淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-2106201301021200
中文論文名稱 論龐培與凱撒爭權之謀略
英文論文名稱 The Strategies for Power Struggle of Pompeius and Caesar
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 歷史學系碩士在職專班
系所名稱(英) Department of History
學年度 101
學期 2
出版年 102
研究生中文姓名 蘇郁棋
研究生英文姓名 Yu-Chi Su
學號 794060052
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2013-05-07
論文頁數 176頁
口試委員 指導教授-劉增泉
委員-孔思曾
委員-唐耀棕
中文關鍵字 龐培  凱撒  克拉蘇  三頭同盟  高盧戰爭  內戰  共和派 
英文關鍵字 Pompeius  Caesar  Crassus  Triumvirate  Gallic War  Civil war  Republicans 
學科別分類 學科別人文學歷史學
中文摘要 本文主要研究羅馬共和末期的著名歷史人物—龐培與凱撒,因以二人為本篇論文的主軸,故以列傳和敍事方式撰寫。希冀從龐培與凱撒的崛起、從政經歷和征戰歷程中,清晰呈現羅馬共和末期的歷史輪廓,了解羅馬自共和走向帝國之因。進一步透過史料和文獻的整理,探討龐培和凱撒之間爭權的謀略,並比較二人在政績、軍功及運用謀略上的異同,最後討論這場爭權奪利戰中龐培敗給後來崛起的凱撒之因,以及權力處於頂峰的凱撒卻遭到刺殺的緣由。
羅馬共和是論戰功的時代,憑藉輝煌的戰功即能擁有軍權,進而掌控政權,因之給予軍人專制獨裁的機會。這是武官高於文官,軍權大於政權的羅馬從共和制走向帝國制的主因。龐培與凱撒之間的爭權無非欲爭奪國家最高的領導地位,爭權致使二人由政治同盟和聯姻的關係,變成誓不兩立的政敵,他們相互的爭權更是導致國家內戰發生的主因。從龐培與凱撒的爭權過程中,可以發現羅馬共和末期政治人物主要是以政治同盟、政治聯姻、攏絡元老院、賄賂、建立政績和軍功等為其爭權的謀略。若公元前70年代到公元前60年代是龐培的時代,公元前60年代至公元前50年代則是凱撒的時代。其後嶄露頭角的凱撒最後能打敗人稱「偉大的」龐培,主因在於凱撒的勇氣、出奇制勝的戰略和效忠於凱撒的軍團。隨著內戰的結束,龐培與凱撒之間的爭權也隨之落幕,並確立凱撒在羅馬歷史的地位。
內戰結束後,凱撒成為羅馬實際的領導者,過多的榮譽頭銜和龐大的權力卻也為凱撒帶來致命的危機。共和派決定謀殺凱撒以挽救羅馬共和的體制,未料凱撒之死卻讓羅馬陷入長達十五年的內戰,加速羅馬共和體制的瓦解。凱撒的功成名就並未隨他的死亡而煙消雲散,他成為緃貫古今的著名歷史人物。
文中自公元前83年龐培投靠蘇拉麾下撰述到公元前44年凱撒之死,藉由二位人物的角度放眼看羅馬共和末期的興衰,希望能提供後續研究者之參考。
英文摘要 This article mainly studies the late Roman Republic famous historical figures - Pompeius and Caesar. Used these two persons as axis of this thesis, the writing is based on biography and narrative methods. By studying the rise of Pompeius and Caesar and their political careers as well as conquest histories, the purpose of this article was to clearly present the outline of the history of the late Roman Republic and understand the reason why Roman became an empire from a republic. Further sorting through historical materials and literatures to explore the power struggle between Pompeius and Caesar, comparing similarities and differences between both political achievements, military medals and strategies application. Finally, discussing the reason why Pompeius was defeated by the later rise of Caesar, and why Caesar was assassinated when his power was in peak.
It was an era all depended on battle achievements in Roman Republic. Once a person set brilliant achievements in war could grasp military power and then political power, which a soldier could have opportunity to be despotic dictatorship. This is mainly why Roman Republic that military officer had higher position than civil officer and military power was greater than political power finally became imperial system from republicanism. Striving for power and position between Pompeius and Caesar was nothing but struggled for the highest leadership in the country. Political struggle caused both parties to become irreconcilable political rival from the relationship of political union and intermarriage. Their mutual struggle was the major cause leading a national civil war. In fighting over power and control, politicians in the late Roman Republic were found to use strategies, mainly such as political union, political intermarriage, wining over the will of Senatus, bribery, establishment of political and military power, etc. If the period from 70s B.C. to 60s B.C. was Pompeius’s time, the period from 60s B.C. to 50s B.C. can be called Caesar’s time. Caesar, an up-rising star could finally defeat “Pompeius Magnus” called by people mainly because Caesar’s bravery, surprise move and legions loyal to Caesar. With the end of the civil war, the battle between Pompeius and Caesar signals the curtain coming down that Caesar deserved his position in history.
Caesar became the true leader in Roman after the end of civil war; however, too many honorary titles and much power just led Caesar to a fatal crisis. The Republicans decided to assassinate Caesar in order to save the Roman republican system, not expecting this to lead to civil war for as long as 15 years, accelerating the collapse of the Roman republican system. Caesar died and his accomplishment has never been vanished, he became a famous legendary leader among ancient historical figures.
This article described the events from Pompeius joined Sulla’s commander in 83 B.C. to Caesar died in 44 B.C., trying to overview rise and fall of the late Roman Republic through two historical figures’ point of views and providing future researchers with reference.
論文目次 目錄

第一章緒論..1
第一節研究背景與目的..1
第二節文獻回顧..3
第三節章節架構與安排..7

第二章龐培的崛起..11
第一節西班牙戰爭..11
第二節斯巴達克斯奴隸起義事件..18
第三節當選執政官..24

第三章龐培的勝利..31
第一節消滅地中海海盜..31
第二節對米什拉達特六世的戰爭..37
第三節對東方的征伐..43

第四章凱撒的崛起..49
第一節家世背景和求學過程..49
第二節投身政治..59
第三節那博納行省總督—覬覦高盧..68

第五章征服高盧..79
第一節高盧人與高盧文化..79
第二節征伐高盧..87
第三節高盧民族英雄—韋辛格托里克斯..95

第六章戰勝龐培的凱撒..105
第一節三頭同盟解體..105
第二節渡過盧比孔河..114
第三節與克麗奧佩脫拉的關係..124

第七章君主政體的野心與失敗..131
第一節西班牙戰爭..131
第二節政治與經濟改革..140
第三節共和派的策略..146

第八章結論..159

參考書目..169
參考文獻 參考書目

(一)拉丁文獻(英、法文翻譯):
Appian, Roman Histroy, Translated by Horace White, London: William Heinemann, 1982.
Dion Cassius, Histoire Romaine, Traduit par Etienne Gros, Paris: Firmin-Didot, 1889.
Eutropius, Translated by John Traupman, Breviarium Ab Urbe Condita, London: Anthem Press, 2005.
Jules César, Guerre des Gaules, Traduit par Léopold-Albert Constans, Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1924.
Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic Wars, Translated by John Warrington, New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., 1953.
Julius Caesar, The Civil War, Translated by Jane F Gardner, New York: Penguin, 1967.
Livy, The Early History of Rome, Translated by Aubrey de Sélincorut, New York: Penguin Books, 1971.
Plutarque, Les Vies Des Homes Illustres(La Pléiade), Traduction J. Amiot, Paris: Gallimard, 1951.
Suétone, Vies des douze Césars, Traduit par Henri Ailloud, Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1932.
Tacitus, Histories, Traduit par H. Furneaux, Paris: Eugene Belin, 1880.
Tacitus, Annals, Traduit par H. Furneaux, Paris: Eugene Belin, 1883.

(二)專書:
Adrian David Hugh Bivar, The Political History of Iran Under the Arsacids, London: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
Adrian Goldsworthy, Caesar: Life of a Colossus, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006.
Allen Mason Ward, Marcus Crassus and the Late Roman Republic, Columbia: Missouri University Press, 1977.
Andrea Giardina, The Romans, Chicago: University of Chicago, 1993.
Anton Powell, Kathryn Welch, Julius Caesar as Artful Reporter, London: Classical Press of Wales, 1998.
Arthur Koestler, Spartacus, Paris: Calmann-Lévy, 2006.
Arthur Tappan Walker, Caesar's Gallic War, New York: Scott Foresman and Company, 1907.
Arthur Weigall, Cléopâtre, Paris: Payot, 1934.
Bert Étienne, Jules César, Paris: Fayard, 1997.
Brent D. Shaw, Spartacus and The Slave Wars, New York: Pennsylvania University Press, 2001.
Camille Jullian, Histoire de la Gaule, Paris: Hachette, 1921.
Catherine Salles, Spartacus et la Révolte des gladiateurs, Paris: Complexe, 1990.
Charles Freeman, Egypt, Greece and Rome, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Charles Gailly de Taurines, Vercingétorix, Paris: Larousse, 1933.
Christian Meier, César, Paris: Seuil, 1989.
Christian Meier, Caesar: A Biography, London: Fontana, 1996.
Claude Marle, Spartacus, Paris: Bayard, 2009.
Claude Nicolet, Rome et la Conguête du Monde Méditerranéen, 264-27B.C., Paris: PUF, 2001.
Colleen McCullough, César et Cléopâtre, Paris: Presses de la Cité, 2002.
Conn Iggulden, Série de romans Imperator, Paris: L'Archipel, 2006.
David Shotter, The Fall of the Roman Republic, London: Routledge, 1994.
Diana E. E. Kleiner, Cleopatra and Rome, Boston: Harvard University Press, 2005.
Dianne Hennessy, Studies in Ancient Rome, UK: Nelson Thornes, 1992.
Eberhard Horst, César, La Naissance d'un Mythe, Paris: Marabout, 1981.
Edith Flamarion, Cléopâtre: Vie et mort d'un pharaon, Paris: Gallimard, 1993.
Ernle Dusgate Selby Bradford, Cleopatra, New York: Penguin Group, 2000.
Frank Frost Abbott, A History and Description of Roman Political Institutions, New York: Elibron Classics, 1901.
G. B. Harrison, Julius Caesar in Shakespeare, Show and The Ancients, New York: Harcourt, 1960.
Gareth C. Sampson, The Defeat of Rome: Crassus, Carrhae & The Invasion of The East, Barnsley: Pen & Sword Books, 2008.
George Willis Botsford, A History of Rome, London: Macmillan, 1902.
Gérard Walter, César, Paris: Marabout, 1980.
Grimal Pierre, La Civilisation Romaine, Paris: Flammarion, 1981.
Henry Cohen, Description Historique des Monnaies Frappées sous L'Empire Romain, Paris : Rollin & Feuardent, 1892.
H. F. Pelham, Outlines of Roman History, New York: G. P. Putnams Sons, 1893.
Hubert Zehnacker, Jean-Claude Fredouille, Littérature latine, Paris: PUF, 1993.
James Anthony Froude, Life of Caesar, New York: Harper & Brothers, 1881.
J. F. C. Fuller, Julius Caesar:Man, Soldier, and Tyrant, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1965.
James Thorne, Julius Caesar: Conqueror and Dictator, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2003.
Jean Dubois, Henri Mitterand, Albert Dauzat, Nouveau Dictionnaire Etymologique et Historique, Paris : Larousse, 1990.
Jean-Louis Brunaux, Nos ancêtres les Gaulois, Paris: Seuil, 2008.
Jean Malye, La Véritable Histoire de Jules César, Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 2007.
Jean-Michel David, The Roman Conquest of Italy, Boston: Harvard University Press, 1997.
Jean-Michel David, La Républiqe Romaine, Paris: Seuil, 1998.
Jean-Paul Brisson, Spartacus, Paris: Club Français du Livre, 1959.
Jean-Paul Demoule, Jean-Jacques Hatt, Gaule dans Encyclopædia Universalis, Paris: Seuil, 2009.
Jérôme Carcopino, Jules César, Paris: PUF, 1990.
Joël Schmidt, Jules César, Paris: Gallimard, 2005.
Joël Schmidt, Cléopâtre, Paris: Gallimard, 2008.
John Boardman, Jasper Griffin, The Oxford History of The Roman World, Oxford: New York, 2001.
Josiah Osgood, Caesar's Legacy: Civil War and The Emergence of The Roman Empire, London: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Keith R. Bradley, Slavery and Rebellion in the Roman World, 140 B.C.-70 B.C., Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1989.
Krzysztof Pomian, sous la dir. de Pierre Nora, et. al., Gaulois et Francs, Paris: Gallimard, 1992.
Lawrence Keppie, The Making of The Roman Army: From Republic to Empire, Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998.
Luciano Canfora, Jules César, le dictateur démocrate, Traduit par Corinne Paul Maïer, Sylvie Pittia, Paris: Flammarion, 2001.
Lucien Jerphagnon, Histoire de la Rome Antique, Paris: Tallandier, 2002.
Lucius Annæus Florus, Epitome of Roman History, London: W. Heinemann, 1947.
M. J. Trow, Spartacus: The Myth and the Man. Stroud, United Kingdom: Sutton Publishing, 2006.
Marcel Le Glay, Rome:Grandeur et Déclin de la République, Paris: Perrin, 1990.
Marcel Ollivier, Spartacus: la liberté ou la mort!, Les Amis de Spartacus, Paris: Bayard, 2001.
Marianne Schoenlin Nicols, A Study of the Clientele of Pompey the Great, Berkeley: Diss., 1992.
Matthias Gelzer, Caesar, Boston: Harvard University Press, 1968.
Maurice Dommanget, Spartacus, Paris: PUF, 1948.
Max Cary, A History of Rome, London: Palgrave, 1975.
Max Gallo, Cesar Imperator, Paris: PUF, 1981.
Max Gallo, Spartacus, La Révolte des Esclaves, Paris: Fayard, 2005.
Michel Chauveau, L'Égypte au temps de Cléopâtre, 180-30 av. J.-C., Paris: Hachette littératures, 1997.
Michael Grant, Julius Caesar, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969.
Michael Grant, Histroy of Rome, New York: Berne Convention, 1978.
Michael Grant, The Twelve Caesars, New York: Penguin Books, 1979.
Michel Meslin, L’Homme Romain, Paris: Complexe, 1959.
Michel Rambaud, L'Art de la Déformation Historique Dans Les Commentaires de César, Lyon: Université de Lyon, 1952.
Napoléon 1er, Précis des guerres de Jules Césarécrit à Sainte-Hélène par Marchand sous la dictée de l'Empereur, Bécherel: Les Perséides, 2009.
Par Tarek, Vincent Pompetti, La guerre des Gaules(Tome 1), Paris: Tartamudo, 2012.
Pat Southern, Pompey the Great: Caesar's Friend and Foe, London: Tempus, 2002.
Patrice Méniel, Les Gaulois et Les Animaux, Paris: Errance, 2001.
Paul A. Zoch, Ancient Rome: An Introductory History, New York: Oklahoma University Press, 2000.
Paul M. Martin, Antoine et Cléopâtre, La fin d'un Rêve, Paris: Complexe, 1990.
Paul Marie Duval, André Vernet, La Gaule Jusqu'au Milieu du V Siècle(2 vol), Paris: Picard, 1971.
Paul-Marius Martin, Tuer César, Paris: Complexe, 1988.
Peter Greenhalgh, Pompey The Republican Prince, New York: George Weidenfield and Nicolson, 1981.
Peter Linehan, Janet L. Nelson, The Medieval World, London: Routledge, 2003.
Philip Freeman, Julius Caesar, New York: Simon and Schuster, 2008.
Pierre Grimal, La Civilisation Romaine, Paris: Flammarion, 1981.
Pierre Grimal, L’Empire Romain, Paris: Fallois, 1993.
R. E. C. Burrell, The Romans and Their World, London: Wheaton, 1970.
Ramon L. Jiménez, Caesar Against Rome: The Great Roman Civil War, New York: Praeger, 2000.
Robert Étienne, Jules César, Paris: Fayard, 1997.
Robin Seager, Pompey the Great: A Political Biography, Oxford: Blackwell, 2002.
Ronald Syme, La Révolution Romaine, Paris: Gallimard, 1967.
Sarah B. Pomeroy, Women in Hellenistic Egypt: From Alexander to Cleopatra, New York: Schocken Books, 1984.
Stacy Schiff, Cleopatra: A Life, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.
Stanley M. Burstein, The Reign of Cleopatra, New York: Greenwood Press, 2004.
Susan P. Mattern, Rome and The Enemy, Los Angeles: University of California, 1999.
Tenney Frank, A History of Rome, New York: Henry Holt, 1923.
Théodor Mommsen, Histoire Romaine : Fondation de la Monarchie Militaire(Livre V), Traduit par René Cagnat, Jules Toutain, Paris: Bouillon, 1863.
Théodor Mommsen, Histoire Romaine, Traduit par C. A. Alexandre, Paris: Biblio Bazaar, 1923.
Thomas P. Hillman, The Reputation of Pompeius Magnus among His Contemporaries from 83 to 59 B.C., New York: Diss., 1989.
T. P. Wiseman, Roman Studies, Liverpool: Francis Cairns, 1987.
Tom Holland, Rubicon:The Last Years of the Roman Republic, New York: Anchor Books, 2003.
Tom Holland, Rubicon:The Triumph and Tragedy of the Roman Republic, London: Abacus, 2004.
Véronique Matterne, Agriculture et Alimentation Végétale Durant L’âge du Fer et L’époque Gallo-Romaine en France Septentrionale, Paris: Mergoil, 2001.
W. Jeffrey Tatum, The Patrician Tribune: Publius Clodius Pulcher, Carolina: North Caroline University Press, 1999.
Wolfgang Zeev Rubinsohn, Spartacus' Uprising and Soviet Historical Writing, Oxford: Oxbow Books, 1987.
Yann Le Bohec, César: Histoire Collection :Que sais-je, Paris: PUF, 1963.
Yann Le Bohec, César Chef de Guerre, Paris: PUF, 1994.
劉增泉,《古代中國與羅馬之關係》,臺北:文史哲出版社,1995.

(三)論文:
Cæsar's Commentaries, Encyclopedia Americana, Conn.: Grolier, Inc., 1920.
D. Sedley, "The ethic of Brutus and Cassius", Journal of Roman Studies, 87, 1997.
Dietler, M., "Our Ancestors The Gauls": Archaeology, Ethnic Nationalism, and The Manipulation of Celtic Identity in Modern Europe, American Anthropologist, 96, 1994.
Émission France Culture [Archive] Conférence du 8 Août 2010 de Christian Goudineau, Professeur au Collège de France, Titulaire de la Chaire des Antiquités Nationales.
François Malrain, Les Gaulois, Façonneurs de Paysages, Conférence à la Cité des Sciences et de L'industrie, 20. 3. 2012.
H. Schneble, "Gaius Julius Caesar", German Epilepsy Museum, 1 January 2003.
Laurent Avezou, Gaulois, L’histoire d’un mythe, Métarécit de l’histoire Nationaliste Française, Conférence à la Cité des Sciences et de L'Industrie, 31. 1. 2012.
Manuel Tröster, Roman Hegemony and Non-State Violence: A Fresh Look at Pompey’s Campaign against the Pirates, Greece & Rome, 56.
Ronald T. Ridley, "The Dictator's Mistake: Caesar's Escape from Sulla," Historia 49, 2000.
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2013-06-28公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2013-06-28起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信