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系統識別號 U0002-2007201421331500
中文論文名稱 消費者感質需求之探討與量表驗證-以星巴克連鎖咖啡店為例
英文論文名稱 The Study on Consumer Qualia Demand and Scale Validation - A Case of Starbucks
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 管理科學學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Master’s Program, Department of Management Sciences
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生中文姓名 黃郁涵
研究生英文姓名 Yu-Han Huang
學號 601620775
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2014-06-20
論文頁數 118頁
口試委員 指導教授-牛涵錚
委員-歐陽良裕
委員-王耀德
中文關鍵字 感質  品質  品牌  幸福感 
英文關鍵字 Qualia  Quality  Brand  Well-being 
學科別分類
中文摘要 近年來全球許多企業掀起了一股體驗經濟的潮流,消費者所購買的商品已不再單只商品的實體本身,單有物質的產品,再也難以吸引消費者的目光。經濟部中小企業處於2009年推動一系列的感質計畫,藉由感質的推動,來增強企業的競爭力。顯示在服務經濟的時代,用物質感受幸福感的時代已經結束了,消費者的消費方式,已有別於過去滿足生理上的需求,漸漸朝向心靈上的滿足。而商品的感質對消費者而言,也漸漸成為一種無法取代的關鍵因素。
本研究透過相關文獻的探討與專家訪談後,發展一個消費者感質元素的量表,並以星巴克咖啡連鎖店為例,以924位顧客為樣本,透過SPSS 20.0進行信效度分析,顯示本量表具有良好的效度與信度。為了確認探索性因素分析所得之三個構面(品質、品牌、幸福感)與其子構面是否合適,故利用AMOS 20.0進行驗證性因素分析,結果顯示整體配適度良好。同時施以Ball & Tasaki (1992)所發展之個人擁有物為量表與Matos, et al.(2007)綜合許多學者所發展出來之消費者仿冒品之消費態度量表作為本研究之效標關聯效度,受測結果有顯著相關。因此,確認本星巴克消費者感質量表確實可為企業用來衡量消費者心中的感質元素衡量工具。
過去消費者對於連鎖咖啡店的需求已經漸漸從重視產品和服務的層面,晉升到重視咖啡店的品牌與其在店內享受的層面。本研究將星巴克的「品質」、「品牌」與「幸福感」逐步聚焦為感質,打造屬於星巴克的「感質力」。並經由消費者感質需求的探討發現,無論銷售族群為何,皆需以最基本的品質發展為基礎,再逐漸向上提升消費者心理需求的層次,並透過滿足情感愉悅的產品屬性,塑造出品牌特有的價值。
英文摘要 In recent years, many global companies set off a trend of the experience economy, the basic function of product cannot meet consumers’ demand, so we must consider the feeling that consumers really experience. As the era of experience economic, consumers' behaviors are not just purely on the basic demand but with upgrading on people’s income and living standard. Furthermore, it goes into a deeper level-psychological satisfaction. The plan of “qualia” strategy of small and medium-size enterprises' promoted by the Small and Medium Enterprise Administration Ministry of Economic Affairs, in 2009 is focusing on keeping and increasing the competitiveness of these enterprises. The key concept “qualia” represents happiness and gratification, might be one of the critical “soft power” and element to improve or even enhance the enterprise competitive. It shows that the qualia of goods and services is more important to consumer than it's practicability. The sense of qualia goods for consumers is a key factor in the consumer cannot be replaced.
The purpose of this study is to construct the Qualia Scale with three dimensions (Quality, Brand and Well-being) to measure consumers’ purchase factors. This study is based on interviews with 9 experts and reviews the relevant literature, and used questionnaires investigation, the target is the consumers of the Starbucks coffee shops in Taiwan. Totally 924 questionnaires were collected. The researcher used the software SPSS 20.0 to conduct descriptive statistics, reliability analysis, and used the software AMOS 20.0 to analyze the goodness-of-fit, construct validity and composite reliability. The result showed that the Cronbach's α value were above 0.7, and the scale has good validity and reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the scale has a good overall fit. The criterion related validity is also significant. The results showed that “Qualia Scale” is good in validity and reliability.
By investigating of the Stabucks consumer requirement of qualia, the quality is the main parameter. Then psychological feeling and service are the secondary factors. Finally, the brand value could rise with happiness feeling. It indicated that companies should think about how to give product a story or qualia factors to effectively enhance the consumers’ purchase intention.
論文目次 目錄
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景 1
第二節 研究動機 3
第三節 研究目的 5
第四節 研究流程 6
第二章 文獻探討 8
第一節 統一星巴克 8
第二節 感質 9
第三節 品質 14
第四節 品牌 24
第五節 幸福感 30
第三章 研究方法 35
第一節 量表發展流程 35
第二節 專家訪談 39
第三節 量表設計 41
第四節 各構面之操作型定義及衡量工具 51
第五節 前測分析 54
第四章 量表分析與結果 67
第一節 抽樣方法 67
第二節 敘述性統計 68
第三節 信度分析 70
第四節 因素分析 71
第五節 驗證性因素分析 76
第六節 效標關聯效度 80
第七節 量表驗證 83
第八節 構面分析 84
第五章 結論與建議 89
第一節 研究結果 89
第二節 管理意涵 90
第三節 研究貢獻 91
第四節 研究限制 92
第五節 未來研究建議 92
參考文獻 94
一、中文文獻 94
二、西文文獻 100
附錄一 訪談表 107
附錄二 訪談稿整理 108
附錄三 前測量表 111
附錄四 正式量表 115

表目錄
表1-1 服務業商業營業額變動表 3
表2-1 消費者對於產品之需要因素 11
表2-2 感質意涵整理 13
表2-3 產品與服務差異表 16
表2-4 各學者提出之產品品質內涵 18
表2-5 服務品質構面整理表 22
表2-6 各學者提出之服務品質內涵 23
表2-7 各學者提出之品牌內涵 29
表2-8 各學者提出之幸福感內涵 34
表3-1 人口統計資料(15歲以上未滿70歲) 36
表3-2 專家訪談名單 39
表3-3 訪談結果 40
表3-4 品質內涵對照表 42
表3-5 品牌內涵對照表 43
表3-6 幸福感內涵對照表 44
表3-7 本研究發展量表題項與參照學者 45
表3-8 關鍵字統整表 47
表3-9 量表題項統整表 49
表3-10 構面與子構面之操作型定義 51
表3-11 信度分析 52
表3-12 前測樣本分析(N=97) 54
表3-13 品質信度分析 56
表3-14 品質-產品品質之信度分析 58
表3-15 品質-服務品質之信度分析 58
表3-16 品牌信度分析 59
表3-17 品牌-功能性之信度分析 61
表3-18 品牌-經驗性之信度分析 61
表3-19 品牌-象徵性之信度分析 62
表3-20 幸福感信度分析 63
表3-21 幸福感-純正性之信度分析 64
表3-22 幸福感-回憶性之信度分析 64
表3-23 幸福感-感受性之信度分析 65
表3-24 專家訪談名單 66
表4-1 問卷回收情形 67
表4-2 台灣各地區問卷回收情形 68
表4-3 正式問卷樣本結構分析 68
表4-4 各構面信度分析結果 70
表4-5 本研究量表之KMO與Bartett檢定表 71
表4-6 品質部分因素分析 72
表4-7 本研究量表之KMO與Bartett檢定表 73
表4-8 品牌部分因素分析 73
表4-9 本研究量表之KMO與Bartett檢定表 74
表4-10 幸福感部分因素分析 75
表4-11 最終量表題項 76
表4-12 驗證性因素分析配適指標資料 78
表4-13 本研究模型配適度指標 78
表4-14 區別效度 79
表4-15 個人擁有物 80
表4-16 消費者對仿冒品之消費態度 81
表4-17 效標關聯分析結果 82
表4-18 量表驗證之配適度指標 83
表4-19 量表驗證之區別效度 83
表4-20 感質集群分析 84

圖目錄
圖1-1 服務業與工業、農業佔GDP 比重 1
圖1-2 感質金字塔 5
圖1-3 研究流程圖 7
圖2-1 馬斯洛人類需求理論金字塔 10
圖2-2 感質五力 12
圖2-3 PZB服務品質模式 21
圖3-1 研究架構 35
圖3-2 量表編製流程 38
圖4-1 感質與「學歷」對應分析圖 85
圖4-2 感質與「職業」對應分析圖 85
圖4-3 感質與「個人平均收入」對應分析圖 86
圖4-4 感質與「居住地區」對應分析圖 86
圖4-5 各構面對於願意花較多時間等待之樣本結構 87
圖4-6 各構面對於願意花較多金錢購買之樣本結構 88
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