淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-2106201215122800
中文論文名稱 冷戰初期美國對蘇聯之政策: 從杜魯門到艾森豪
英文論文名稱 U.S. Policy Toward the Soviet Union at the Dawn of the Cold War: From Truman to Eisenhower
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Master's Program, Graduate Institute of the Americas
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生中文姓名 鄭函儒
研究生英文姓名 Han-Ju Cheng
電子信箱 koko54678@hotmail.com
學號 697250065
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2012-06-19
論文頁數 153頁
口試委員 指導教授-黃介正
委員-李本京
委員-郭壽旺
中文關鍵字 杜魯門  艾森豪  圍堵政策  嚇阻  新觀點政策  核子武器 
英文關鍵字 Truman  Eisenhower  Containment Policy  Deterrence  The New Look Policy  Nuclear Weapon 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本篇論文試圖檢視冷戰時期從杜魯門總統至艾森豪總統的美國對蘇聯政策。自進核武時代起,美蘇便急欲取得優於對方之優勢,美國於杜魯門總統任內在1940年代後期開始建立其核武打擊力量,並且於1950年代艾森豪總統任內急速擴展其核武力量之規模。核武嚇阻為對蘇聯政策中重要環節,其用以應對蘇聯所引起的威脅,同時更是美蘇之間為生存進而競爭的主軸。

杜魯門與艾森豪政府對於核子武器運用之態度,皆深深受到核武嚇阻的影響。利用科學技術製造核武以作為嚇阻於冷戰時常被是為因應奇襲的防禦機制。然而軍事部份亦以此科技發展軍事力量,使美國得於強權間影響權力平衡之狀態。從政治上來看,美國將此核武優勢作為一個強而有力的政治商議籌碼,經濟上亦顯示其國家之經濟力量的象徵。嚇阻理論為主要運用分析理論,另外加入結構理論與體系理論配合嚇阻理論以分析杜魯門政府的圍堵政策。在分析艾森豪政府的新觀點政策時,亦加入攻勢理論與地緣論配合嚇阻理論以輔助分析其內容。

經過上述所有理論分析,嚇阻理論仍為是各運用之理論中最可接受且合乎運用,從圍堵政策到新觀點政策,美國形塑其行為模式去影響世界政治趨勢更往美國所希望的方向行進,同時美國更要以此方式藉由圍堵政策至新觀點政策的實現,以對抗蘇聯從各個如軍事、政治與經濟至意識型態,國家士氣與社會體制等等層次所引起對美國的挑戰。杜魯門政府與艾森豪政府之間最重要的相異點,便是取得國際事務與危機的主動權。隨著核武科技精進發展的同時,美蘇兩強無法結束冷戰的困境,便將此科技主要運用到軍事力量之上,再者世界危機也將美蘇推往瀕臨爆發戰爭衝突,也更深化雙方之間相互的不信任。美蘇間的困境因而轉變為無止盡的核武擴增發展。

英文摘要 This thesis looks to examine U.S. policies during the Cold War era towards the Soviet Union. In this case the timeframe exists from President Truman's administration through the Eisenhower administration. Since entering the age of nuclear weapons, both the United States and the Soviet Union were eager to gain an advantage over the other. The United States started to build its nuclear strike power in the late 1940’s, during Truman's administration, and it expanded in the 1950’s during Eisenhower's administration. Nuclear deterrence was an important policy used towards the threat posed by the Soviet Union. From Truman's Containment Policy to the New Look Policy of Eisenhower's administration, nuclear deterrence became the theme of these two nuclear great powers struggling for survival.

Nuclear deterrence greatly affected the attitude of both Truman and Eisenhower's administration towards the use of nuclear weapons. Using nuclear technology as a deterrent was always seen as a defense mechanism in the event of a surprise attack. Next, the military used this as a method for developing and as a counter-measure against a nuclear strike. From a political and economic viewpoint, this was considered a great bargaining chip and a sign of showing national economic strength. Deterrence theory will be the main theory used to analyze this thesis and, I also use Structuralism and System's Theory with Deterrence Theory to examine the Containment Policy of Truman's administration. Next, I use Offensive Realism and Geo-Strategy with reference to the Deterrence theory to analyze the New Look Policy of Eisenhower's administration.

After analyzing all the theories, Deterrence theory is still the most reasonable theory among the others used. From the Containment Policy to the New Look Policy, the United States formulated a pattern to influence world trends towards its preference. Simultaneously, it was also used against challenges presented by the Soviet Union in various levels of application including; military, politics, economy to ideology, as well as morale and social systems. The most important difference between Truman and Eisenhower's administration was to acquire the initiative of handling world affairs and crisis. With improving nuclear technology, both the U.S. and the Soviet Union could not end the Cold War dilemma by applying its military power. This world crisis also put the two powers on the brink of war, which also increased mutual distrust. This dilemma between the U.S. and the Soviet Union turned into an endless nuclear weapons build up.
論文目次 目錄
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究主旨 1
第二節 研究動機與研究問題 2
第三節 理論與文獻回顧 4
第四節 研究方法、途徑、範圍與限制 24
第五節 章節安排 28
第二章 冷戰初杜魯門政府的圍堵政策 31
第一節 冷戰初期之國際環境 31
第二節 圍堵政策之產生 37
第三節 蘇聯權力之崛起 48
第四節 圍堵政策之形成 53
第三章 蘇聯力量的擴張與對美國的挑戰 57
第一節 經濟上的發展情勢 57
第二節 蘇聯核武的威脅 65
第三節 美國的反應 76
第四章 艾森豪對蘇聯威脅之認知 81
第一節 全面報復之形成 81
第二節 相互嚇阻之侷限性 94
第三節 新觀點政策之評估 100
第五章 嚇阻下的區域安全 105
第一節 開放天空之評估105
第二節 東南亞戰略之部署 115
第三節 北約合作的實踐 123
第六章 結論 133
附錄 139
參考書目 143

圖表目錄


圖1-1 15
圖5-1 102


表3-1 67
表3-2 69
表4-1 89
表4-2 97
表5-1 107
參考文獻 參考書目
壹、中文部份

一、書籍
李永成。《霸權的神話:進攻性現實主義理論研究》。北京:世界知識出版社,2007年。

閻學通,孫學峰。《國際關係研究實用方法》。北京:人民出版社,2001年。

余炳輝。《社會科學的研究方法》。杭州: 浙江人民,1987年。

貳、英文部份

I. Government Documents and Official Resources
Central Intelligent Agency, ORE 91-49, "Estimate of the Effects of Soviet Possession of Atomic Bomb up on the Security of the United States and Upon the Probability of Direct Soviet Military Action." C.I.A. Historical Review Program. April 6, 1950.

Eisenhower, Dwight D. Dwight D. Eisenhower: 1953 : containing the public messages, speeches, and statements of the president, January 20 to December 31, 1953. Washington D.C.:Office of the Federal Register, 1960.

Eisenhower, Dwight D. Dwight D. Eisenhower: 1954 : containing the public messages, speeches, and statements of the president, January 1 to December 31, 1954. Washington D.C.: Office of the Federal Register, 1960.

Miller, Roger G. To Save the City. Washington D. C.: Air Force History Support Office, 1998.

Pedlow, Gregory W. NATO Strategy Documents: 1949-1969. Brussels: NATO Information Service, 1999.

U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States, 1946, Volume. 6. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office,1969.

U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States, 1950, Volume 1. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1977.

U.S. Department of State. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1952-1954, Volume. 2. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1984.

U.S. Department of State. Foreign Relations of the United State, 1952-1954, Volume 7. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1986.

U.S. Department of State. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1952-1954, Volume 13. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1982.

U.S. Department of State. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1955-1957, Volume 2. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1985.

U.S. Department of State. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1955-1957, Volume 5. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1988.

U.S. Department of State. Foreign Relations of the United State, 1955-57, Volume. 19. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1985.

U.S. Department of State. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1958-1960, Volume 3. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1996.

U.S. Department of State, The Department of State Bulletin, Vol. 30, No. 761. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1954.

II. Books

Berman, Robert P. and Baker, John C. Soviet Strategic Forces: Requirements and Responses. Washington D. C.: The Brookings Institution, 1982.

Bernard, Philippe J. Planning In The Soviet Union, trans. Nove, I. New York: Pergamon Press,1966.

Bluth, Christoph. Soviet Strategic Arms Policy before SALT. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Bornstein, Morris eds. The Soviet Economy: Continuity and Change. Colorado: Westview Press., 1981.

Bowie, Robert R, and Immerman, Richard H, ed. Waging Peace: How Eisenhower Shaped an Enduring Cold War Strategy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Bundy, McGeorge. Danger and Survival: Choices About the Bomb in the First Fifty Years. New York: Vintage Books, 1988.

Brzezinski, Zbigniew. The Grand Chessboard: American Primacy and its Geostrategic Imperatives. New York: Basic Books, 1997.

Craig, Campbell. Destroying the Village: Eisenhower and the Thermonuclear War. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.

Clarfield, Gerard. Security with Solvency: Dwight D Eisenhower and the Shaping of American Military Establishment. Connecticut: PRAEGER, 1999.

Cockburn, Andrew. The Threat: Inside the Soviet Military Machine. New York: Random House, 1983.

Deconde, Alexander. A History of American Foreign Policy: Volume II Global Power:1900 to the Present, 3th ed. New York: Charles Scribner’s sons, 1978.

Divine, Rober A. Eisenhower and the Cold War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1981.

Dockrill, Saki Eisenhower's New Look National Security Policy: 1953-61. New York: St. Martin's Press, Inc, 1996.

Eisenhower, Dwight D. The White House year: Mandate for Change, 1953-1956. New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc, 1963.

Freedman, Laurence The Evolution of Nuclear Strategy, London: Macmillan Press., 1981.

Gaddis, John Lewis. Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of Postwar American National Security Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.

Gaddis, John Lewis. The Long Peace: Inquires Into the History of the Cold War New York: Oxford University Press Inc, 1987.

George, Alexander L. Richard Smoke, Deterrence in American Foreign Policy: Theory and Practice. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974.

Harper, John L. American Visions of Europe: Franklin D. Roosevelt, George F Kennan and Dean Acheson. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Holloway, David. The Soviet Union and The Arm Race. Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1983.

Horelick Arnold L. and Rush, Myron. Strategic Power and Soviet Foreign Policy. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1965.

Huntington, Samuel P. The Common Defense: Strategic Program in National Politics. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961.

Hyland, William G.. The Cold War is Over. New York: Random House, 1990.

Immerman, Richard H. ed.. John Foster Dulles and the Diplomacy of the Cold War. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1990.

Kaplan, Morton A. System and Process in International Politics. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1957.

Kaplan, Lawrence S. NATO and The United States: The Enduring Alliance. Boston: Twayne Publisher, 1988.

Kennan, George F. Memoirs: 1925-1950. Boston: Atlantic-Little Brown, 1967.

Kinnard, Douglas. President Eisenhower and Strategy Management. New York: Pergamon-Brassery’s International Defense Publishers, Inc, 1989.

Kolodziej, Edward A. The Uncommon Defense and Congress, 1945-1963. Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1966.

Krock, Arthur. Memoirs: Sixty Years on the Firing Line. New York: Funk & Wagnall, 1968.

Lafeber, Walter. American, Russia, and the Cold War 1945-2006, 10th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008.

Larson, Deborah W. Origins o f Containment: A Psychological Explanation. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1985.

Layne, Christopher. The Peace of Illusion: American Grand Strategy from 1940 to the Present. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2006.

Lenin, Vladimir. Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism. Peking: Foreign Language Press, 1970.

Marx, Herbert L. ed., Defense and National Security. New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1955.

McCauley, Martin. The Soviet Union Since 1917. New York: Longman, 1981.

McClellan, Woodford. Russia: The Soviet Period and After, 3rd edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc, 1994.

McCullough, David. Truman. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992.

McGwire, Michael. Military Objective in Soviet Foreign Policy. Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1987.

Mearsheimer, John J. The Tragedy of Great Power Politics. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc, 2001.

Morgenthau, Hans J. revised by Thompson, Kenneth W. and Clinton, W. David. Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace, 7th eds. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2006.

Nunn, Jack H. The Soviet First Strike Threat: The U.S. Perspective. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1982.

Offner, Arnold A. Another Such Victory: President Truman and the Cold War, 1945-1953. California: Stanford University Press, 2002.

Osgood, Robert E. Limited War: The Challenge to American Strategy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957.

Powaski, Ronald E. The Cold War: The United States and the Soviet Union 1917-1991. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Roman, Peter J. Eisenhower and the Missile Gap. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995.

Rosenau, James N, ed. International Politics and Foreign Policy. New York: The Free Press, 1969.

Rowen, Henry S. and Wolf, Charles, Jr. ed.The Future of The Soviet Empire. New York: ST. Martin's Press Publication, 1987.

Rush, Myro. The International Situation and Soviet Foreign Policy: key reports by Soviet leaders from Revolution to the Present. Ohio: Charles E. Merrill Publishing Co, 1970.

Snyder, Glenn H. Deterrence by Denial and Punishment. New Jersey: Center of International Studies, 1958.

Singer, J. David. Deterrence, Arms Control and Disarmament. Maryland: University Press of America, Inc, 1984.

Snead, David L. The Gaither Committee, Eisenhower, and the Cold War. Columbus: Ohio University Press, 1999.

Spykman, N. J. The Geography of the Peace. New York: Harcourt Brace and Company, 1944.

Strausz-Hupe, Robert Kintner,William R., Dougherty, James E. and Cotterll, Alvin J. Protracted Conflict. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1963.

Taylor, Maxwell. The Uncertain Trumpet. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1960.

Takeyh, Ray. The Origins of the Eisenhower Doctrine: The U.S., Britain, and Nasser's Egypt, 1953-1957. New York: ST. Martin's Press, Inc, 2000.

Taubman, William. Stalin's American Policy: From Entente to Detente to Cold War. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc, 1982.

Truman, Harry S. Memoir: Volume One: Years of Decisions. New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc, 1955.

Truman, Harry S. Memoir: Volume Two: Years of Trial and Hope. New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc, 1956.

Ulam, Adam B. Expansion And Coexistence: Soviet Foreign Policy, 1917-73, Second ed. New York: Halt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc,1974.

Waltz, Kenneth N. Theory of International Politics. London: Addison-Wesley Company Inc, 1979.

Weigley, Russell F. The American Way of War: A History of United States Military Strategy and Policy. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1973.

Wesson, Robert G. Soviet Foreign Policy in Perspective. Illinois: The Dorsey Press, 1969.

III. Articles

Bowie, Robert R.,. "Basic Requirements of Arms Control," Daedalus, Vol. 89, No. 4, (Fall, 1960), pp.708-722.

Brzezinski, Zbigniew. "The Nature of the Soviet System" Slavic Review, Vol. 20, No. 3, (Oct.1961), pp. 351-368.

Buzzard, Anthony W. "Massive Retaliation and Gradual Deterrence," World Politics, Vol. 8, No. 2, (Jan, 1956), pp. 228-237.

Carnesale, Albert, and Glaser, Charles,. "ICBM Vulnerability: The Cures are Worse Than the Disease," International Security, Vol. 7, No. 1, (Summer, 1982), pp. 70-85.

Carter, Donald Ellen, "Eisenhower versus the Generals," The Journal of Military History, Vol. 71, No. 4, (Oct. 2007), pp. 1169-1199.

Chang, Gordon H. "To the Nuclear Brink: Eisenhower, Dulles, and the Quemoy-Matsu Crisis," International Security, Vol. 12, No. 4, (Spring, 1988), pp. 96-123.

Culbertson, Ely, "Russia and World Security," Russian Review, Vol. 4, No. 1, (Autumn, 1944), pp. 10-17.

Delaney, William P. and Ward, William W. "Radar Development at Lincoln Laboratory: An Overview of the first fifty year," Lincoln Laboratory Journal, Vol. 12, No.2, (2000), pp. 147-166.

Dick, James C. "The Strategic Arm Race, 1957-61: Who Opened a Missile Gap?," The Journal of Politics, Vol. 34, No.4, (Nov., 1972), pp. 1062-1110.

Drell, Sidney D., Farley, Philip J. and Holloway, David, "Preserving the ABM Treaty: A Critique of the Reagan Strategic Defense Initiative," International Security, Vol. 9, No. 2, (Autumn, 1984), pp. 51-91.

Duffy, A. E. P.. The Present Viability of NATO, SEATO, and CENTO. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 372, (Jul., 1967), pp. 33-39.

Gaddis, John Lewis and Nitze, Paul, "NSC 68 and Soviet Threat Reconsidered," International Security, Vol. 4, No. 4, (Spring, 1980), pp. 164-176.

Garson, Robert A, "American Foreign Policy and the Limits of Power: Eastern Europe 1946-50," Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 2, No. 3, (Jul., 1986), pp.347-366.

Gouré, Daniel, "Strategic Offense and Defense: Enhancing the Effectiveness of U. S. Strategic Forces," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 457, (Sep., 1981), pp. 28-45.

Graebner, Norman A. "Cold War Origins and the Continuing Debate," The Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 13, No.1, (Mar., 1969), pp. 123-132.

Gray, Colin S. "National Style in Strategy: The American Example," International Security, Vol. 6, No. 2, (Autumn, 1981), pp. 21-47.

Harbutt, Fraser, "American Challenge, Soviet Response: The Beginning of Cold War, February-May 1946," Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 96, No. 4, (Winter, 1981-1982), pp. 623-639.

Harrison, Mark"Coercion, "Compliance, and Collapse of Soviet Command Economy," The Economy History Review, Vol. 55, No. 3, (Aug., 2002), pp. 397-433.

Holloway, David, "Research Note: Soviet Thermonuclear Development," International Security, Vol. 4, No. 3, (Winter, 1979-80), pp. 192-197.

Jackson, William D. "The Soviets and Strategic Arms: Toward an Evaluation of the Record," Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 94, No. 2, (Summer,1979), pp. 243-261.

Jones, Stephen B. "Global Strategic Views," Geographical Review, Vol. 45, No. 4, (Oct.,1955)pp. 492-508.

Kaysen, Carl, "The Vulnerability of the United States to Enemy Attack," World Politics, Vol. 6, No. 2, (Jan., 1954), pp. 190-208.

Khanin, G. I., "The 1950s: The Triumph of the Soviet Economy," Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 55, No. 8, (Dec., 2003), pp. 1187-1211.

Lodal, Jan M. "Deterrence and Nuclear Strategy," Daedalus, Vol. 109, No. 4, (Fall, 1980) pp. 155-175.

Macridis, Roy"Stalinism and the Meaning of Titoism," World Politics, Vol. 4, No.2, (Jan., 1952) pp. 219-238.

Marquardt, James J. "Open Skies and American Primacy" Diplomacy & Statecraft, Vol. 18, No. 3, (Sep, 2007), pp. 617-639.

Maloney, S. M. "Berlin Contingency Planning: Prelude to Flexible Response," The Journal of Strategic Studies, Vol. 25, No. 1, (March.2002), pp.99–134.

Morton H. Halperin, "Nuclear Weapons and Limited War," The Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 5, No. 2, (Jun., 1961), pp. 146-166.

Norris, Robert S, and . Kristensen, Hans M"Global Nuclear Inventory, 1945-2010," Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, Vol. 66, No. 4, (July-August, 2010), pp. 77-83.

Peselj, Branko M"Communist Economic Offensive Soviet Foreign Aid. Means and Effects," Law and Contemporary Problems, Vol. 29, No. 4, (Autumn, 1964), pp. 389-399.

Ronimois, Hans E. "The Soviet Economic Machine," The Slavonic and Eastern Europe Review, Vol. 30, No. 74, (Dec., 1951), pp. 112-138.

Saunders, Richard M. "Military Force in Foreign Policy of Eisenhoweradministration" Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 100, No. 1, (Spring, 1985), pp. 97-116.

Seton-Watson, Hugh"Differences in Communist Parties," Annals of American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 317, (May, 1958), pp. 1-7.

Singer, J. David, "Threat-Perception and the Armament-Tension Dilemma," The Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 2, No. 1, (Mar., 1958), pp. 90-105.

Singer, J. David, "Stable Deterrence and Its Limits," The Western Political Quarterly, Vol. 15, No. 3, (Sep., 1962), pp. 449-464.

Stimson, Henry L. "The Challenge to Americans," Foreign Affairs, Vol. 26, No.1, (Oct., 1947), pp. 25-43.

Stone, Melvin L and Banner, Gerald P. "Radars for the Detection and Tracking of Ballistic Missiles, Satellites and Planets" Lincoln Laboratory Journal, Vol. 12, No. 2, (2000), pp. 217-244.

Tal, David"From Open Skies Proposal 1955 to the Norstand Plan 1960: A Plan too Far," Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 10, No. 4, (Fall, 2008), pp. 66-93.

Thee, Marek, "The Indochina Wars: Great Power Involvement - Escalation and Disengagement." Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 13, No. 2, (1976), pp. 117-129.

Thomas, Brian, "Cold War Origins, II," Journal of Contemporary History, Vol.3, No.1, (Jan., 1968), pp. 183-198.

Volin, Lazar, "The Malenkov-Khrushchev New Economic Policy," Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 62, No. 3, (Jun., 1954), pp. 187-209.

Warburg, James P. "The Cold War Tragedy," The Western Political Quarterly, Vol.7, No.3, (Sep., 1954), pp. 325-345.

Wells, Samuel F. Jr. "Sounding the Tocsin: NSC 68 and Soviet Threat," International Security, Vol. 4, No. 2,(Autumn, 1979), pp. 116-158.

Wolk, Herman S. "The New Look: Under Eisenhower, Strategic Airpower Become the Centerpiece of U.S. Military Strategy," Air Force Magazine, Vol. 65, No. 8, (Aug., 2003), pp. 80-83.

Wright, C. Ban, “Mr. X and the Containment”, Slavic Review, Vol. 35, No.1, (Mar., 1976), pp. 1-31.

Welch, William, "Soviet Expansionism and Its Assessment" The Journal Conflict Resolution, Vol. 15, No. 3, (Sep.,1971), pp. 317-327.

X, "The Sources of Soviet Conduct,”Foreign Affairs, Vol. 25,No. 4, (Jul.,1947), pp.566-582.

Zyzniewski, Stanley J. "Soviet Foreign Economic Policy," Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 73, No. 2, (Jun., 1958), pp. 206-233.

Zyzniewski, Stanley J. The Soviet Block and Underdeveloped Countries: Some Economic Factors," World Politics, Vol.11, No.3, (Apr.,1959), pp. 378-398.
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2012-07-17公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2012-07-17起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信