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系統識別號 U0002-2105201413011000
中文論文名稱 經由fMRI檢測口譯測驗時腦部活動之研究
英文論文名稱 AN FMRI STUDY OF HOW A SUPRA-MODAL DECODING NETWORK EXAMINES INTERPRETATION
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生中文姓名 王有慧
研究生英文姓名 Yu-Hui Wang
電子信箱 ludmila9999@hotmail.com.tw
學號 898110183
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2014-05-05
論文頁數 135頁
口試委員 指導教授-郭岱宗
委員-杜德倫
委員-李本京
委員-張世明
委員-梁一萍
中文關鍵字 雙語  口譯  腦科學  教學  語言學  認知語言學  功能性磁振造影 
英文關鍵字 FMRI  interpretation  brain  bilingualism  processing  decoding 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本論文探討以母語為中文的學生在接受英語口譯題目時(聽力及閱讀)大腦的激活反應:以功能性磁共振成像(functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI)來探索第二語言解碼聽覺及視覺訊號時之腦部激活情形,以及破解二種訊號時共區之腦網絡。實驗素材取自翻譯專業資格(水平)考試(China Accreditation Test for Translators and Interpreters, CATTI ),經校正長短及難度的一致性後在fMRI中螢幕上或耳機中播出。實驗總長度為2078秒,其中聽力實驗1014秒,閱讀實驗1064秒。實驗對象皆為中文母語人士,並慣用右手。

腦區資料經SPM8統計之反應結果如下(p >.001):
一、聽力:左腦:額上回、額中回、顳上回、枕上回、枕中回、和小腦;
右腦:額上回、額中回、顳上回、頂上回、小腦和尾狀核
二、閱讀:左腦:額中回、枕上回、枕中回、和海馬體;右腦: 枕中回
三、共區:左腦:額中回、枕上回、和枕中回

研究發現如下:
一、聽力題所激活之腦反應在程度及範圍上都較閱讀題大,腦激活程度可能與困難度相關,
推測對實驗者而言,聽力較閱讀題困難。
二、聽力題在左右腦皆引起相似程度的反應,相較下,閱讀題則偏重左腦。
三、本次結果顯示,本次實驗對象使用全腦破解聽力題,與之前偏重左腦   
的經典Wernicke-Geschwind Model模型相異。非傳統語言區與右腦的激活可能與語 言流利度有關(Leonard, et al., 2011)。
四、僅閱讀而言,之前以西方人士為實驗對象的結果(Models of
Wernicke-Geschwind, Friederici and Kotz, and Leonard, Torres et al.) 顯示其偏重顳葉,本實驗中的對象則在閱讀時則偏重枕葉。
五、破解聽力題及閱讀題時,激活度左腦皆高於右腦。共區網絡中枕葉及前額葉的激活, 顯 示受試者理解語言時仰賴視覺及控制。
六、實驗結果顥示,受試者破解聽力、閱讀及其共區之腦網絡和之前Wernicke-Geschwind模型的解碼腦區相異。

本實驗-以華人為實驗對象所探得之語言解碼模型-與之前非華人為實驗對象之研究所導出之模型皆有明顯不同。於是,在為中文母語學員進行語言培訓時,應考慮其大腦之語言解碼模型,因此而調整教學及訓練方式,提升課程效率及教學教果。此外,本次實驗結果顯示,中文母語人士在做聽力題及閱讀題時,皆相當仰賴視覺區。因此,視覺輔助應在二語教學中更多地加以應用,以降低學習難度及提升學習成果,口譯尤屬高難度進階型的學科,更加需要視覺輔助及邏輯理解。
英文摘要 This dissertation investigated the involvement of supra-modal network when Chinese subjects processed English interpretation exams (listening and reading). The materials in the present research were derived from CATTI, programmed by E-prime, then transmitted through the headphone set (listening) or displayed on the screen (reading) in an fMRI machine. Each module contained two runs with a total period of 2078 seconds for listening (1014 secs) and reading (1064 secs).

The collected data were analyzed by using SPM8, and the results were reported as the following:
1. ROIs of the listening tasks included SFG, MFG, STG, SOG, MOG, and the cerebellum in the left hemisphere (LH); SFG, MFG, STG, SPG, cerebellum and caudate in the right hemisphere (RH).
2. ROIs of reading tasks were found in MFG, SOG, MOG, and hippocampus in LH; MOG in RH.
3. The supra-modal network involved MFG, SOG, and MOG in the left hemisphere. (p >.001)

This paper has achieved several insightful findings as listed below:
1. Listening tasks evoked greater and broader activation as compared to reading tasks, which might infer that even with the same level of difficulty, auditory materials were more challenging to process than visual materials for bilingual participants.
2. ROIs of listening tasks displayed a bilateral distribution, while the activation associated with the reading tasks remained to be left lateralized.
3. The bilateral activation associated with the listening task was different from the classical Wernicke-Geschwind Model. Also, the activation of non-classical areas of the right hemisphere may be associated with the difficulty of the method, auditory transmission.
4. For these Chinese subjects, reading activation tended to be occipital-lobe focused, while in previous models (Models of Wernicke-Geschwind, Friederici and Kotz, and Leonard, Torres et al.), subjects (native/ nearly native with recruited languages) heavily relied on the temporal lobe.
5. The supra-modal network suggested that the recruited subjects capitalized on the occipital lobe and frontal lobe to achieve semantic processing regardless of the input modules.
6. The supra-modal network appeared different from the cognitive parts in the Wenickes-Geschwind Model, which might suggest that the subjects adopted a different network than subjects in previous study.

Among a wealth of models of language processing, most of them were conducted with subjects acquiring the second language up to native or close to native level. This leads to the doubt of its generalizability to subjects learning a new language as a L2 or an FL. The present research verified that the recruited late bilingual subjects adopted a different network to process languages, opposed to models in the existing literature. Meanwhile, novel findings in the present experiment revealed that listening was comparatively more difficult for these subjects than reading. Moreover, the occipital lobe remained crucial for the recruited Chinese bilinguals to process materials with high levels of difficulty. Visualization is thus highly emphasized during future language instructions, especially for advanced materials, and for subjects of similar language backgrounds in the present research.
論文目次 Table of Contents

CHINESE ABSTRACT
ENGLISH ABSTRACT
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF APPENDICES
ABBREVIATIONS
LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background and Motivation 1
1.2 The Statement of the Problem 4
1.3 The Purpose of the Study 12
1.4 Research Questions 14
1.5 Significance of the Study 15
1.6 Definition of Terms 17

CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
2.1 Translation Training 22
2.2 Translation Model 24
2.3 Models of Language Processing 25
2.4 Sentence Processing 27
2.5 Syntactic Processing 28
2.6 Semantic Processing 29
2.7 LH/RH 31
2.8 Auditory Occipital Activations (AOAS) 32
2.9 Bilingualism& Brain Network 34
2.10 LH/ RH & Chinese/English 36
2.11 LH/ RH & L1/ L2 & Fluency 37
2.12 ROIS of the Present Study 41

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY
3.1 Subjects 46
3.2 Instrument 48
3.3 Pilot Study 49
3.4 Materials 51
3.5 Design 56
3.6 FMRI Imaging Acquisition 59
3.7 FMRI Imaging Analysis 60

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS & DISCUSSION
4.1 Session I: The Listening Task 62
4.1.1 ROIS 62
4.1.2 LH/ RH 68
4.1.3 Comparison with previous models 69
4.2 Session II: The Reading Task 72
4.2.1 ROIS 72
4.2.2 LH/ RH 76
4.2.3 Comparison with previous models 77
4.3 Session III: The Supra-Model Network 80
4.3.1 ROIS 83
4.3.2 LH/ RH 83
4.3.3 Comparison with previous models 83
4.4 Findings & Discussion 85
4.4.1 LH/ RH & Bilinguals 85
4.4.2 AOA 87
4.4.3 Novel Finding of the supra-model network 89

CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS
5.1 Contribution to Brain-Based Foreign Language Studies 92
5.2 The Importance of FMRI Applications to Neurocognitive EFL Research 94
5.3 Pedagogical Implications:Rethinking EFL Teaching from Scientific Evidence 97
5.4 Limitations of the Study and Suggestions for Future Research 99

List of Appendices
Appendix A. Consent Form 118
Appendix B. Questionnaire of Being Right-Handed or Left-Handed 119
Appendix C. Subjects’ Background Questionnaire 120
Appendix D. Pretest [Listening] 121
Appendix E. Pretest [Reading] 125
Appendix F. Formal Test [Listening] 129
Appendix G. Formal Test [Reading] 133

Abbreviations

BA: Brodmann’s Area
HG: Heschl’s Gyrus
IFG: Inferior Frontal Gyrus
ITG: Inferior Temporal Gyrus
MFG: Middle Frontal Gyrus
MTG: Middle Temporal Gyrus
PFC: Prefrontal Cortex
SFG: Superior Frontal Gyrus
STG: Superior Temporal Gyrus
STS: Superior Temporal Sulcus
L1: the Native Language
L2: a Second Language
FL: a Foreign Language
LH: Left Hemisphere
RH: Right Hemisphere
AOA: Auditory Occipital Activations
LOT: Lateral Occipital Temporal Areas
VOT: Ventral Occipital-Temporal Area
ROI: Region of Interest
LIFC: Left Inferior Frontal Cortex
MOG: Middle Occipital Gyrus

List of Figures and Tables
Figure 1.1 Complex relationships of visual, orthographic, phonological and semantic system in Chinese. 6
Figure 1.2 Wernicke-Geschwind Model –repeat a spoken word 8
Figure 1.3 Wernicke-Geschwind Model – repeat a written word 8
Figure 1.4 Cognitive process of a spoken word and a written word 8
Figure 1.5 Supra-modal Language Comprehension Network. (Braze et al., 2011) 9
Figure 1.6 Conjunction Analysis of Visual and Auditory Language Comprehension (Lindenberg & Scheef, 2007) 11
Figure 1.7 Blocked Design 19
Figure 1.8 Event-related Design 19
Figure 2.1 Nida’s Translation Model (Nida and Taber, 1969) 24
Figure 2.2 Phases of Language Processing in Friederici & Kotz (2003, p. s10) 26
Figure 3.1 Group dSPM images of the mean activity evoked by visual words from 350-400ms 38
Figure 3.2 Group dSPM images of the mean activity evoked by auditory words from 300-450ms 39
Figure 4 Supra-modal ROIs of Listening and Reading 45
Figure 5.1 Experiment Steps for Listening Task 57
Figure 5.2 Experiment Steps d for Reading Task 58
Figure 5.3 fMRI Laboratory in East China Normal University, Shanghai 59
Figure 6.1 Results of Listening 66
Figure 6.2 Results of Reading 74
Figure 6.3 Results of the Supramodal Network 81
Table 2.1 Studies regarding ROIs of Listening 42
Table 2.2 Studies regarding ROIs of Reading 43
Table 2.3 Studies regarding Supra-modal ROIs of Listening and Reading 45
Table 3.1 Readability of Contents - Formal Test 52
Table 3.2 Readability of Contents - Pre-Test 53
Table 3.3 Readability of Questions - Formal Test 54
Table 3.4 Readability of Questions - Pre-Test 55
Table 4.1 Results of Listening 67
Table 4.2 Results of Reading 75
Table 4.3 Results of the Supramodal Network 82

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