses the regions biggest export pipeline, and hence its policy’s focal point lies in the flexible application of a pipeline strategy and to use foreign companies to invest and earn money in this region.
From the economic point of view, the cooperation with western countries not only strengthens Russia’s integration into the world economy but also enables the biggest country in the world to learn from western technologies. Additionally, the pipeline transit charges are a reliable and stable tax income. During continuous exploitation processes, new pipelines can promote the regional development of the Caspian Sea, achieving an expansion of the domestic demand.
On the political level, participation in international organizations and the energy cooperation with other countries increases Russia’s influence on the international stage, strengthens its control of particular domestic industries and guarantees the security and stability of the country.
論文目次 目錄
第一章 緒論………………………...…………………………………...........1
第一節 研究動機與目的……………………………………………………………...........1
第二節 研究方法……………………………………………………………………...........3
第三節 研究範圍與限制…………………………………………………………….........12
第四節 論文架構與章節安排……………………………………………………….........13
第二章 裏海地區能源的利益與衝突………………………..….…….........14
第一節 裏海地緣政治環境………………………………………………………….........14
第二節 裏海能源的供給與需求…………………………………………………….........22
第三節 裏海周邊各國與美國的石油角逐………………………………………….........37
第四節 裏海國際法律爭端情形…………………………………………………….........50
第五節 小結………………………………………………………………………….........57
第三章 裏海地區能源競合對俄羅斯及能源進口大國的衝擊....…............61
第一節 能源管道的建立…………………………………………………………….........61
第二節 國際間的競爭與合作:周邊國家的競爭與合作,美國的角色與影響…………………………………………………………………....………………...........72
第三節 俄國與各國的競爭情況........................…………………………………….........82
第四節 小結………………………………………………………………………...........109
第四章 俄羅斯在裏海地區的能源經營策略……………………………..112
第一節 俄國裏海政策……………………………………………………………...........112
第二節 俄羅斯能源公司在裏海的投資…………………………………………...........119
第三節 裏海的能源對俄羅斯的經濟貢獻或影響………………………………...........132
第四節 小結.......................................................................................................................143
第五章 結論…………………………………...………...............................146
附件................................................................................................................150
附件一...............................................................................................................................150
附件二...............................................................................................................................151
附件三...............................................................................................................................152
附件四...............................................................................................................................154
參考文獻.......................................................................................................155


圖目錄
圖1.1、裏海地區.....…………………....……………………………………………............2
圖1.2、裏海五國.....................................................................................................................2
圖1.3、各國在裏海地區的角逐狀況.....................................................................................5
圖1.4、俄國轉型為資本主義...............................................................................................11
圖2.1、裏海….....................………………………………………………….…….............16
圖2.2、南高加索..................................................................…………………….…...…….20
圖2.3、亞洲地區...................................................................................................................21
圖2.4、1994至2008年油價走勢圖…………………………………………………..........24
圖2.5、裏海地區的石油及天然氣資源,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,………..................................................26
圖2.6、2006年總主要能源供應的組成比例………….....………………..........................27
圖2.7、哈薩克位於北裏海的油田………………………………………….......................29
圖2.8、亞塞拜然的阿澤裏、奇拉格、古涅什里油田......................................................... 30
圖2.9、2006年裏海天然氣儲量………………………………………………..…….........32
圖2.10、1992~2005年的裏海天然氣生產和出口…………………………………...........32
圖2.11、裏海原油生產預測…………………………………….........................................35
圖2.12、裏海原油出口潛力預測……………………………….........................................35
圖2.13、裏海天然氣生產預測………………………………….........................................36
圖2.14、裏海天然氣出口潛力預測…………………………….........................................36
圖3.1、裏海管道財團管道…………………………....................................………...........62
圖3.2、裏海地區的石油管道………………............………….………………................63
圖3.3、巴庫-提比利斯-塞伊漢油管………........................................................................64
圖3.4、中亞輸油管道…………………………………………….......................................65
圖3.5、哈薩克-中國管道………………………………………………….........................66
圖3.6、哈薩克雙胞胎石油和天然氣管道………...............................................................66
圖3.7、CPC和 BTC管道………………............................................................................74
圖3.8、裏海財團管道終端………………..............……………………………….............75
圖3.9、BTC管道的終端…………………......................…………………………............79
圖3.10、古姆組織的成員國………………………….........................................................86
圖3.11、上海合作組織成員國…………………………..............………............................89
圖3.12、歐亞經濟共同體成員國……………………………………….……...................91
圖3.13、哈薩克油田分佈圖…………………………………………….…………............94
圖3.14、亞塞拜然油田分佈圖……..............………………………..….…………...........94
圖3.15、保加利亞至希臘的石油管道…………………………………….......................101
圖3.16、藍流………………………………………………………………………….......102
圖3.17、石油運輸公司主要管道網路…………………………………......……….........104
圖4.1、CPC財團股東的架構…………………….............................................................131
圖4.2、俄國濱裏海的三個地區…………………………………………………….........133
圖4.3、俄國南部主要行政中心…………………………………………………….........134

表目錄
表2.1、2004年統計石油儲備量……………………………………………………...........28
表2.2、裏海的石油及天然氣-2005年底前的儲量………………………………….........29
表2.3、2004年統計石油生產量……………………………………………………...........31
表2.4、裏海地區的天然氣生產………………………………….......................................33
表2.5、未來裏海石油的生產……………………………….…………………….….........34
表3.1、現有的石油管道………………………………………………………...................64
表3.2、計畫中的主要石油輸出管道…………………………………...............................67
表3.3、計畫中的石油管道支線………………………………………...............................69
表3.4、現有及計畫中的天然氣出口管道…………………………...................................71
表3.5、CPC與BTC管道的異同……………………….......................................................78
表3.6、哈薩克主要石油及天然氣田發展計劃情形………………………………...........96
表3.7、亞塞拜然主要石油及天然氣田發展計劃情形……………………………...........97
表3.8、俄國石油出口管道……………………................................................…..….......100
表3.9、合作與典則(Cooperation and Regimes)………..…………………………….......108
表4.1、裏海國家的外國直接投資量…………………………………………….…........123
表4.2、根據2003的外國資產俄羅斯前十大外國投資者………………………............124
表4.3、俄羅斯在裏海國家的投資金額…………………………………………….........125
表4.4、國際金融機構的功能………………………………………….............................130
表4.5、三個地區能源產業在GRP比例及投資額比率………………………….............135
表4.6、2001年~2006年天然氣凝析油產量…………………………………...............138
表4.7、2001年~2006天然氣凝析油預估產值…………………………………...........139
表4.8、2001年~2006年天然氣及電力產量……………………………………..............140
表4.9、2001年~2006天然電力的預估產值……………………………………..............140
表4.10、石油出口值與國內生產毛額的關係...................................................................141
表4.11、燃料動力產品出口值與國內生產毛額的關係....................................................142
表4.12、南部地區的就業比率,依照經濟活動分類.........................................................143
參考文獻 參考文獻
中文書目
1. 王海運、石澤 (譯) (2006)。俄羅斯能源外交。北京:人民。(Жизнин, С., 2006)。
2. HH王躍生HH (1997),新制度主義,HH台北:揚智HH。
3. 尹耀慶 (1995)。獨立國協研究以俄羅斯為中心。台北:幼獅。
4. 沈默 (1967)。地緣政治。台北:文合。
5. 邢廣程 (1993)。崛起的中亞。台北:五南。
6. 林添貴 (譯) (1998)。大棋盤。台北:立緒。(Brzeinski, Z., 1997)
7. 洪慧芳 (譯) (2008)。石油的政治經濟學。台北:財信。(Klare, M., 2008)
8. 強曉云、史亞軍和成健 (譯)。國際能源政治與外交。上海:華東師範大學。(Жизнин, С., 2005)
9. 陳荔彤 (2002)。海洋法論。台北:元照。
10. 鄭衍偉 (譯) (2008)。從一滴原油解讀世界。台北:世潮。(白水合憲,2008)
11. 薛絢 (譯) (1991)。石油世紀。台北:時報。(Yergin, D., 1991)
12. 錢學文等著 (2007)。中東、裏海油氣與中國能源戰略。北京:時事。
13. 蕭建國 (2006)。國際海洋邊界石油的共同發展。北京:新華。
14. 顏愛靜 (譯) (2001)。制度與經濟理論:新制度經濟學之貢獻,台北:五南。(Furubotn, E. G., & Richter, R., 2001)
中文期刊
1. 王宏偉 (2001)。發展中的古阿姆地區組織。俄羅斯研究,2,83-86。
2. 王煥麗與朱紅娟 (2007)。美國對里海地區八國的能源外交舉措。商場現代化,515,182-183。
3. 冉杰和項紅梅 (2005)。能源為媒:上海合作組織新走向。中日石油石化,13,頁36-37。
4. 王亞棟 (2000)。里海能源與中亞地緣政治格局。今日東歐中亞,1,52-58。
5. HH肖軍正HH (2003)。裏海法律地位與中亞地緣戰略。國際問題研究,4,45-49。
6. 江紅 (1995)。裏海世紀之交的石油角逐場,瞭望新聞週刊,48,56-57。
7. 沈劍鋒 (2005)。阿塞拜疆的石油地位與國際石油合作。國際石油經濟,13(7),,58-62。
8. 孫永祥 (2000)。規劃能源:俄羅斯新階段能源發展戰略。國際商務,11,33-36。
9. 孫永祥與張晶 (2003)。美國在裏海地區的長期戰略評析。阿拉伯世界,85(2),2003,13-15。
10. 呂勁軍 (2001)。獨聯體:普京政府外交政策的優先考慮對象。南京航空航天大學學報,3(1),14-16。
11. 相蘭欣 (2003)。911以後俄羅斯重振大國地位的努力。俄羅斯研究,1,4-10。
12. 祝政宏 (2006)。試論里海地區的地緣政治意義。新疆財經學院學報,25(4),30-42。
13. 婁芳 (2003)。從里海石油之爭看俄羅斯的新能源戰略。世界經濟與政治,6,頁60-65。
14. 陳建民 (2002)。世界政治中的中亞。國際政治研究,84(2),100-106。
15. 梁光明 (2004)。俄羅斯能源戰略及開發前景。國土資源,4,53-55。
16. 張巍 (2005)。俄羅斯南部地區吸引外國投資的方法。邊疆經濟與文化,13(1),頁55-59。
17. 楊雷 (2004)。論歐亞經濟共同體。俄羅斯中亞東歐市場,11,33-40。
18. 楊雷 (2003)。俄哈關系的新發展。國際政治研究,4,136-141。
19. 蒲開夫和王雅靜 (2006)。在上海合作組織的推動下開展更廣泛的多邊合作。伊犁師範學院學報,4,48-52。
20. 鄭雪平和陳奇超 (2005)。加速推進的俄羅斯與土庫曼斯坦能源合作。遼寧經濟職業技術學院學報,3,23-24。
21. 羅振興 (2005)。美國在中亞一里海地區的能源政策評析。美國研究,2,116-137。
22. 蘇武 (2006)。談能源問題與哈薩克現階段的對外關係。中阿文經,183,34-41。
23. 蘇武 (2006)。談中亞當前的外交角逐與中共的擴張。中阿文經,185,24-29。
24. 蘇武 (2006)。論俄羅斯在中亞、裏海的能源政策走向。中阿文經,186,4-10。
25. 蘇武 (2007)。談後尼亞佐夫時代的土庫曼能源問題。中阿文經,187,22-25。
26. 蘇暢 (譯) (2004)。世界能源市場與俄羅斯的地緣政治利益。國際石油經濟,4,1-8。(Тедегина, Е., 2004)
27. 龐昌偉 (2004)。俄羅斯能源戰略框架中的對外能源合作。國際經濟評論,6,24-28。
英文書目
1. Bindemann, K., (1999). Production-Sharing Agreements: An Economic Analysis. London: Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
2. Bugajski, J. & Michalewski, M., (2002). Toward an Understanding of Russia. New York: Council of Foreign Relations.
3. Babali, T., (2006). Caspian Energy Diplomacy since the End of the Cold-War. Ankara: Turkish Foreign Policy Institute.
4. Bahman, A., (2003). The Law and Politics of the Caspian Sea in the Twenty-First Century: The Positions and Views of Russia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, with special reference of Iran. Maryland: HHIbexHH.
5. Crandall, M., (2006). Energy, Economics, and Politics in the Caspian Region. London: Greenwood.
6. Croissant, M. P. & Aras, B., (1999). Oil and Geopolitics in the Caspian Sea Region. London: Praeger.
7. Fischer, P., (2001). Foreign Direct Investment in Russia. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
8. Frederick, S. S. & Cornell, S. E., (2005). The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline: Oil Window to the West. Washington: Johns Hopkins University.
9. Gennady, C., (2001) The Security of the Caspian Sea Region. London: University of Oxford Prfss.
10. Grace, J., (2005). Russian Oil Supply: Performance and Prospects, New York: Oxford.
11. Hlobil, P., (2002). The Role of International Financial Institutions (IFIs), Public Interest, Corporate Responsibility, and Good Governance: Environmental Protection in the Caspian. Astrakhan: ISAR.
12. Keohane, R., (1984). After Hegemony. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
13. Kuznetsov, A., (1994). The National Competitiveness Paradigm, Foreign Investment in Contemporary Russia. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 1994.
14. Kalyuzhnova, Y., & Jaffe, A., (2002). Energy in the Caspian Region: Present, Past and Future (5th ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
15. Liuhto, K., & Vincze, Z., (2005). Wider Europe. Turku: Turku School of Economics and Business Administration.
16. Larsson, R., (2006). Russia’s Energy Policy: Security Dimensions and Russia’s Reliability as an Energy Supplier. Stockholm: Swedish Defense Research Agency Defense Analysis.
17. Oliker, O. & Szayna, T. S., (2003). Faultlines of Conflict in Central Asia and the South Caucasus Implications for the U.S. Army. Santa Monica: The RAND Corporation.
18. Radon, J., (2005). The ABCs of Petroleum Contracts: License-Concession Agreements, Joint Ventures, and Production-sharing Agreements, Covering Oil-A Reporter’s Guide to Energy and Development. New York: Open Society Institute.
19. Svetlana, T., (2003). Caspian Oil Windfalls: Who Will Benefit?. New York: Open Society Institute.
20. The Emirates Center for Strategic and Research (2000). Caspian Energy Resources: Implications for the Arab Gulf. Abu Dhabi: Author.
21. Saint-Petersburg State University Press (2004). Post-Communist Countries in Search for Security and Stability. Saint-Petersburg: International Studies Association.
英文期刊:
1. Alam, S., (2004, January 02). Pipeline Politics in the Caspian Sea Basin, Pipeline Politics in the Caspian Sea Basin. Strategic Analysis, 26(1), 5-26.
2. Amineh, HHM.HH, (2003). Caspian Energy: A viable alternative to the Persian Gulf?. European Institute for Asian Studies, 3(2), 1-17.
3. Abraham, B., (2000). Russia and Caspian Oil: Moscow Loses Control. Post-Soviet Affairs, 16(2), 91-132.
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15. Mehrdad, H., (2003). Russia’s Regional Role: Conflict or Cooperation: The Coming of Conflict to the Caspian Sea, Problems of Post-Communism, 50(3), 32–41.
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23. Timothy, T., (2000). Russia’s National Interests and the Caspian Sea, CRS reports, 4(4), 2000, 75-96.
24. Timothy, T. & Shull, J., (1999). Russian National Interests and the Caspian Sea, Journal of international Affairs, 4(4), 1-13.
研討會論文
1. Bolukbasi, S., (1995, August). The Problems Surrounding: The Export of The Caspian Sea Energy Resources, Paper presented at the summit meeting of the Turkic states, Bishkek.
2. Matthews, M., (2000). International Lending Agencies and Regional Environmental Cooperation in the Black and Caspian Sea, Annual Meeting of the International Association for the Study of Common Property (pp. 1-35). Indiana: Indiana University.
3. Pisarev, A., (2006). New Stage of Russian Foreign Policy? Shijie Singe You Liang Anguanxi (pp. 13-27). Taipei: Shiying chubanshe.
4. Pisarev, A., (2006). New Priorities of Russian Foreign policy: Asia-Pacific Direction, Russia and the Asia-Pacific Region (pp. 1-18). Taipei: Tamkang University.
官方文獻
1. COWI-CENEf-ICCS/NTUA-Mott MacDonald-SWECO Consortium (2007). Astrakhan Fuel and Energy Balance, Energy Efficiency at Regional Level in Arkhangelsk, Astrakhan and Kaliningrad Regions, Brussels: European Commission.
2. European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (2006). Transition report 2005 Business in transition. London: Author.
3. European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (2007). Transition report 2006 Business in transition. London: Author.
4. Energy Charter Secretariat (2007). From Wellhead to Market Oil Pipeline Tariffs and Tariff Methodologies in Selected Energy Charter Member Countries, Geneva: Author.
5. Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation (2003). The Summary of the Energy Strategy of Russia for the Of Up To 2020. Moscow: Author.
6. The International Monetary Fund (2003). FDI and the Investment Climate in the CIS Countries. Washington: Author.
7. The North of Atlantic Treaty Organization (1999). Trancaucasus and the Caspian Region with Particular Focus on Energy Issues, Belgium: Author.
8. United States Trade Representative (2005). 2005 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers. Washington: Author.
其他英文資料
1. Caucasus: Caspian oil pipeline shifts allegiances (2006). Oxford Analytica.
2. Chufrin, G., (2004, October). Russia’s Caspian Energy Policy and its Impact on the U.S.-Russian Relationship. Baker Energy Forum, 1-22.
3. Gaffney, C. & Associates (2003). Study of the Oil and Gas Sectors in the Caspian with Special Emphasis on Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan. Glasgow: Trade Partners UK.
4. Lieven, A., (2006). Energy and Russia’s Foreign Policy. Unpublished manuscript.
5. Olcott, M., (2004). Vladimir Putin and Russia’s Oil Policy, Baker Energy Forum, 1-35.
6. The Henry L. Stimson Center (2006). Energy and Russia’s Foreign Policy, Security for a New Century: Study Group Report. Washington: Author.
7. Vahtra, P., (2005, December). Russia Investment in the CIS-Scope, Motivations and Leverage, Pan-European Institute( pp. 1-20). Retrieved May 5, 2009 from the World Wide Web: HHUUhttp://www.compiler.fi/idankaupan/tutkimukset/TKKK23e.htmlUU
8. Welch, C., (2002, December). Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Oil Pipeline: Overview and Fact Sheet (pp. 1-20). Retrieved December 10, 2006 from the World Wide Web: UUhttp://www.foe.co.uk/index.html
英文論文
1. Shiver, S., (2006). U.S. Foreign Policy In The Post-Soviet Caspian States. Unpublished master’s thesis, Florida State University College of Social Sciences, Florida.

俄文書目
1. Барганджия, Б. А., Гохберг, Л. М., Гельвановский, М. И., Горячева, И. П., и Житков, В. Б., (2007). Ргионы России, Основные характеристики субъектов Российской Федерации 2007, Статистический сборник. (2007年俄國地區統計年鑑) HHМоскваHH: Росстат.
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104. South of Russia plus: The New Strategy of Bank Center-Invest, HHUUwww.centrinvest.ru/pdf/russianfinance-sor.pdfUUHH, 2009/2/12.
105. Status And Prospects For The Development Of Oil And Gas In The Northwestern Caspian Region, HHUUhttp://www.searchanddiscovery.com/documents/abstracts/2004/istanbul2000/extended/voronin.pdfUUHH, 2009/2/25.
106. Sadia Sulaiman, HHUUhttp://www.issi.org.pk/journal/2001_files/no_4/article/5a.htmUUHH, 2008/10/20.
107. Share of Total Primary Energy Supply in 2006, HHUUhttp://www.iea.org/textbase/stats/pdf_graphs/32TPESPI.pdfUUHH, 2008/11/5.
108. South Caspian, HHUUhttp://www.casp.cam.ac.uk/reports_research/s_caspain_research.htmlUUHH, 2009/2/23.
109. The Deadly Pipeline War: U.S. Afghan Policy Driven By Oil Interests, HHUUhttp://jurist.law.pitt.edu/forum/forumnew41.phpUUHH, 2008/7/25.
110. SCO, HHUUhttp://www.sectsco.org/html/00014.htmlUUHH, 2008/12/15.
111. HHTaliban: Militant Islam, Oil, and Fundamentalism in Central AsiaHH, HHUUhttp://www.worldpress.org/specials/pp/front.htmUUHH, 2008/7/25.
112. The Deadly Pipeline War: U.S. Afghan Policy Driven By oil Interests, HHUUhttp://jurist.law.pitt.edu/forum/forumnew41.phpUUHH, 2008/7/25.
113. HHTaliban: Militant Islam, Oil, and Fundamentalism in Central AsiaHH, HHUUhttp://www.worldpress.org/specials/pp/front.htmUUHH, 2008/7/25.
114. The Prospects of the Caspian Sea Region in the 21st Century, HHUUhttp://www.euronet.nl/users/sota/TN9732.htmUUHH, 2008/10/6.
115. Too Soon to Talk of Attack against Iran, HHUUhttp://www.cfr.org/publication/10428/UUHH, 2009/2/17.
116. The Blue Stream Gas Pipeline, HHUUhttp://www.gazprom.com/eng/articles/article8895.shtmlUUHH, 2009/01/08.
117. Transneft Offers to Clear Caspian Pipeline’s Debt by Eurobonds, UUhttp://www.kommersant.com/p782249/Transneft_Caspian_Pipeline_Debt/UU, 2009/1/7.
118. Transneft Left Out of the Consortium, HHUUhttp://www.kommersant.com/p779833/Caspian_Pipeline_Consortium/UUHH, 2009/1/7.
119. Transition to capitalism, HHUUhttp://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/guides/457000/457038/html/default.stmUUHH, 2009/2/12.
120. The Caspian Oil Company, UUhttp://www.yukos.com/ep/The_Caspian_Oil_Company.aspUU, 2007/7/16.
121. Transneft Sees Chechen Bypass Line Complete in Mid-2000, HHUUhttp://www.gasandoil.com/GOC/news/ntr01069.htmUUHH, 2009/2/26.
122. Turkmenistan, HHUUhttps://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/tx.htmlUUHH, 2008/10/19.
123. The Aims of EurAsEC, UUhttp://www.worldtradelaw.net/fta/agreements/eaecfta.pdfUU, 2008/12/18.
124. The GUUAM Summit: Toward A New Yalta Order For The CIS?, HHUUhttp://www.guuam.org/media/CACA_30jun01.htmUUHH, 2008/12/15.
125. The GUUAM Group: History And Principles, HHUUhttp://www.guuam.org/general/browse.htmlUUHH, 2008/12/12.
126. The Geographical Directions of Foreign Policy- the CIS Space, HHUUhttp://www.mid.ru/brp_4.nsf/e78a48070f128a7b43256999005bcbb3/89a30b3a6b65b4f2c32572d700292f74?OpenDocumentUUHH, 2008/8/25.
127. U.S. Energy Security Issues: Russia and the Caspian, HHUUhttp://foreign.senate.gov/testimony/2003/NanayTestimony030430.pdfUUHH, 2008/12/28.
128. U.S. Economic and Strategic Interests in the Caspian Sea Region: Policies and Implications, HHUUhttp://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/usazerb/321.htmUUHH, 2008/9/9.
129. U.S.-Caspian Energy Policy: Promoting Sovereignty and Prosperity, HHUUhttp://clinton5.nara.gov/WH/EOP/NSC/html/nsc-14.htmlUUHH, 2008/9/9.
130. US Policy In Oil-Rich Caspian Basin, HHUUhttp://www.issi.org.pk/journal/2001_files/no_4/article/5a.htmUUHH, 2009/2/19.
131. U.S.-Central Asian Cooperation, UUhttp://www.state.gov/p/eur/rls/rm/2001/11299.htmUU, 2008/7/25.
132. U.S. Rejects Military Involvement in Caspian Dispute, HHUUhttp://azecon.aznet.org/azecon/news/Caspian%20&%20Energy/2002/mar11-17.htmUUHH, 2008/12/14.
133. Wolf Outlines U.S. Caucasus/Caspian Energy Policy at Conference, HHUUhttp://www.usembassy.it/file2000_05/alia/a0052215.htmUUHH, 2008/9/9.
134. What does GUUAM Mean for Caspian Energy?, HHUUhttp://www.gasandoil.com/goc/news/ntc10451.htmUUHH, 2008/12/14.
135. Yalta Guuam Charter, HHUUhttp://www.guuam.org/doc/browse.htmlUUHH, 2008/12/12.
俄文網站
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3. О компании, Транснефть, HHUUhttp://www.transneft.ru/company/UUHH, 2009/5/31.
4. Товарная структура экспорта и импорта в 2006 г, Федеральная служба государственной статистики, HHUUhttp://www.gks.ru/bgd/regl/B07_14p/IssWWW.exe/Stg/d03/25-02.htmUUHH, 2009/6/2.
5. Федеральная служба государственной статистики, HHUUwww.gks.ruUUHH, 2009/2/16.
6. Россия в мировой энергетике, HHUUhttp://www.ruseconomy.ru/nomer13_200310/ec02.htmlUUHH, 2008/8/4.
7. Распределение численности занятого населения по видам экономической Деятельности, HHUUhttp://www.stavstat.ru/region_v_cifrah/trud/DocLib/raspr_po_vidam.htmUUHH, 2009/03/19.
8. Pаботников организаций области, HHUUhttp://www.oblstat.astranet.ru/astrobl/trud/03.htmUUHH, 2009-03-19.
9. Среднесписочная численность работников в 2005 году по видам экономической деятельности по республике дагестан (человек), HHUUhttp://academa.ru/faktoryi-i-perspektivyi-povyisheniya-effektivnosti-promyishlennogo-proizvodstva-v-respublike-dagestan.htmlUUHH, 2009/3/20.
10. Южный федеральный округ россии, HHUUhttp://www.wgeo.ru/russia/okr_ugn.shtmlUUHH, 2006/11/21.
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