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系統識別號 U0002-2106200711324500
中文論文名稱 新區域主義之實踐---以南錐共同市場為例
英文論文名稱 The Tendency of New Regionalism --- Case Study of Mercosur
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Latin American Studies
學年度 95
學期 2
出版年 96
研究生中文姓名 鄭喬文
研究生英文姓名 Chiao-Wen Cheng
學號 692020026
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2007-06-04
論文頁數 139頁
口試委員 指導教授-宮國威
委員-卓忠宏
委員-梁永鈴
中文關鍵字 區域主義  新區域主義  區域整合  南錐共同市場 
英文關鍵字 Regionalism  New Regionalism  regional integration  Mercosur 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 區域主義總共經過四個時期的演進,第一時期為十九世紀,由發生在歐洲國家內部的貿易行為而啟動;第二時期則於一次大戰後區域協議的簽署,一次及二次大戰期間所簽署的區域協議,多發生在強權國家,通常伴隨強國為鞏固其帝國強權的目的,其手段多半為削減區域間關稅為主,保護主義形式的雙邊協議是此時期的特點;第三個時期則為二次戰後,仍舊以區域性發展為主軸,然而不同於前者,特別受美國強調多邊貿易原則的影響,多邊經濟合作已在此時萌芽;至於第四個時期則為冷戰結束後,新一波的區域主義伴隨高度的經濟互賴並且多邊主義的架構已成形,其發展相較於以往顯得更加開放及自由。

區域主義的實踐乃透過區域整合協定的形式發展,對於個別國家而言,加入區域整合協定無疑是為了擴大消費市場,增加談判籌碼、吸引外資等目的。本論文將針對傳統區域主義時期,影響國家加入區域整合協定的因素分析,並試圖詮釋1980年代國際情勢的轉變,在國家新的訴求產生後所出現的新趨勢,並影響區域發展,使區域主義出現不同於以往的面貌。此外,兩極體系的瓦解,不再如冷戰時期,由兩極的力量牽制世界體系般的穩定,促使開發中國家政府的自主性提高,相對的也必須承擔起對自身經濟及安全的責任,也因此使得開發中國家傾向集體合作共同分擔經濟及安全的風險。對開發中國家而言,區域主義不僅是其面對兩極體系瓦解及全球化的回應,也是一種聯合力量足以與已開發國家合作或對話的一種機制。

拉丁美洲經歷1980年代外債危機後,受新自由主義影響,放棄傳統進口替代經濟發展政策,而朝向出口導向、開放市場、放寬外資限制及降低政府干預的發展;南美大國巴西及阿根廷也在經濟改革後漸體認合作的必要性而啟動合作的機制,繼而於1990年代與鄰國巴拉圭及烏拉圭共組南錐共同市場。本論文主要藉由新區域主義趨勢的特點,檢視南錐共同市場內部及外在的發展,並試圖歸納出開發中國家在新區域主義實踐下所面臨之困境與展望。
英文摘要 The development of Regionalism has gone through four stages thus far. The first stage occurred within the European countries for their trading activities in the nineteenth century; the second stage came after World War I. From the end of World War I to the end of World War II, regional agreements signed within those powerful countries with the aim of consolidating their imperial power, were carried out mainly by lowering regional tariffs. The third stage developed after the end of World War II. Regional development maintained its importance; however, multilateral trade principles, encouraged by the United States, had led the world to a multilateral economic cooperative system. Protectionism was no longer the driving force of regionalism. Instead, openness came to define the last stage that started after the Cold War. The new wave of regionalism comes along with highly economic interdependence. On the other hand, the structure of multilateralism has been well formed which made the development of regionalism comparatively more open-oriented and liberalized.

Regionalism has been realized through regional integration. Involving itself in a certain regional integration not only will an individual country be able to meet the need to expand the consumer market, but also be able to enforce its power when it comes to negotiations and to attract foreign investment. This thesis aims to analyze why countries join regional integrations, especially those developing countries that are seeking national and economic security and the connection with the worldwide trade market after the collapse of two-polar world system.

By reforming internal economic condition according to the disciplines of Neoliberalism, Latin American countries had abandoned the Import-Substituting Industrialization policy and adapted an export-oriented policy including deregulation, market-openness and reduction of interference from the governments. Brazil and Argentina, as the two largest South American countries, sensed the need to cooperate. In 1991, along with neighboring countries, Paraguay and Uruguay, they formed the South Common Market (Mercado del Sur or Mercosur in Spanish). From there, this thesis is not only going to present my analysis of the internal and external development of Mercosur with the characteristics of New Regionalism, but also general difficulties encountered by developing countries.
論文目次 目錄

第一章 緒論 1

第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 研究方法與架構 3
第三節 資料來源 5

第二章 新區域主義興起與變革 7

第一節 區域主義的發展 7
第二節 新區域主義的背景與內涵 15
第三節 拉丁美洲之區域整合 25

第三章 巴西與阿根廷整合意識的改變 35

第一節 1980年代前經濟發展的軌跡 35
第二節 結構性經濟改革 43
第三節 區域整合的推動 48

第四章 南錐共同市場形成與發展 61

第一節 起源及整合過程 61
第二節 發展趨勢與困境 71
第三節 由新區域主義檢視南錐共同市場 86

第五章 南錐共同市場之對外關係發展 93

第一節 南錐共同市場在南美洲的擴展 93
第二節 南錐共同市場與美洲自由貿易區談判 102
第三節 當前南錐共同市場發展的障礙與展望 113

第六章 結論 123

參考書目與文獻 131
表次

(表二-1) 1985-1987 外國直接投資佔各區域內資本百分比 ............................... 20
(表二-2) 傳統區域主義與新區域主義比較表 ..................................................... 24
(表二-3) 當前美洲主要經濟整合機制 ................................................................. 28
(表二-4) 北美自由貿易協定1994年至2004年進出口貿易量 ......................... 29
(表二-5) 北美自由貿易協定1990及1995至2003出口量 ............................... 31

(表三-1) 1964-1973 巴西經濟指標 ....................................................................... 38
(表三-2) 阿根廷1959、1969及1976年產品關稅率 ............................................ 39
(表三-3) 阿根廷1980及1990年代貿易及匯率制度 .......................................... 46
(表三-4) 阿根廷國內資金組成項目 ...................................................................... 54
(表三-5) 巴西及阿根廷進口額 (1989-1995年) .................................................... 54
(表三-6) 巴西及阿根廷經濟合作簽訂協議 .......................................................... 56

(表四-1) 1990至1997年美國自墨西哥、阿根廷及巴西進口總額 .................... 65
(表四-2) 關稅同盟及共同對外關稅時間表 ........................................................... 76
(表四-3) 阿根廷1992年至2002年FDI投資流量及存量 ………....................... 79
(表四-4) 巴西1996年至2002年FDI投資流量及存量 ………........................... 79
(表四-5) 巴拉圭1996年至2002年FDI投資流量及存量 ………........................ 80
(表四-6) 烏拉圭1992年至2002年FDI流量及存量 …….................................... 81
(表四-7) 南錐共同市場出口額 ............................................................................... 82
(表四-8) 巴拉圭1990年至2001年外國直接投資產業及金額 ........................... 82

(表五-1) 1999年至2003年南美洲國家共同體成員之出口排名前十項 ............ 99
(表五-2) 安地斯共同體出口額 ............................................................................. 101
(表五-3) 南錐共同市場及安第斯共同體成員國農工產品出口比例變化 ......... 117
參考文獻 參考書目與文獻

一、 中文部分

江時學編,拉美國家的經濟改革 (北京: 經濟管理出版社,1998)

江時學編,阿根廷危機反思 (中國北京:社會科學文獻出版社,2004)

朱景鵬,「區域主義、區域整合與兩岸整合問題之探討」,中國大陸研究,42卷8期 (1999)

李向陽,「新區域主義與大國戰略」,國際經濟評論 (中國社會科學研究院,2003)

呂銀春,「對巴西經濟奇蹟的再認識」,拉丁美洲研究,第四期 (中國社會科學研究院,1994),
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孫樹立,阿根廷1983至1989阿爾方新政府時期外交政策 (碩士論文,私立淡江大學拉丁美洲研
究所,1998)

陳進安, 「阿根廷經濟概況」,中國商銀月刊,第十二卷第二期 (台北市:中國國際商業銀行
1993),頁1-5

陳慧芬,南錐共同市場之經濟整合研究 (碩士論文,私立淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所,1997)

張曉玲,從經濟穩定計畫看巴西經濟改革 (碩士論文,私立淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所,1999)

張寶宇、周子勤、與呂銀春合著,拉丁美洲外債簡論 (北京: 社會科學文獻出版社,1993)

蔡東杰, 拉丁美洲次區域主義發展之研究 (發表論文,中華民國第九屆拉丁美洲國際會議,2004)




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Feinberg, Richard E., “Regionalism and domestic politics: U.S.-Latin American trade policy in the
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三、 網路資料
中文部分

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