||U.S. Policy Toward the Soviet Union at the Dawn of the Cold War: From Truman to Eisenhower
||Master's Program, Graduate Institute of the Americas
The New Look Policy
|| This thesis looks to examine U.S. policies during the Cold War era towards the Soviet Union. In this case the timeframe exists from President Truman's administration through the Eisenhower administration. Since entering the age of nuclear weapons, both the United States and the Soviet Union were eager to gain an advantage over the other. The United States started to build its nuclear strike power in the late 1940’s, during Truman's administration, and it expanded in the 1950’s during Eisenhower's administration. Nuclear deterrence was an important policy used towards the threat posed by the Soviet Union. From Truman's Containment Policy to the New Look Policy of Eisenhower's administration, nuclear deterrence became the theme of these two nuclear great powers struggling for survival.
Nuclear deterrence greatly affected the attitude of both Truman and Eisenhower's administration towards the use of nuclear weapons. Using nuclear technology as a deterrent was always seen as a defense mechanism in the event of a surprise attack. Next, the military used this as a method for developing and as a counter-measure against a nuclear strike. From a political and economic viewpoint, this was considered a great bargaining chip and a sign of showing national economic strength. Deterrence theory will be the main theory used to analyze this thesis and, I also use Structuralism and System's Theory with Deterrence Theory to examine the Containment Policy of Truman's administration. Next, I use Offensive Realism and Geo-Strategy with reference to the Deterrence theory to analyze the New Look Policy of Eisenhower's administration.
After analyzing all the theories, Deterrence theory is still the most reasonable theory among the others used. From the Containment Policy to the New Look Policy, the United States formulated a pattern to influence world trends towards its preference. Simultaneously, it was also used against challenges presented by the Soviet Union in various levels of application including; military, politics, economy to ideology, as well as morale and social systems. The most important difference between Truman and Eisenhower's administration was to acquire the initiative of handling world affairs and crisis. With improving nuclear technology, both the U.S. and the Soviet Union could not end the Cold War dilemma by applying its military power. This world crisis also put the two powers on the brink of war, which also increased mutual distrust. This dilemma between the U.S. and the Soviet Union turned into an endless nuclear weapons build up.
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究主旨 1
第二節 研究動機與研究問題 2
第三節 理論與文獻回顧 4
第四節 研究方法、途徑、範圍與限制 24
第五節 章節安排 28
第二章 冷戰初杜魯門政府的圍堵政策 31
第一節 冷戰初期之國際環境 31
第二節 圍堵政策之產生 37
第三節 蘇聯權力之崛起 48
第四節 圍堵政策之形成 53
第三章 蘇聯力量的擴張與對美國的挑戰 57
第一節 經濟上的發展情勢 57
第二節 蘇聯核武的威脅 65
第三節 美國的反應 76
第四章 艾森豪對蘇聯威脅之認知 81
第一節 全面報復之形成 81
第二節 相互嚇阻之侷限性 94
第三節 新觀點政策之評估 100
第五章 嚇阻下的區域安全 105
第二節 東南亞戰略之部署 115
第三節 北約合作的實踐 123
第六章 結論 133
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