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系統識別號 U0002-2105200520100700
中文論文名稱 季辛吉於以阿衝突中之角色研究
英文論文名稱 Henry Kissinger in Arab-Israeli Conflicts
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美國研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of American Studies
學年度 93
學期 2
出版年 94
研究生中文姓名 林秉緯
研究生英文姓名 Bing-Wei Lin
學號 690220016
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2005-05-24
論文頁數 154頁
口試委員 指導教授-李本京
委員-呂亞力
委員-王高成
中文關鍵字 季辛吉  以阿衝突  贖罪日戰爭  漸進式外交  以埃隔軍協定  以敘隔軍協定 
英文關鍵字 Henry Kissinger  Arab-Israeli Conflicts  Yom-kippor War  Step-by-Step Diplomacy  Sinai I Disengagement Agreement  Syria-Israeli Disengagement Agreement  Sinai II 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 本論文的研究目的在於了解季辛吉個人的思想及國際戰略觀如何運用在一九七三年至一九七六年美國對中東地區的政策,以及其所帶來的影響。而主要的探討重點有三項。第一、在全球戰略的架構下,季辛吉如何看待美國的中東戰略;第二、季辛吉如何讓埃及、敘利亞這兩個與以色列發生四次戰爭的國家願意與以色列簽訂正式的停戰協定;第三、季辛吉在他的回憶錄中說:「所有在中東地區的人將了解唯有透過美國才能達到真正的和平。」他是否讓蘇聯在中東地區的影響力減少了呢?

從尼克森上任總統之後,他的外交政策受到了季辛吉很大的影響,而他們兩個之間的互動也主導了美國當時的外交方針。而他們的概念有三個主要部分:一、與蘇聯機中國保持一個低盪(Détente)的局勢;二、與其他的主要強權合作以達到一個結構上的和平;三、以尼克森主義(Nixon Doctrine)做為處理區域問題時的指導方針。中東地區由於它的地緣位置接近蘇聯,加上豐富的石油資源以及以阿之間的衝突使得美國不得不扮演一個積極的角色。而中東地區也提供了一個絕佳的場地讓美國實驗所謂的尼克森主義,以色列在一九七零年的約旦危機中幫助約旦國王胡笙擊敗巴勒斯坦解放組織的游擊隊是一個證明。在尼克森與季辛吉的戰略設計中,全球性的低盪與區域性的尼克森主義的結合需要蘇聯在一些區域危機中合作。在中東地區這代表了加強美蘇兩國在低盪的策略下各自限制自己的勢力範圍。而與此同時,在尼克森主義的保護傘下,季辛吉主要的目的是保持美國在當地的優勢,並且削弱蘇聯的利益及影響力。

在贖罪日戰爭之後,季辛吉的漸進式外交策略成功地說服以色列以及阿拉伯國家相信美國的公正無私。美國可以在不危害以阿雙方的利益與安全的狀況下,在隔軍協定的談判中成為一個正直的協調者。的確,季辛吉的外交策略降低了歷史上的以阿衝突中的最重要的特點 - 雙方的心理障礙。季辛吉也小心謹慎地讓談判的過程維持在美國的主導下。除此之外,在贖罪日戰爭後他的持續不懈的中東外交努力提升了美國與阿拉伯國家的關係到石油禁運能夠真正地結束。
英文摘要 The purpose of this thesis is to explore how Kissinger used his personal thoughts and perceptions on international strategies to influence American’s policies toward Middle East during 1973 and 1976, including the attendant impacts. There are three main themes in this thesis: first of all, within the context of international strategic framework, in what way did Kissinger evaluate and assess the strategies of Middle East? Secondly, in what way did Kissinger persuade Egypt and Syria which had four different wars with Israel to accept Disengagement Agreements with Israel. Third, in his memoirs, Kissinger declared that the only way to peace is through United States. Did he really decrease the influences of Soviet in the Middle East?

Since Richard Nixon became the President of the United States, his foreign policies had been influenced deeply by Henry Kissinger, and their interactions also became the directions of American policies. Their concepts had three main parts: first of all, keeping détente situations with Soviet and China. Second, cooperating with other powers to acquire a structural peace. Third, utilizing Nixon Doctrine as the direction of coping with regional conflicts. Because the geopolitical position of Middle East is close to Soviet - plus abundant oil resources and Arab-Israeli conflicts - United States definitely has to play an active role. After the breakout of Yom Kippur War in October 1973, and during the negotiations of Disengagement Agreements, Kissinger successfully persuaded Israel and Arab countries believe in the integrity of the United States. Definitely, Kissinger’s strategies reduced the main characteristic of Arab-Israeli Conflicts - the psychological barriers of both sides. Kissinger also carefully let the processes of negotiations under the auspice of the United States, and his strenuous efforts enhanced the relations between America and Arab countries to end oil embargo.
論文目次 第一章、緒論
(一) 研究動機與目的…………………………………………………1
(二) 研究理論與方法…………………………………………………4
(三) 研究組織與架構……………………………………………….15
(四) 研究範圍、限制與資料來源………………………………….16
第二章、美國的中東政策:一九四八年至一九六九年
(一) 杜魯門總統時期……………………………………………….18
(二) 艾森豪總統時期……………………………………………….20
(三) 從甘迺迪總統到詹森總統…………………………………….26
第三章、尼克森政府的中東政策:一九六九年至一九七三年
(一) 尼克森與季辛吉對中東地區的印象與認知………………….32
(二) 羅傑斯計畫…………………………………………………….40
(三) 美國的中東政策:一九七一至一九七三…………………….55
第四章、贖罪日戰爭以及漸進式外交
(一) 贖罪日戰爭與石油禁運……………………………………….77
(二) 漸進式外交…………………………………………………….97
(三) 季辛吉的最後努力…………………………………………….119
第五章、結論
(一) 尼克森主義與中東地區的衝突……………………………….134
(二) 季辛吉戰略的優點…………………………………………….137
(三) 季辛吉策略的缺點…………………………………………….138

參考書目…………………………………………………………….148
參考文獻 I、英文部分
英文書籍
AlRoy, Cil Carl. The Kissinger Experience: American Policy in the Middle East. New York: Horizon Press, 1975.
Atherton, Alfred Leroy, Jr. “The Nixon Administration and the Arab-Israeli Conflict.” In The New World Balance and Peace in the Middle East: Reality or Mirage?, edited by Seymour Maxwell Finger, pp. 196-205. London: Associated University Presses, 1975.
Bader, William B. The United States and the Spread of Nuclear Weapons. New york: Pagasus, 1968.
Bell, Coral. The Diplomacy of Détente: The Kissinger Era. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1977.
Brecher, Michael. Descions in Israel’s Foreign Policy. New York: Yale University Press, 1975.
Campbell, John C., and Caruso, Helen. The Weat and the Middle East. New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 1972.
Cooley, John K. Green March, Black September: The Story of the Palestinian Arabs. London: Frank Cass and Co., 1973.
Cottrell, Alvin. “The Politico-Military Balance in the Persian Gulf Region.” In The Energy Crisis and U. S. Foreign Policy, edited by Joseph S Szyliowicz and Brad E. O’neal, pp. 125-37. New York : Praeger, 1975.
Draper, Theodore. Israel and World Politics: Roots of the Third Arab-Israeli War. New Tork : Viking Press, 1968.
Finger, Seymour Maxwell. “The Nixon Doctrine and the Middle East.” In The New World Balance and Peace in the Middle East: Reality or Mirage?, Edited by Seymour Maxwell Finger, pp. 209-216. London: Associated University Presses, 1975.
Ford, Gerald R. A Time to Heal: The Autobiography of Gerald R. Ford. Harper and Row Publishers and Reader’s Digest Press, 1979.
Freedman, Robert O. Soviet Policy Toward the Middle East Since 1970. New York: Praeger, 1975.
Fulbright, William. The Crippled Giant: American Policy and Its Domestic Consequences. New York: Random House, 1972.
Ghanayem, Ishaq I., and Alden H. Voth. The Kissinger Legacy: American-Middle East Policy. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1984.
Golan, Galia. Yom Kippur and After: The Soviet Union and the Middle East Crises. London: Cambridge University Press. 1977.
Golan, Matti. The Secret Conversations of Henry Kissinger: Step-by-Step Diplomacy in the Middle East. New York: Quadrangle, 1976.
Graubard, Stephen R. Kissinger: Portrait of a Mind. New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 1972.
Gurtov, Melvin. The United States Against the the Third World: Anti-nationalism and Intervention. New York: Praeger, 1974.
_____. “Security by Proxy: The Nixon Doctrine and Southeast Asia.” In Conflict and Stability in Southeast Asia, edited by Mark Zaqcker and R. Stephen Milne, pp. 203-36. Garden City, N. Y.: Anchor Books, 1974.
Heikal, Mohammed. The Road to Ramadan. New York: Quandrangle, 1975.
_______. The Sphinx and the Commissar: The Rise and Fall of Soviet Influence in the Middle East. London: William Collins Sons and Co., 1978.
Hunter, Robert. The Energy Crisis and U. S. Foreign Policy, Headline Series, No. 216. New York: Foreign Policy Association, June 1973.
Isaacson, Walter. Kissinger. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992.
Jabber, Fuad. Israel and Nuclear Weapons: Present Options and Future Strategies. London: Chatto and Windus, 1971.
_____. “Petrodollars, Arms Trade, and the Pattern of Major Conflicts.” In Oil, the Arab-Israeli Conflict and Industrial World, edited by J. C. Hurewitz, pp. 149-64. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1976.
Kalb, Marvin, and Bernard Kalb. Kissinger. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1974.
Kissinger, Henry. White House Years. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1979.
_______. A World Restored: Metternich, Castlereagh and The Problems of Peach, 1812-22. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979.
_______. Years of Upheaval. London: Phoenix Press, 2000.
_______. Years of Renewal. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1999.
_______. Crisis: The Anatomy of Two Major Foreign Policy Crises. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2003.
_______. “The Nature of the National Dialogue on Foreign Policy.” In The Nixon-Kissinger Foreign Policy: Opportunities and Contradictions, edited by Fred Warner Neal and Mary Kersey Harvey, pp. 6-17. Santa Barbara: Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions, 1974.
_______. A World Restored: The Politics of Conservatism in a Revolutionary Era. London: Victor Gollancz, 1977.
_______. The Troubled Partnership. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1965.
Klebanoff, Shoshona. Middle East Oil and U. S. Foreign Policy/With Special Reference to the U. S. Energy Crisis. New York: Praeger, 1974.
Kolkowicz, Roman. “The Soviet Policy in the Middle East.” In The U. S. S. R. and the Middle East, edited by Michael Confino and Shimon Shamir, pp. 77-97. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 1973.
Liska, George. Beyond Kissinger: Ways of Conservative Statecraft. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
Litwak, Robert S. Détente and the Nixon Doctrine: American Foreign Policy and the Pursuit of Stability, 1969~1976. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
Mazlish, Bruce. Kissinger: The European Mind in American Policy New York: Basic Books, 1976.
McLaurin, R. D. The Middle East in Soviet Policy. Lexington, Mass.: D. C. Heath and Co., 1975.
Meir Golda. My Life. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1975.
Nixon, Richard. RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon. New York: Filmways Company Publishers, 1978.
Peretz, Don. “Energy: Israelis, Arabs and Iranians.” In The Energy Crisis and U. S. Foreign Policy, edited by Joseph S. Szyliowicz and Brad E. O’neil, pp. 89-96. New York : Praeger, 1975.
Pranger, Robert J. Amrerican Policy For Peace in the Middle East, 1969-1971: Problems of Principle, Manoeuver and Time. Washington, D. C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1971.
Quandt, William B. Decade of Decesions: American Policy Toward the Arab-Israel Conflict, 1967-1976. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1977.
______. “U. S. Energy Policy and the Arab-Israeli Conflicts.” In Arab Oil: Impact on the Arab Countries and Global Implications, edited by N. A. Sherbiney and Mark A. Tessler, pp. 270-94. New York: Praeger, 1976.
Rabin, Yitzhak. The Rabin Memoirs. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1979.
Reich, Bernard. Quest for Peace: United States-Israel Relations and the Arab-Israeli Conflict. New Brunswick, N. J.: Transaction Books, 1977.
Rubenberg, Cheryl A. Israel and the American National Interest. Chicago: Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois, 1986.
Sadat, Anwar. In Search of Identity. New York: Harper&Row, 1978
Seale, Patrick. Asad: The Struggle for The Middle East. Los Angeles: University of Carlifornia Press, 1988.
Sheehan, Edward R. F. The Arabs, Israelis, and Kisssinger: A Secret History of American Diplomacy in rhe Middle East. New York: Reader’s digest Press, 1976.
Stein, Kenneth W. Heroic Diplomacy. New York: Routledge, 1999.

英文期刊
Aikens, James E. “The Oil Crisis: This Time the Wolf is Here.” Foreign Affairs 51 (April 1973): 462-90.
Avineri, Shlomo. “Peacemaking: The Arab-Israeli Conflict.” Foreign Affairs I (Fall 1978): 51-69.
Ball, George W. “Slogan and Realities.” Foreign Affairs 47 (July 1969): 623-41.
Bell, Coral. “The October Middle East War: A Case Study in Crisis Management During Détente.” International Affairs 50 (October 1974): 531-43.
____. “Kissinger in Retrospect: The Diplomacy of Power Concert?” International Affairs 53(April 1977): 202-16.
Brenner, Michael J. “The Problem of Innovation and the Nixon-Kissinger Foreign Policy.” International Studies Quarterly 17 (September 1973): 255-94.
Buchan, Alastair. “The Irony of Kissinger.” International Affairs 50 (July 1974): 367-79.
El-Sadat, Anwar. “Where Eygpt Stands.” Foreign Affairs 51 (October 1972): 114-23.
Girling, J. L. S. “Kissingerism: The Enduring Problems.” International Affairs 51 (July 1975): 323-43.
_____. “The Guam Doctrine.” International Affairs 46 (January 1970): 48-62.
Harbottle, Michael. “The October Middle East War: Lessons for U.N. peacemaking.” International Affairs 50 (July 1974): 544-53.
Hoffmann, Stanley. “A New Policy for Israel.” Foreign Affairs 53 (April 1975): 405-31.
_____. “An American Social Science: International Relations,” Daedalus 106, No. 3 (Summer 1977), pp. 47-8.
Kissinger, Henry. “The White Revolutionary: Reflections on Bismarck,” Daedalus 97, No. 3 (Summer 1968): 889-90, 919.
Meir, Golda. “Israel in Search of Lasting Peace.” Foreign Affairs 51 (April 1973): 447-61.
Penrose, Edith. “ Origins and Development of the International Oil Crisis.” Journal of International Studies 3 (Spring 1974): 37-43.
PerLmutter, Amos. “Crisis Management : Kissinger’s Middle East Negotiations, October 1973-June 1974.” International Studies Quarterly 19 (September 1975): 316-43.
Quandt, William B. “Kissinger and the Arab-Israeli Disengagement Negotiations.” Journal of International Affairs 29 (Spring 1975): 3-48.
______. “Soviet Policy in the October Middle East War-I.” International Affairs 53 (July 1977): 377-389.
______. “Soviet Policy in the October Middle East War-II.” International Affairs 54 (July 1977): 587-604.
Smart, Ian. “Oil, The Superpowers and the Middle East.” International Affairs 53 (January 1977): 17-37.
Windsor, Philip. “Henry Kissinger’s Scholarly Contribution,” British Journal of International Studies 1, No. 1 (April 1975): 27-37.

美國官方文件
U. S., President. U. S. Foreign Policy For the 1970’s: A New Strategy For Peace: A Report to Congress by Richard Nixon, President of the United States, February 18, 1970. Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1970.
____. U. S. Foreign Policy For the 1970’s: Building For Peace: A Report to the Congress by Richard Nixon, President of the United States, February 25, 1971. Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1971.
____. U. S. Foreign Policy For the 1970’s: The Emerging Structure of Peace: A Report to the Congress by Richard Nixon, President of the United States, February 9, 1970. Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1972.
____. U. S. Foreign Policy For the 1970’s:Shaping a Durable Peace: A Report to the Congress by Richard Nixon, President of the United States, May 3, 1973. Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1973.
____. Public Papers of the President of the United States. Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1971. Richard Nixon, 1969.
____. Public Papers of the President of the United States. Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1971. Richard Nixon, 1970.
U. S. Department of State. United States Foreign Policy, 1969-70: A Report of the Secretary of State to Congress. Department of State Publication No. 8575, March 1971. Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1971.
____. United States Foreign Policy, 1971: A Report of the Secretary of State to Congress. Department of State Publication No. 8634. Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1972.
U. S., Congress. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. Briefings By the Secreary of State William Rogers, Hearings before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, 91st Cong., 1st sess., 1969.
____. Committee on Foreign Relations. United States Relations with Communist Countries, Hearings before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, 93d Cong., 2nd sess., 1974.
U. S., Congress. House Committee on Foreign Affairs. The Near East Conflict, Hearings before the Subcommittee on the Near East and South Asia of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, 91st Cong., 2nd sess., 1970.
____. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Soviet Involvement in the Middle East and Western Response. Joint Hearings before the Subcommittee on Europe and the Subcommittee on the Near East and South Asia of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, 92nd Cong., 1st sess., 1971.
____. Committee on Foreign Affairs. The Middle East 1971: The Need to Strengthen the Peace. Hearings before the Subcommittee on the Near East and South Asia of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, 92nd Cong., 1st sess., 1971.
____. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Approaches to Peace in the Middle East. Hearings before the Subcommittee on the Near East of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., 1972.
____. Committee on Foreign Affairs. U. S. Interests In and Policy Toward the Persian Gulf. Hearings before the Subcommittee on the Near East of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., 1972.
____. Committee on Foreign Affairs. United States-Europe Relations and the 1973 Middle East War. Hearings before the Subcommittee on the Near East and South Asia and the Subcommittee on Europe of House Committeee on Foreign Affairs, 93d Cong., 1st and 2nd sess., 1974.
____. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Détente. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Europe of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, 93d Cong., 2nd sess., 1974.
____. Committee on Foreign Affairs. The Middle East, 1974: New Hopes, New Challenges. Hearings before the Subcommittee on the Near East and South Asia of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, 93d Cong., 2nd sess., 1974.
____. Committee on Foreign Affairs. U. S. Foreign Policy and the Export of Nuclear Technology to the Middle East. Hearings before the Subcommittee on International Organizations and Movements and the Subcommittee on the Near East and South Asia of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, 93d Cong.,2nd sess., 1974.
____. Committee on Foreign Affairs. The Palestinian Issue in the Middle East Peace Efforts. Hearings before the Special Subcommittee on Investigations of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, 94th Cong., 1st sess., 1975.

II. 中文部分
論文
葉斯讚。以色列與美國在中東地區的國家利益之研究,一九七三年~七九年。淡江大學美國研究所碩士論文。民國八十三年。
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